Nosratollah Nezakatgoo

The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, United States

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Publications (9)23.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Antithymocyte globulin (rATG) is a commonly used induction agent in renal transplantation; however, data in older kidney recipients are limited. We reviewed charts of 301 deceased donor renal transplants who received a protocol consisting of 3-7 doses of rATG and triple maintenance therapy. Outcomes of patients >60 yr of age (n = 45) were compared to those aged 18-59 yr (n = 256).   Older recipients had more diabetics, were more likely to receive expanded criteria donor kidneys (p < 0.01), and over 30% were sensitized. Recipients >60 received less cumulative rATG (4.6 vs. 5.1 mg/kg; p < 0.01). Three-yr acute rejection was lower in the >60 group (2% vs. 16%, p < 0.01) although glomerular filtration rates were similar between groups. Actuarial graft survival was similar; however, patient survival in the >60 group at three yr was lower (80% vs. 95%; p = 0.02). Specifically, patients >60 with delayed graft function and rATG cumulative dosing >6 mg/kg had a survival of <50% by two yr. Recipients over 60 yr receiving rATG induction have acceptable renal function and a low risk of rejection; however, reduced survival was noted among those receiving >6 mg/kg. These data suggest that when used, lower cumulative dosages of rATG are preferable in the older recipient.
    Clinical Transplantation 05/2011; 25(3):E250-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2010.01393.x · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND.: Sirolimus (SRL) is an important component of clinical immunosuppression in renal transplantation, but few international studies have examined how this agent is used in routine practice. METHODS.: Within a large prospective pharmacoepidemiological study, 718 de novo renal graft recipients treated with SRL in 65 centers in 10 countries were monitored for up to 5 years posttransplant to compare the principal outcomes and adverse effects by treatment regimen. RESULTS.: Principal treatment regimens were SRL without a calcineurin inhibitor (33%), SRL+cyclosporine A (CsA) (33%), and SRL+tacrolimus (TAC) (34%); 18% of subjects discontinued SRL, 124/718 (17%) developed biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (BCAR), 64/718 (9%) lost their graft, and 50/718 (7%) died during follow-up. Calculated creatinine clearance was 66+/-26 mL/min at 2 years. The most common adverse events were hypertension, hyperlipidemia, anemia, urinary tract infections, and diabetes. BCAR was significantly lower in subjects receiving SRL+TAC (hazard ratio [HR] 0.46, P=0.009) but not significantly lower in those receiving SRL+CsA (HR 0.62, P=0.102) compared with SRL without a calcineurin inhibitor. Graft loss or death did not significantly differ between treatment groups but were associated, respectively, with deceased donor grafts (HR 3.33, P<0.001) and increased age (HR 1.04, P<0.001). No improvement was observed in patients receiving mycophenolate mofetil in any treatment combination (HR 0.80, P=0.438 for BCAR; HR 0.93, P=0.849 for graft loss; and HR 0.75, P=0.531 for death). CONCLUSIONS.: SRL is most commonly used in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, CsA, or TAC. BCAR was least common in subjects receiving SRL+TAC, but other outcomes seemed comparable between the treatment regimens in routine practice.
    Transplantation 10/2009; 88(8):1010-8. DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e3181b9d0da · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Nathaniel Stoikes · Nosratollah Nezakatgoo · Peter Fischer · Michael Bahr · Louis Magnotti ·
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    ABSTRACT: The two main factors leading to a functional fistula are maturity and accessibility. The aim of this review was to describe a technique of superficialization for inaccessible brachiocephalic fistulas, and to identify the patients that benefit from superficialization. One hundred and thirty-two brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas developed from November 2003 to December 2006 were reviewed for primary maturation. In the mature group, patients were evaluated for fistula accessibility. Inaccessible fistulas were selected for superficialization via our technique of vein mobilization using small skip incisions. Analysis of superficialized and nonsuperficialized groups included age, demographics, and comorbidities. Ninety-nine patients were in the mature group, and 33 in the immature group; primary nonmaturation was 25 per cent. Analysis within the mature group was between nonsuperficialized (n = 81) and superficialized (n = 18) patients. The superficialized group had less hypertension (83% vs 98%, P < 0.05), significantly higher BMI (31 vs 27, P < 0.05), and was mostly female (78% vs 49%, P < 0.05). All superficialized fistulas accommodated successful hemodialysis postoperatively. To conclude, patients with mature but inaccessible fistulas were salvaged by superficialization. This population had significantly higher BMI, less hypertension, and female prevalence. Identifying these patients is important because salvage of their fistula can prevent premature progression to alternate autogenous arteriovenous access procedures.
