[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several factors may influence the structure of parasite communities in amphibian hosts. In this study, we describe the helminth parasites of three allopatric populations of the frog Leptodactylus podicipinus and test whether host size and sex were determinants of the structure and composition of the helminth communities. One hundred and twenty-three anurans were collected from three different study sites within the Pantanal wetlands and surveyed for helminth parasites. We found 14 helminth taxa: 7 species of nematodes, 4 species of trematodes, 1 species of cestodes, 1 species of acanthocephalan and one unidentified cyst. Host sex and size did not cause significant differences in helminth abundance or richness. The structure of helminth communities from the three study sites varied in terms of species composition, abundance and diversity. Six out of 14 helminth taxa were found in the three localities. Among those, the nematodes Cosmocerca podicipinus and Rhabdias sp., the trematode Catadiscus propinquus and the helminth cyst showed significant differences in mean abundances. We suggest that such differences found among the three component communities are driven by biotic and abiotic factors operating locally. Moreover, these differences stress the importance of local conditions, such as hydrologic characteristics and landscape composition, on helminth community structure.
Journal of Helminthology 10/2012; · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tropidurid lizard Tropidurus hispidus has a wide distribution in South America. However, knowledge about its helminth fauna is patchy and has been reported for only a few localities along its range of distribution. This study presents data on helminth fauna composition and parameters of infection for a population of T. hispidus from an area within the Brazilian Caatinga biome (semi-arid physiognomy). We found five nematode species within the gastrointestinal tract of lizards: Parapharyngodon sceleratus (Pharyngodonidae); Physaloptera lutzi, Physaloptera retusa and Physalopteroides venancioi (Physalopteridae); and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae). The overall prevalence was 84.2% and the mean intensity of infection was 8.5 ± 1.1. The body size of adult male lizards influenced positively the intensity of infection. The infracommunities of nematodes presented an intermediate aggregated distribution (discrepancy index; D = 0.519) and a depauperate nematode fauna. The presence of generalist parasite species has contributed to an increase in the overall richness of the component community. This sampled host population presented the highest prevalence of parasites compared with other studies on T. hispidus, but their relatively low richness can be related to the disturbed environment of the study area.
Journal of Helminthology 10/2012; · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the helminth parasites of Geophagus proximus from the São José dos Dourados River, a tributary of Paraná River, Ilha Solteira Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. From May 2006 to May 2007, 116 G. proximus specimens were examined and seven different taxa of helminth were collected and identified: proteocephalidean plerocercoids (Cestoda); metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, Clinostomum heluans and Clinostomum sp. (Trematoda); and Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) hypostomi, and larvae of Raphidascaris sp. and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda). All parasites presented the typical aggregated pattern of distribution, as well as the presence of a high number of larval stages, an absence of influence of the host sex and seasonality upon community parameters, as well as a correlation between species richness and host body weight. Moreover, with the exception of A. compactum metacercariae, all helminths found in this study are reported for the first time in G. proximus.
Journal of Helminthology 04/2012; · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ninety-five specimens from 13 species of lizard collected during a herpetofaunal monitoring programme of the Faxinal II power plant, municipality of Aripuanã, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (southern Amazon region) were examined for helminths. A total of 21 helminth species (16 Nematoda, 1 Cestoda and 4 Trematoda) were recovered, with an overall prevalence of 67.37%. Seventeen new host records and seven new locality records are reported. A low number of specialists and core helminth species were found. Lizard body size was positively correlated with both the total number of helminth species and individuals. Active foragers exhibited higher helminth diversity. However, sit-and-wait foragers, especially Plica plica, had similar diversity values as active foragers and harboured more helminth species. The degree of similarity in helminth fauna was higher among closely related host species.
Journal of Helminthology 12/2011; · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To perform a systematic review of observational studies which analyse tendon alterations in patients with diabetes mellitus compared with healthy individuals.
