John T. Hamm

University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States

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Publications (16)73.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In 1989, the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project initiated the B-22 trial to determine whether intensifying or intensifying and increasing the total dose of cyclophosphamide in a doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide combination would benefit women with primary breast cancer and positive axillary nodes. B-25 was initiated to determine whether further intensifying and increasing the cyclophosphamide dose would yield more favorable results. Patients (n = 2,548) were randomly assigned to three groups. The dose and intensity of doxorubicin were similar in all groups. Group 1 received four courses, ie, double the dose and intensity of cyclophosphamide given in the B-22 standard therapy group; group 2 received the same dose of cyclophosphamide as in group 1, administered in two courses (intensified); group 3 received double the dose of cyclophosphamide (intensified and increased) given in group 1. All patients received recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Life-table estimates were used to determine disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival. No significant difference was observed in DFS (P =.20), distant DFS (P =.31), or survival (P =.76) among the three groups. At 5 years, the DFS in groups 1 and 2 (61% v 64%, respectively; P =. 29) was similar to but slightly lower than that in group 3 (61% v 66%, respectively; P = 08). Survival in group 1 was concordant with that in groups 2 (78% v 77%, respectively; P =.71) and 3 (78% v 79%, respectively; P =.86). Grade 4 toxicity was 20%, 34%, and 49% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Severe infection and septic episodes increased in group 3. The decrease in the amount and intensity of cyclophosphamide and delays in therapy were greatest in courses 3 and 4 in group 3. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia increased in all groups. Because intensifying and increasing cyclophosphamide two or four times that given in standard clinical practice did not substantively improve outcome, such therapy should be reserved for the clinical trial setting.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/1999; 17(11):3374-88. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 35 women with advanced, metastatic breast cancer were treated with combination chemotherapy consisting of folinic acid 500 mg/m2 over 2 hours administered with 600 mg/m2 of 5FU at the midpoint of the folinic acid infusion weekly for 6 weeks, plus 60 mg/m2 of thiotepa on day 1 and day 28. The cycle was repeated every 8 weeks. Patients were evaluated for toxicity weekly. Response was evaluated at the end of each 8-week cycle. The median age was 55 years (range: 34-67). Prior to this study 30 patients had received chemotherapy; 13 had 1 regimen; 17 had 2 or more regimens; 8 had 5FU treatment. The overall response rate was 40% (1 complete and 13 partial); median duration of response was 4 months. Four of 8 patients with prior 5FU responded. Hematologic toxicity was significant; nadir WBC count: < 1,000/mm3 (10 patients); 1,000-1,999/mm (13 patients); nadir platelet count: < 20,000/mm3 (8 patients): 20,000-49,000/mm3 (8 patients); 50,000-99,000/mm3 (10 patients). We conclude that the combination of thiotepa, 5FU, and leucovorin had significant myelotoxicity and do not recommend its routine use in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
    American Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/1995; 18(5):385-8. DOI:10.1097/00000421-199510000-00004 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) shorten the duration of myelosuppression following chemotherapy and, thus, allow the administration of higher doses. This study evaluates the efficacy of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in allowing administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide in combination with doxorubicin. Ninety women with metastatic, locally advanced, or high-risk (> or = 10 positive nodes) breast cancer and no prior anthracycline treatment were given doxorubicin (60 mg/m2) with progressively increased doses of cyclophosphamide (1,200 mg/m2, 1,800 mg/m2, and 2,400 mg/m2). The first 60 patients received GM-CSF; the remaining 30, G-CSF. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached with 2,400 mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide. When compared to GM-CSF, G-CSF significantly reduced the duration of granulocytopenia (P < .001). No differences in duration of thrombocytopenia were noted. The results were not sufficiently consistent to indicate a trend toward reduction in rates of febrile neutropenia with one CSF versus the other. However, patients who received G-CSF were hospitalized less frequently than those receiving GM-CSF. With CSFs, high-dose cyclophosphamide in combination with doxorubicin can be safely administered on an outpatient basis. A shorter duration of granulocytopenia resulted from the use of G-CSF than from GM-CSF.