    The American surgeon 08/2009; 75(8):705-9; discussion 709. · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ipsilateral placement of double kidneys from marginal donors into older recipients may reduce the stress of the operation on the patient and allow for extension of the utility of older donor kidneys. A separate bench preparation of the kidneys is performed to aid in assessing the quality of the kidneys before placement in the recipient. Multiple renal arteries and proximal calcifications may require extracorporeal anastomosis or multiple anastomoses in the recipient depending on length and size of the renal vessels. In the recipient, the incision should allow complete dissection of the common external and internal iliac arteries. This report provides a detail of the technique used for ipsilateral placement of double kidneys.
    Transplantation 11/2007; 84(7):929-31. DOI:10.1097/ · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Keith K Lau · Deborah P Jones · Osama Gaber · Nosratollah Nezakatgoo ·
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    ABSTRACT: Although arterio-venous fistulae (AVF) are currently considered to be the first choice of permanent vascular access for hemodialysis, there are some patients who are not candidates for fistulae and synthetic grafts provide other options. The Thoratec (Vectra) polyurethane vascular access graft is a new prosthetic graft that may be cannulated within days of insertion due to "self-sealing" properties. However, a tendency for kinking at the suture site due to the strong elasticity of this graft, leading to undesirable complications such as thrombosis, have been reported. We describe a surgical modification of the anastomosis by interposing a segment of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft (ePTFE, Venaflo) between the native vessels and the polyurethane graft sections in a pediatric patient. This modification may overcome the kinking complication associated with use of the polyurethane graft and the resulting thrombosis.
    Hemodialysis International 04/2007; 11(2):190-2. DOI:10.1111/j.1542-4758.2007.00167.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the efficacy and toxicity of sirolimus used as primary immunosuppression in combination with reduced dose tacrolimus (calcineurin inhibitor [CI]-sparing regimen) or mycophenolate mofetil (CI-free regimen) in high-risk cadaveric renal transplantation. Seventy subjects were treated in a quadruple sequential protocol in which 41 were treated with a CI-sparing regimen and 29 were treated with a CI-free regimen. The efficacy and toxicity profiles of these regimens were prospectively monitored and compared. The study consisted of African Americans (71%), cadaveric donors (100%), donors aged more than 50 years (30%), and patients with delayed graft function (47%). At 1 year, patient survival, graft survival, and incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection were 98%, 80%, and 10%, respectively, in the CI-sparing group and 100%, 89%, and 7%, respectively, in the CI-free group. Three-month protocol biopsies were performed in 41% (17/41) and 67% (20/29) of the subjects in the CI-sparing and CI-free groups, respectively. Subclinical rejection was detected in 6% (1/17) and 15% (3/20) of the subjects in the CI-sparing and CI-free groups, respectively. Histologic evidence of chronic allograft nephropathy was more prevalent in the CI-sparing group. At 1 year, the mean estimated creatinine clearance was higher in the CI-free group than in the CI-sparing group (72.4 +/-20.0 mL/min vs. 50.5 +/-20.8 mL/min, P <0.01). The two regimens had similar toxicity profiles (hospital readmission, infection, wound complications, and metabolic complications). Both sirolimus-based CI-sparing and CI-free regimens are safe and effective in a population with high immunologic risk. The CI-free regimen is associated with better renal function at 1 year post-transplant. Long-term follow-up will aid in determining the risk and benefit ratio of these regimens.
