[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum active matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and -2 levels and their tissue inhibitors TIMP-1 and -2 were measured in 28 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) at 24 h, 48 h and 7 days after bleeding. Perihematomal edema volume was calculated on non-enhanced computed tomography scans by using the formula AxBxC/2 at the same time points. Mean levels of serum active MMP-9 and MMP-2, as well as perihematomal edema volume, were significantly different over time (p < 0.0001). In comparison to values observed at 24 h, serum active MMP-9 mean concentrations increased at 48 h and reached their peak at 7 days, serum active MMP-2 mean levels progressively declined at 48 h and at 7 days, whereas perihematomal edema volume increased at 48 h and at 7 days. Perihematomal edema volume was positively correlated with active MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 24 h (p < 0.02 and p < 0.05, respectively) and with active MMP-9 at 48 h (p < 0.05), but was inversely correlated with active MMP-2 at 7 days (p < 0.02). These findings suggest a different involvement of active MMP-9 and MMP-2 in perihematomal-associated inflammatory response occurring in the transition from acute to subacute phases after SICH.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum levels of sHLA-G (sHLA-G1/HLA-G5) antigens and their soluble isoforms, sHLA-G1 and HLA-G5, were measured by ELISA in 22 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) at 24 h, 48 h and 7 days after bleeding. The perihematomal edema volume was calculated on non-enhanced computed tomography scans using the formula AxBxC/2 at the same time points. The mean serum concentrations of sHLA-G1/HLA-G5 and sHLA-G1 as well as the perihematomal edema volume changed significantly over time (p < 0.0001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively), whereas no statistical differences were found in serum HLA-G5 concentrations over the course of the experiment. In comparison to the values found at 24 h, sHLA-G1/HLA-G5 and sHLA-G1 increased at 48 h and then decreased at 7 days, whereas the perihematomal edema volume was more elevated at 48 h and, to a lesser extent, at 7 days. A positive correlation was detected between mean serum sHLA-G1/HLA-G5 and sHLA-G1 levels and perihematomal edema volume at 24 h (p < 0.02) and at 48 h (p < 0.01). Our results may indicate a role for sHLA-G in inflammatory mechanisms related to SICH, where these proteins probably act as anti-inflammatory molecules and are predominantly produced as the sHLA-G1 isoform.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multicentric glioblastoma is a uncommon brain malignant tumour.We report the case of a 43-years-old woman, born in Ukraine and living in Italy, who manifested an initial isolated epileptic seizure and subsequent atypical psychiatric symptoms. Clinical neurological examination, Brain Computed Tomography and standard EEG examinations were negative at the moment of admission. A month later, she presented apathy, apraxia, psychomotor slowdown and expressive aphasia. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging examination showed a bi-frontal lesion. The patient underwent to two neurosurgical removals of the lesions: histological examination demonstrated the presence of a grade IV glioblastoma.Clinical onset, diagnostic and therapeutic problems are discussed.In case of atypical psychiatric presentation, it should be taken into consideration neoplastic, inflammatory or infective causes. Despite the absence of focal neurological signs and basal CT scan and EEG alterations, complementary imaging examinations, such as MRI and contrast enhancement CT, are necessary, especially when the conditions become quickly worse.