[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1989, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project initiated the B-22 trial to determine whether intensifying or intensifying and increasing the total dose of cyclophosphamide in a doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide combination would benefit women with primary breast cancer and positive axillary nodes. B-25 was initiated to determine whether further intensifying and increasing the cyclophosphamide dose would yield more favorable results.
Patients (n = 2,548) were randomly assigned to three groups. The dose and intensity of doxorubicin were similar in all groups. Group 1 received four courses, ie, double the dose and intensity of cyclophosphamide given in the B-22 standard therapy group; group 2 received the same dose of cyclophosphamide as in group 1, administered in two courses (intensified); group 3 received double the dose of cyclophosphamide (intensified and increased) given in group 1. All patients received recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Life-table estimates were used to determine disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival.
No significant difference was observed in DFS (P =.20), distant DFS (P =.31), or survival (P =.76) among the three groups. At 5 years, the DFS in groups 1 and 2 (61% v 64%, respectively; P =. 29) was similar to but slightly lower than that in group 3 (61% v 66%, respectively; P = 08). Survival in group 1 was concordant with that in groups 2 (78% v 77%, respectively; P =.71) and 3 (78% v 79%, respectively; P =.86). Grade 4 toxicity was 20%, 34%, and 49% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Severe infection and septic episodes increased in group 3. The decrease in the amount and intensity of cyclophosphamide and delays in therapy were greatest in courses 3 and 4 in group 3. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia increased in all groups.
Because intensifying and increasing cyclophosphamide two or four times that given in standard clinical practice did not substantively improve outcome, such therapy should be reserved for the clinical trial setting.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/1999; 17(11):3374-88. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) shorten the duration of myelosuppression following chemotherapy and, thus, allow the administration of higher doses. This study evaluates the efficacy of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in allowing administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide in combination with doxorubicin. Ninety women with metastatic, locally advanced, or high-risk (> or = 10 positive nodes) breast cancer and no prior anthracycline treatment were given doxorubicin (60 mg/m2) with progressively increased doses of cyclophosphamide (1,200 mg/m2, 1,800 mg/m2, and 2,400 mg/m2). The first 60 patients received GM-CSF; the remaining 30, G-CSF. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached with 2,400 mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide. When compared to GM-CSF, G-CSF significantly reduced the duration of granulocytopenia (P < .001). No differences in duration of thrombocytopenia were noted. The results were not sufficiently consistent to indicate a trend toward reduction in rates of febrile neutropenia with one CSF versus the other. However, patients who received G-CSF were hospitalized less frequently than those receiving GM-CSF. With CSFs, high-dose cyclophosphamide in combination with doxorubicin can be safely administered on an outpatient basis. A shorter duration of granulocytopenia resulted from the use of G-CSF than from GM-CSF.
American Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/1994; 17(5):374-81; discussion 382. · 2.55 Impact Factor