[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare mortality, graft loss, and postoperative complications after liver transplant in older patients (> or =70 years) with those in younger patients (<60 years).
Outcomes for 42 patients aged 70 years or older who underwent liver transplant were compared with those of 42 matched controls younger than 60 years. All patients underwent transplants between March 19, 1998, and May 7, 2004. Information was collected on patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, laboratory results, donor and operative variables, medical and surgical complications, and mortality and graft loss.
Preoperative characteristics were similar across age groups, except for creatinine (P=.01) and serum albumin (P=.03) values, which were higher in older patients, and an earlier year of transplant in younger patients (P<.001). Intraoperatively, older patients required more erythrocyte transfusions (P=.04) and more intraoperative fluids (P=.001) than did younger patients. Postoperatively, bilirubin level (P=.007) and international normalized ratios (P=.01) were lower in older patients, whereas albumin level was higher (P<.001). The median follow-up was 5.1 years (range, 0.1-8.5 years). Compared with younger patients, older patients were not at an increased risk of death (relative risk, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-2.31; P>.99) or graft loss (relative risk, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-2.52; P=.70). The frequency of other complications did not differ significantly between age groups, although older patients had more cardiovascular complications.
Five-year mortality and graft loss in older recipients were comparable with those in younger recipients, suggesting that age alone should not exclude older patients from liver transplant.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 11/2009; 84(11):973-8. · 5.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation (LT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease. The required immunosuppression increases the risk for developing malignancies. Some viruses play a crucial role. Data on neoplasms of the colon, rectum and anus in LT are limited.
A retrospective evaluation of the incidence and clinical course of colorectal and anal malignancies and colonic polyps in a series of 467 consecutive LTs in 402 individuals between 1998 and 2001 was performed. Standard immunosuppression included Tacrolimus, Mycophenolic acid and steroids.
During a median follow up of 5.2 years, three colon adenocarcinomas, one EBV associated cecal posttransplant lymphoproliferative tumour and two HPV associated anal tumours were identified. Pre-LT colonoscopy was performed in 161 patients (40%), and of 153 evaluable individuals, 53 (34.9%) had polyps. Colonoscopy was performed in 186 patients (46.3%) median 14.8 (range 0.2-77.8) months post-LT and 55 (29.3%) had polyps. Post-LT adenomatous polyps were detected in 47.3% of patients with pre-LT polyps vs 6.7% of patients without pre-LT polyps (P < 0.001). Patients with alcoholic liver disease had a significantly higher rate of adenoma formation (50.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.001). No patient died from colorectal/anal malignancy.
The incidence of metachronous and new polyp formation in our study is similar to people who are not immunocompromised, but subgroups are at increased risk. Viral-associated malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and anal cancer, are important entities in the LT population suggesting that complete screening of the colon, rectum and anus including pre-LT and post-LT colonoscopy should be utilized.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare malignant disease which originates from the pacemaker cells of
the gastrointestinal tract and in the case of metastatic spread usually has a poor prognosis. METHODS: We report a case of
a woman who underwent multiple surgical procedures including a pancreatic resection and two liver transplants and in addition
received Gleevec, somatostatin and the new experimental compound Sunitinib. RESULTS: With this intensive approach she survived
more than 12 years after being first diagnosed with GIST. CONCLUSIONS: In selected cases patients with metastatic GIST may
benefit from such an aggressive approach.
European Surgery 01/2007; 39(3):189-191. · 0.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peritonitis occurring after liver transplantation (PLT) has been poorly characterized to date. The aims of this study were to define the incidence, risk factors, microbiology profiles, and outcome of nonlocalized PLT. This was a retrospective study of 950 cadaveric liver transplantation (LT) procedures in 837 patients, followed for a mean of 1,086 days (range, 104-2,483 days) after LT. PLT was defined as the presence of at least one positive ascitic fluid culture after LT. There were 108 PLT episodes in 91 patients occurring at a median of 14 days (range, 1-102 days) after LT. Significant risk factors associated with the development of PLT by multivariate analysis included pre-LT model for end-stage liver disease score, duration of LT surgery, Roux-en-Y biliary anastomosis, and renal replacement therapy after LT. Biliary complications, intra-abdominal bleeding, and bowel leak/perforation were associated with 34.3%, 26.9%, and 18.5% of episodes, respectively. Multiple organisms, gram-positive cocci, fungus, and multidrug-resistant bacteria were isolated in 61.1%, 92.6%, 25.9%, and 76.9% of ascitic fluid cultures, respectively. The 28 fungal PLT episodes were associated with bowel leak/perforation and polymicrobial peritonitis. Patients who developed PLT after their first LT had a significantly greater risk of graft loss or mortality compared to unaffected patients. Parameters significantly associated with these adverse outcomes by multivariate analysis were recipient age at LT and bowel leak or perforation after LT. In conclusion, PLT is a serious infectious complication of LT, associated with significant intra-abdominal pathology and reduced recipient and graft survival.