    Transplantation 05/2004; 77(8):1228-35. DOI:10.1097/01.TP.0000121504.69676.5E · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is uncommon in the children. The cause of BCS comprises several diseases leading to thrombophilia. Activated protein C resistance as a result of a single gene mutation in factor V, the so called factor V Leiden (FVL), is the most common cause of thrombophilia. We report a simultaneous occurrence of BCS in identical twin sisters of 13 years of age with heterozygous FVL mutation. One sister presented with acute BCS leading to fulminant hepatic failure. She underwent liver transplantation with subsequent normalization of activated protein C resistance. The other twin sister, who was diagnosed with extensive thromboses of the inferior vena cava, portal vein, and hepatic veins, was successfully managed by aggressive chemical and mechanical thrombolysis followed by therapeutic anticoagulation. Genomic DNA studies confirmed heterozygosity of FVL mutation in the sisters' father and older brother. The exact cause of the BCS in children should be thoroughly and rapidly investigated, and, if necessary, immediate family members should also be tested for genetic defects in factor V or concomitant thrombophilia.
    Transplantation 08/2003; 76(1):195-8. DOI:10.1097/01.TP.0000073977.83480.B1 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Refinements in surgical techniques and advances in clinical immunosuppression have led to steadily improving results in pancreas transplantation (PTX). Although there is renewed interest in enteric exocrine drainage, most PTXs are performed with systemic venous delivery of insulin. To improve the physiology of PTX, we developed a novel technique of portal venous delivery of insulin and enteric drainage of the exocrine secretions (portal-enteric [P-E]). The purpose of the study was to analyse outcomes in patients undergoing PTX with P-E drainage and contemporary immunosuppression. From January 1997 through September 2002, we performed 67 primary simultaneous kidney-PTXs (SKPT) with P-E drainage. Maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus (TAC), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and steroids. No antibody induction therapy occurred in 33 patients (49%) with the remainder receiving daclizumab (n = 15), basiliximab (n = 2), or thymoglobulin (n = 14) induction therapy. The patient group included 38 males and 29 females with a mean age of 39.7 year (range 23-58) and a mean duration of pretransplant diabetes of 24.5 year (9-46). Fourteen patients (21%) were African-American. The mean waiting time for SKPT was 3.3 months (range 0.1-10). Mean kidney and pancreas cold ischaemia times were 15.1 and 15.4 h, respectively. Patient, kidney and pancreas graft survival rates were 97%, 92.5% and 82%, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 20 months (range 1-56). Two deaths (one sepsis, one cardiac event) occurred at 1 month after SKPT; both patients died with functioning grafts (DWFG). Three patients (4.5%) had delayed renal allograft function and received temporary dialysis after SKPT. Five kidney graft losses occurred (two DWFG, one thrombosis, two chronic rejection). All but four patients (6%) had immediate PTX function. A total of 12 pancreas graft losses occurred (two DWFG, five thrombosis, five chronic rejection). The incidence of acute rejection was 28%, but no grafts were lost due to isolated acute rejection. The incidence of major infection was 51%, but only five patients (7.5%) developed cytomegalovirus infection. A total of 19 patients (28%) underwent early relaparotomy within 3 months of SKPT. The composite endpoint of no rejection, graft loss, or mortality was attained by 63% of patients. At present, 58 patients (87%) are both dialysis and insulin-independent (including four retransplants). These findings suggest that SKPT with P-E drainage and contemporary immunosuppression may result in excellent intermediate-term outcomes.
    Clinical Transplantation 02/2003; 17 Suppl 9(s9):69-77. DOI:10.1034/j.1399-0012.17.s9.13.x · 1.52 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 02/2003; 7(2):279. DOI:10.1016/S1091-255X(02)00269-X · 2.80 Impact Factor