Data collection was performed, with no language restriction, using the databases of PubMed/Medline, BIREME, CINAHL, LILACS and Cochrane, as well as the references found in these studies. Three reviewers performed independent extractions of articles. Subsequently, these reviewers analysed the articles, focusing on their methodological quality, using the appropriate scale to evaluate observational studies from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Six articles were included in the analysis. Of these, four had used ultrasonographic diagnostics, one computed tomography and one magnetic resonance imaging. The patient pool comprised 396 individuals. All the articles evaluated tendon thickness and presented heterogeneous results. Two articles stated thickening or increased volume of the tendons in diabetic people, one article did not report any alteration, the fourth failed to determine any alterations and the fifth showed thinning of the tendons. The arrangement of collagen fibrils and the presence of calcification were analysed in only one article (n = 80), showing that 88.10% (n = 68) of individuals with diabetes presented disorientation of collagen fibril arrangement, while only 10% (n = 1) of healthy individuals presented this condition. Regarding tendon calcification, the article showed diabetic individuals with higher values than healthy individuals.
All the articles indicated some relation between diabetes mellitus and tendon alterations in human beings, but due to methodological drawbacks, this association could not be sustained.
Diabetic Medicine 08/2011; 28(8):886-95. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae in the eyes of 98 specimens of loricariid fish (Hypostomus ancistroides, H. hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer, H. regani, H. strigaticeps, Hypostomus sp. and Megalancistrus parananus) from the Chavantes reservoir (23°07'36″S and 49°37'35″W) located in the rio Paranapanema, upper Paraná river basin, municipality of Ipaussu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish were collected from October 2007 to February 2009 using nylon monofilament gill nets and transported to the field laboratory where they were euthanized and the eyes were taken and examined under a stereomicroscope. Hypostomus ancistroides and M. parananus were not infected by this diplostomid. Hypostomus hermanni and H. margaritifer were represented by only one specimen but both had a high intensity of A. compactum metacercarie (27 and 35, respectively). Hypostomus strigaticeps (n = 45) and H. iheringii (n = 28) were the most representative specimens and the prevalence, mean intensity of infection and mean abundance were 24.4%, 10.3 and 2.7, and 64.2%, 13.1 and 8.4, respectively. No correlation was observed between the intensity of infection and the standard length (r = - 0.223; P = 0.827) and weight (r = 0.03; P = 0.779) of studied fish. Similarly, linear regression among these variables showed a poor correlation and indicated that the infection by A. compactum metacercariae occurs similarly in small and large fish specimens. A seasonal pattern of infection was not observed. Hypostomus hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer and H. strigaticeps were new hosts recorded for A. compactum metacercariae. A review of morphometric data of A. compactum metacercariae is presented.
Journal of Helminthology 05/2010; 85(1):73-9. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at evaluating the infection levels of Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae in 378 specimens of Plagioscion squamosissimus ('corvina' or 'pescada branca') from the Nova Avanhandava reservoir, low Tietê River, São Paulo State, Brazil. High prevalence, mean intensity of infection and abundance were observed in P. squamosissimus during most of the study, with the exception of March 2004. The relative condition factor (Kn) did not differ between parasitized and non-parasitized fish. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between host standard length and intensity of infection. The analysis of biotic and abiotic variables showed that no abiotic variable correlated with parasitic infection levels. Moreover, P. squamosissimus status was demonstrated to be unaffected by A. compactum metacercariae infection.
Journal of Helminthology 11/2009; 84(3):284-91. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhabdias filicaudalis n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from the lung of Spilotes pullatus (Serpentes: Colubridae) is described. The host snake was captured in the municipality of Avaré, São Paulo State, Brazil. Rhabdias filicaudalis n. sp. differs from all other species by the combination of the following characters: straight body, truncated anterior end, six weakly developed lips arranged in two opposite groups of three, pre-equatorial vulva, oesophagus length/body length ratio (%) 4.9-7.5 (5.8 +/- 0.6), nerve ring distance from anterior end/oesophagus length ratio (%) 36.9-61.1 (49.8 +/- 6.4), tail length/body length ratio (%) 3.0-5.5 (4.0 +/- 0.5), vulva distance from anterior end/body length ratio (%) 39.9-51.7 (45.9 +/- 3.5), and a cuticular filiform tail tip.
Journal of Helminthology 11/2009; 84(3):292-6. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite being conspicuous members of neotropical lizard communities, aspects of the life history of many teiid lizard species are poorly known, especially endoparasites infecting the genus Kentropyx. We studied seven specimens of K. calcarata collected at an Amazonian site in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil in 2007. Four species of helminth were recovered: Oswaldocruzia sp., Piratuba digiticauda, Physaloptera retusa and Physalopteroides venancioi. Piratuba digiticauda, a body-cavity, parasite had the highest prevalence (42.9%), whereas the stomach parasites P. venancioi and P. retusa presented the highest intensity of infection and abundance, respectively. Moreover, this is the first report of Oswaldocruzia sp., P. digiticauda and P. venancioi in K. calcarata and new locality records for all nematodes were assigned.