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical significance and outcome of nonanastomotic strictures and dilatations involving only the biliary tree of the graft with a radiological appearance of biliary ischemia is unknown. Therefore we analyzed the grafts of 128 patients to evaluate the biochemical, radiological and histological features that prompted the diagnosis of ischemic-type biliary stricture and the clinical outcome of this complication. Ischemic-type biliary strictures were diagnosed in 25 patients (19%). Initial graft function was similar in all patients, whether or not this complication developed. Most ischemic-type biliary strictures occurred between 1 and 4 mo after orthotopic liver transplantation. However, the appearance of ischemic-type biliary stricture in the month after transplantation was predictive for a poor outcome in all six grafts with early onset of ischemic-type biliary strictures. Eighteen patients (72%) were treated with biliary stents and repeated dilatations. Long-term patency was achieved in 88% of these patients. Repeat transplantation was performed in six patients (24%); five survived. Finally, patients with ischemic-type biliary strictures spent more time in the hospital during the first year after orthotopic liver transplantation than did patients without the complication (62 ± 27 days vs. 37 ± 20 days; p ± 0.001). This was due to repeated hospitalizations and a higher incidence of retransplantation. One-year graft survival was lower in patients with ischemic-type biliary strictures than in patients without ischemic-type biliary strictures (69% vs. 88%; p = 0.006). However, 1-yr patient survival was similar in the two groups (91% vs. 89%). In conclusion, early appearance of ischemic-type biliary stricture features is associated with poor graft prognosis. The occurrence of ischemic-type biliary stricture after transplantation is associated with increased morbidity, extended hospitalization and a higher incidence of repeat transplantation. (HEPATOLOGY 1993;17:605–609.)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical, radiographic, and pathological features of 18 patients with biliary necrosis in their explanted liver allografts were reviewed. Twelve patients were men and ages ranged from 27 to 72 years. Indications for initial liver transplant (LT) were viral hepatitis (n = 7), steatohepatitic cirrhosis (n = 3), cryptogenic cirrhosis (n = 3), secondary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 2), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 1), biliary atresia (n = 1), and nodular regenerative hyperplasia (n = 1). Donor age ranged from 16 to 75 years. Duct-to-duct biliary anastomoses were fashioned in 13 cases; warm and cold ischemia times were not significantly different from general LT population. Seventeen allograft biopsies after recirculation had no significant findings. Post-LT, clinical and radiographic evaluation indicated biliary strictures (n = 7), bile leak (n = 7), intrahepatic abscess (n = 1), and duodenal perforation (n = 1). Radiographic vascular studies suggested hepatic arterial thrombosis or stenosis in 11 cases. Biopsies prior to retransplantation were performed on 17 patients and showed acute rejection (n = 10), biliary outflow impairment (n = 4), normal histology (n = 2), and centrilobular necrosis (n = 1). Retransplantation was performed 14 to 334 days after initial LT. Pathological examination of explants revealed perihilar duct necrosis in all cases, with bacterial colonies (n = 10) and fungal organisms (n = 2). Arterial thrombi were seen in 10 cases, and two had prominent arteriosclerosis. Infarction and centrilobular necrosis were seen in 9 and 13 cases, respectively. Four explants showed features of biliary outflow impairment. Twelve patients were alive 6 to 18 months following retransplantation. We conclude that post-LT biliary necrosis is associated with ischemia, and such a complication is rarely evident in allograft biopsies. Biliary and vascular imaging studies are essential in evaluating patients for this complication.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the clinical and pathologic features of morphologic hepatitis occurring after liver transplantation (LT) that is unrelated to disease recurrence.
Between February 1998 and December 2003, 704 primary LTs were performed at our center. Patients transplanted for diagnoses with low risk of disease recurrence were considered for our study (n = 282). Those with hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) were excluded. Those with morphologic hepatitis comprised our case series and had medical records reviewed for clinical associations, duration, and outcome.
Thirty-one cases were identified. They were transplanted for cryptogenic cirrhosis (n = 13), steatohepatitis (n = 12), alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (n = 3), tumor (n = 2), and acetaminophen toxicity (n = 1); 22 cases (67%) presented within the first 8 months post-LT (range, 0.5-72 months). Histological activity was mild in 19 and moderate in 12. Associated conditions were identified in 19 patients (57%) with 3 categories being identified: probable drug toxicity (n = 7), systemic infection (n = 4), and mechanical or hemodynamic abnormalities (n = 8). Of the 25 cases that underwent follow-up biopsy 2 to 32 months (mean, 15.5 months) after the index biopsy, 10 cases had resolution and 15 cases had persistence of the infiltrate. One patient had evidence of de novo HBV infection.
Morphologic hepatitis occurred in 11% of patients at low risk for disease recurrence. Associated conditions could be grouped into three categories: drug toxicity, systemic infection, and mechanical or hemodynamic factors. Most cases did not appear to progress or improved over time, with no allograft loss occurring as a result of chronic hepatitis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial infection is a frequent, morbid, and mortal complication of liver transplantation. Selective bowel decontamination (SBD) has been reported to reduce the rate of bacterial infection after liver transplantation in uncontrolled trials, but benefits of this intervention have been less clear in controlled studies.