    American Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/1994; 17(5):374-81; discussion 382. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) shorten the duration of myelosuppression following chemotherapy and, thus, allow the administration of higher doses. This study evaluates the efficacy of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in allowing administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide in combination with doxorubicin. Ninety women with metastatic, locally advanced, or high-risk (greater than or equal to 10 positive nodes) breast cancer and no prior anthracycline treatment were given doxorubicin (60 mg/m(2)) with progressively increased doses of cyclophosphamide (1,200 mg/m(2), 1,800 mg/m(2), and 2,400 mg/m(2)). The first 60 patients received GM-CSF; the remaining 30, G-CSF. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached with 2,400 mg/m(2) of cyclophosphamide. When compared to GM-CSF, G-CSF significantly reduced the duration of granulocytopenia (P < .001). No differences in duration of thrombocytopenia were noted. The results were not sufficiently consistent to indicate a trend toward reduction in rates of febrile neutropenia with one CSF versus the other. However, patients who received G-CSF were hospitalized less frequently than those receiving GM-CSF. With CSFs, high-dose cyclophosphamide in combination with doxorubicin can be safely administered on an outpatient basis. A shorter duration of granulocytopenia resulted from the use of G-CSF than from GM-CSF.
    American Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/1994; 17(5). DOI:10.1097/00000421-199410000-00002 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Etoposide is more active in small cell lung cancer when given over 5 days than as a single injection. To examine this concept further, we designed this Phase II study in NSCLC using continuous low-dose oral etoposide. We enrolled 19 patients with measurable disease and the standard eligibility criteria. 16 had no prior chemotherapy. Etoposide was given at a dose of 50 mg by mouth daily. The median duration of therapy was 63 days (14-212 days). Toxicity was mild myelosuppression and GI symptoms. Therapy was discontinued because of progression of disease in 13 patients, toxicity (GI) in 3 patients; intercurrent disease, self-removal, and other reasons in 1 patient each. No complete or partial responses were seen (95% CI: 0-17.6%). The median survival after entry into the trial was 159 days (41-571+ days). We conclude that low-dose continuous oral etoposide is a well-tolerated but ineffective regimen in non-small cell lung cancer.
    American Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/1994; 17(2):163-5. DOI:10.1097/00000421-199404000-00015 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with high-dose chlorambucil (14 mg/m2 every 6 hours for 6 doses) and dexamethasone (40 mg/day for 5 days). There was a 45% response rate with 17% complete responses. The median duration of complete response was 7 months. The regimen was well tolerated and had minimal toxicity.
    American Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/1993; 16(4):319-22. DOI:10.1097/00000421-199308000-00008 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroxyurea is an S-phase specific drug. Constant exposure of tumor cells with a low S-phase fraction to the agent may result in improved cell kill. Because of its short half-life, a continuous intravenous infusion may result in better tumor exposure than intake by mouth. The goal of this trial was to find the longest tolerable duration of a continued intravenous infusion of hydroxyurea (HU) given at escalating doses. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed cancer without effective alternate therapy, normal blood counts, liver and kidney function. After giving informed consent, the infusion began via a permanent indwelling catheter utilizing a portable pump. Dose levels (in g/m2/d) were 0.5 for level I, 1.0 for level II, 1.66 for level III, and 2.5 for level IV. Fourteen patients were entered. Five were men. Median age was 56 years of age (range: 32-67), median performance status 1 (range: 0-2). Diagnoses were as follows: colorectal cancer, seven; unknown primary site, three; breast cancer, two; melanoma, one; and adenoid-cystic carcinoma, one. Nine patients were pretreated with chemotherapy. Three patients were entered per dose level, except on level I, were five were entered. The mean duration of infusion was 12 weeks on level I, 5 weeks on II, 3 on III, 1 on IV. Toxicity included leukopenia below 2.0 K/mm3 in one patient each on levels III and IV, thrombocytopenia below 100 K/mm3 in one patient each on levels II and IV, and stomatitis in three patients (one on level II and two on IV). This toxicity was dose limiting. One patient on level III, with an unknown primary, had an objective response. HU levels were measured by a modification of the Fabricius-Rajewsky method. Mean plasma levels in micrograms per milliliter (SEM) were as follows: level I, 3.6 (0.23); level II, 5.1 (0.57); level III, 10.1 (1.55); and level IV, 16.7 (one point). Fetal hemoglobin rose two-fold and five-fold in two patients on level I after 9 and 16 weeks on therapy, respectively. HU as a continuous intravenous infusion is well tolerated; the maximum duration of therapy is related inversely with the dose given. No major antitumor activity was seen. The greatest interest in the drug rests in its future use as a modulator and radiation potentiator. The increase in hemoglobin F was of interest and may be important in the treatment of sickle cell disease.