Journal of Helminthology 10/2009; 83(3):267-9. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to report morphological data from parasitic female, rhabditoid and filarioid larvae, free-living female worms and eggs of Strongyloides ophidiae (Nematoda, Strongyloididae). In addition, a molecular DNA analysis was carried out using a pool of eight S. ophidiae parasitic females. Samples were obtained from the small intestine of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in the municipality of Lençóis Paulista, State of São Paulo, Brazil. DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) resulted in a 350 bp band for samples containing S. ophidiae and Strongyloides venezuelensis DNA. Strongyloides ophidiae nucleotide sequence analysis showed 98% similarity with Strongyloides procyonis and 97% with Strongyloides cebus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Strongyloides fuelleborni and Strongyloides sp. from snakes.
Journal of Helminthology 09/2009; 84(2):136-42. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoparasites associated with the small bromelicolous lizard Bogertia lutzae, a poorly studied phyllodactylid inhabitant of north-eastern Brazil, were studied. Fifty-seven specimens collected from the Atlantic Forest of Alagoas state were dissected. Only one species of parasite, the nematode Spauligodon oxkutzcabiensis, was found, with a prevalence of 22.8%. The intensity of infection was 2.62 +/- 1.19, and neither the prevalence nor mean intensity differed between the sexes. There was no correlation between lizard body size and intensity of infection. An aggregated pattern of distribution (D = 0.813) of S. oxkutzcabiensis was found in this lizard host population. Bogertia lutzae represents a new host recorded for S. oxkutzcabiensis, a parasite reported for the first time for Brazil.
Journal of Helminthology 09/2009; 84(2):199-201. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty-three specimens of Leptodactylus podicipinus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) were collected in the south-eastern Pantanal, municipality of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil in February and July 2007, and examined for endoparasites. Forty (93%) specimens were infected with at least one helminth species. The predominant parasites were nematodes (Aplectana sp., Cosmocerca podicipinus, Oswaldocruzia lopesi, Physalopteroides venancioi, Rhabdias sp.), but the trematode Catadiscus propinquus also showed high prevalence. The trematodes Infidum infidum and Travtrema stenocotyle were also found, but in only one specimen. Adult frogs showed higher parasite diversity than subadults. Leptodactylus podicipinus was preferentially infected by direct life-cycle parasites and was reported as a new host record for seven helminth species.
Journal of Helminthology 06/2009; 83(4):345-9. · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study reports the occurrence of helminths in the introduced species Tupinambis merianae (tegu lizard), and in two endemic species Trachylepis atlantica (small lizard) and Amphisbaena ridleyi (two-head-snake lizard ), from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Nine species of helminths were found, mainly in the digestive tract and accessory organs, with the following prevalence (P) and mean infection intensity (MII). Tupinambis merianae: Diaphanocephalus galeatus (P = 96%, MII = 20.5), Spinicauda spinicauda (P = 100%, MII = 197.8), and Oochoristica sp.l (P = 20%, MII = 4.4). Trachylepis atlantica: Moaciria alvarengai (P = 20%, MII = 1.4), S. spinicauda (P = 92%, MII = 22.1), Mesocoelium monas (P = 4%, MII = 3.0), Platynosomum sp. (P = 8%, MII = 7.0), and Oochoristica sp.2 (P = 16%, MII = 1.25). Amphisbaena ridleyi: Aplectana albae (P = 96%, MII = 143.4), Thelandros alvarengai (P = 4%, MII = 1.0), Me. monas (P = 44%, MII = 2.8), Platynosomum sp. (P = 36%; MII = 13.8), and Oochoristica sp.2 (P = 48%; MII = 2.17). More than 80% of T. merianae were infected with 2, or more, helminth species. In Tr. atlantica, single-species infections were present in 50% of the specimens, but co-occurrence of 2 parasites was also high (41.7%). In A. ridleyi, multiple infections were more common, with up to 5 parasite species present. The helminth fauna observed allowed us to conclude that helminths can be carried together with their host when they colonize new geographic localities and that these introduced helminths can, in turn, colonize endemic, or native, hosts.
Journal of Parasitology 03/2009; 95(4):1026-8. · 1.32 Impact Factor