    Cancer 06/1993; 71(9):2828-32. DOI:10.1002/1097-0142(19930501)71:93.0.CO;2-P · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A residual mediastinal mass after completion of initial treatment for Hodgkin's disease is a frequent clinical problem. Investigators have suggested three possible approaches to this important problem: 1) observation, 2) additional diagnostic tests with subsequent action based upon test results, or 3) immediate treatment for high-risk patients. The method of decision analysis was applied to determine the optimal management for residual mediastinal abnormalities following treatment of Hodgkin's disease with combined modalities of MOPP chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The three parameters of the importance for making the best decision were: 1) the probability that the mass is truly active disease, 2) the salvage success rate using MOPP or ABVD treatment and 3) the specificity of the gallium scan. The analysis favored the gallium imaging strategy as an initial management choice when the probability was greater than 3% that the residual mass represented active disease and the specificity of gallium imaging was greater than 56%. This strategy proved to be the most cost effective, as well. Additional chemotherapy was favored only when there was a greater than 99% probability that the mass represented active disease. A nomogram has been constructed combining all three parameters of importance for graphically determining the best decision.
    Medical Hypotheses 07/1992; 38(2):166-75. DOI:10.1016/0306-9877(92)90089-U · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A phase I multicenter evaluation of a novel antiestrogen, toremifene, was undertaken in postmenopausal women with various advanced difficult-to-treat malignancies. One hundred and seven women were treated at one of six dosage levels (10, 20, 40, 60, 200, or 400 mg/d orally) for at least 8 weeks. Weekly evaluations for toxicity were conducted. The most common side effects were nausea (31%), vomiting (12%), and hot flashes (29%). Five patients were removed from the study for possible adverse reactions: three patients experienced hypercalcemia; one experienced tremulousness, fatigue, and inability to think clearly; and one had vaginal bleeding. Twelve patients died while on study, 11 with disease progression and one with a pulmonary embolus. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels increased and there was a modest decline in serum antithrombin III levels. Four of 48 assessable patients had partial responses: three with breast cancer and one with endometrial cancer. Toremifene was generally well tolerated at the doses tested.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/1991; 9(11):2036-41. · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many therapeutic agents have been tried with variable success in the treatment of Felty neutropenia, but the reports are anecdotal. We now describe the second trial of recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in a splenectomized, infected patient with Felty syndrome.
    American Journal of Hematology 05/1991; 37(1):55-6. DOI:10.1002/ajh.2830370114 · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • John T. Hamm, Joseph C. Allegra
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    ABSTRACT: From this data we can draw several conclusions. Although many new hormonal agents have been developed, there has not been significant improvement in tumor response to single agents over the past several decades. By applying knowledge of tumor ER and PR patient populations can be selected which will have a higher response rate to a given hormonal agent. The approach of combining chemotherapy and hormonal therapy does not appear to significantly alter the course of the disease. Sequential use of Tamoxifen, Premarin, and chemotherapy has been shown in cell lines and animal models to synchronize cells thus increasing the efficacy of chemotherapy. Clinical trials of this synchronization generally show higher response rates including significantly higher CR rates than chemotherapy alone. This approach appears promising and is undergoing further trials. LHRH agonists and tamoxifen are effective in premenopausal women with receptor positive tumors and may replace surgical ablative therapy. Aminoglutethimide is gaining wider acceptance as second-line therapy in postmenopausal ER-positive patients. The new agent 4-OHA may be as effective as AG but with fewer side effects. Toremifine a new antiestrogen and RU486 a new antiprogesterone are undergoing trials. While these new agents appear promising with fewer side effects or greater specificity of action, with the exception of sequential hormone priming/chemotherapy they represent 'the same old approach'. By this we mean manipulation of the hormonal environment of the cell in a continuous fashion acting via the estrogen receptor mechanism to achieve tumor regression. While certain new agents may be more tolerable, it is unlikely that a 'break through' will occur with this approach. The problem is the emergence of cells resistant to hormonal therapy. This occurs either through proliferation of a preexisting resistant clone or development under selective pressure of resistant tumors. Some but not all of these resistant clones have escaped by virtue of not having estrogen receptor present. Others have defects further along the action cascade of estrogen stimulation, such as a defective receptor which cannot bind effectively to the nuclear acceptor sites, or lacking certain other growth factors such as TGF-beta. Whatever the deficit, most patients eventually develop resistant tumors. It is in this direction, toward manipulating later points in the estrogen cascade which our attention should turn to achieve more effective hormonal therapy.
    Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 02/1991; 11(1):29-41. DOI:10.1016/1040-8428(91)90016-6 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toremifene is a triphenylethylene derivative structurally and pharmacologically similar to tamoxifen. This Phase I trial assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics, anti-estrogenic, and estrogenic effects of toremifene at six dose levels (10, 20, 40, 60, 200, and 400 mg/day). The most common side-effects associated with therapy included gastrointestinal (nausea/vomiting 43%), anti-estrogenic (hot flashes 29%), and CNS (dizziness/vertigo 12%). Three patients with bone metastases from breast cancer developed hypercalcemia. At doses greater than or equal to 40 mg/day a decline in LH and FSH occurred which was not statistically significant. At all doses tested SHBG rose during therapy. A dose dependent estrogenic blockade was seen on the vaginal epithelium following challenge with transdermal estradiol. Steady-state concentrations of toremifene were reached within 4 weeks, and at doses greater than or equal to 60 mg/day ranged from 879-3445 ng/ml. The half-life was found to be 5 days, and at three weeks following discontinuation of treatment concentrations greater than 24 ng/ml were detected. The N-desmethyl and 4-hydroxy metabolites achieved steady state levels within 4 weeks and had half-lives of 6 and 5 days respectively. Partial responses were seen in 4 patients, 3 with breast cancer treated at 200 mg/day and 1 with endometrial cancer treated at 400 mg/day.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/1990; 16 Suppl:S19-26. DOI:10.1007/BF01807140 · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • John T. Hamm
    Cancer Investigation 02/1990; 8(2):273-4. DOI:10.3109/07357909009017583 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-two patients with metastatic melanoma were treated with a chemotherapy regimen consisting of two cycles of induction therapy with vinblastine, bleomycin, and cisplatin, followed by maintenance therapy with dacarbazine and dibromodulcitol. A 17% response rate was noted in this patient group, with a median survival of 40 weeks. Objective responses were limited to cutaneous, nodal, pulmonary, and one adrenal site of metastatic disease. Toxicity was acceptable and was limited to myelosuppression and nausea with emesis. Further study appears warranted to define the optimal treatment plan for metastatic melanoma.
    American Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/1989; 11(6):666-8. DOI:10.1097/00000421-198812000-00016 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Phase II trial of high-dose chlorambucil at 108 mg/m2 was undertaken in non-small cell lung cancer. No complete or partial objective responses were observed, and significant toxicity, including nausea, vomiting, and seizures, was noted. Chlorambucil at this dose and schedule of administration is not recommended for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
    American Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/1988; 10(6):515-6. DOI:10.1097/00000421-198712000-00011 · 2.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

184 Citations
73.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–1992
    • University of Louisville
      • • Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Medicine
      Lexington, Kentucky, United States