Eighty candidates for liver transplantation were randomly assigned in a double-blinded fashion to an SBD regimen consisting of gentamicin 80 mg+polymyxin E 100 mg+nystatin 2 million units (37 patients) or to nystatin alone (43 patients). Both treatments were administered orally in 10 ml (increasing to 20 ml, according to predefined criteria), four times daily, through day 21 after transplantation. Anal fecal swab cultures were performed on days 0, 4, 7, and 21. Rates of infection, death, and charges for medical care were assessed from day 0 through day 60.
More than 85% of patients in both treatment groups began study treatment more than 3 days before transplantation. Rates of infection (32.4 vs. 27.9%), death (5.4 vs. 4.7%), or charges for medical care (median $194,000 vs. $163,000) were not reduced in patients assigned to SBD. On days 0, 4, 7, and 21, growth of aerobic gram-negative flora in fecal cultures of patients assigned to SBD was significantly less than that of patients taking nystatin alone; growth of aerobic gram-positive flora, anaerobes, and yeast was not significantly different.
Routine use of SBD in patients undergoing liver transplantation is not associated with significant benefit.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 34-yr-old man with hepatic haemangiomatosis presented for orthotopic liver transplantation. His massively distended abdomen caused thoracic compression and severe restrictive lung disease. Respiratory failure was the principal indication for transplantation. Increased airway pressures, pulmonary hypertension, systemic hypotension caused by aorto-caval compression, and blood loss, complicated the intra-operative anaesthetic management. Weaning from mechanical ventilation was impaired by acute and chronic metabolic alkalosis, and diaphragmatic laxity.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/2001; 86(3):431-4. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) alone for unresectable cholangiocarcinoma is often associated with early disease relapse and limited survival. Because of these discouraging results, most programs have abandoned OLT for cholangiocarcinoma. However, a small percentage of patients have achieved prolonged survival after OLT, suggesting that adjuvant approaches could perhaps improve the survival outcome. Based on these concepts, a protocol was developed at the Mayo Clinic using preoperative irradiation and chemotherapy for patients with cholangiocarcinoma. We report our initial results with this pilot experience. Patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma above the cystic duct without intrahepatic or extrahepatic metastases were eligible. Patients initially received external-beam irradiation plus bolus fluorouracil (5-FU), followed by brachytherapy with iridium and concomitant protracted venous infusion of 5-FU. 5-FU was then administered continuously through an ambulatory infusion pump until OLT. After irradiation, patients underwent an exploratory laparotomy to exclude metastatic disease. To date, 19 patients have been enrolled onto the study and have been treated with irradiation. Eight patients did not go on to OLT because of the presence of metastasis at the time of exploratory laparotomy (n = 6), subsequent development of malignant ascites (n = 1), or death from intrahepatic biliary sepsis (n = 1). Eleven patients completed the protocol with successful OLT. Except for 1 patient, all had early-stage disease (stages I and II) in the explanted liver. All patients who underwent OLT are alive, 3 patients are at risk at 12 months or less, and the remaining 8 patients have a median follow-up of 44 months (range, 17 to 83 months; 7 of 9 patients > 36 months). Only 1 patient developed tumor relapse. OLT in combination with preoperative irradiation and chemotherapy is associated with prolonged disease-free and overall survival in highly selected patients with early-stage cholangiocarcinoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrence of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in an adult has never been reported. We describe a 23-year-old woman who initially underwent OLT because of debilitating and severe HPS associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although the clinical resolution of HPS was well documented day 117 post-OLT, the reappearance of NASH was documented by liver biopsy. Severe hypoxemia because of recurrent HPS rapidly evolved beginning approximately day 700 post-OLT. Retransplantation was attempted, but the patient died post-OLT of sepsis and/or multiorgan failure.
Liver transplantation and surgery: official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society 10/1999; 5(5):451-3.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) following liver transplantation has been suggested; however, it has not been fully defined because of numerous complicating factors and the lack of diagnostic criteria. In the present study, we investigated the recurrence of PSC by developing strict criteria and applying them to a large cohort of PSC patients who underwent liver transplantation. Between March 1985 and June 1996, 150 PSC patients underwent liver transplantation at the Mayo Clinic; mean follow up was 55 months. The incidence of nonanastomotic biliary strictures and hepatic histologic findings suggestive of PSC were compared between patients transplanted for PSC and a non-PSC transplant control group. Our definition of recurrent PSC was based on characteristic cholangiographic and histologic findings that occur in nontransplant PSC patients. By using strict criteria, 30 patients with other known causes of posttransplant nonanastomotic biliary strictures were excluded leaving 120 patients for analysis of recurrence of PSC. We found evidence of PSC recurrence after liver transplantation in 24 patients (20%). Of these, 22 out of 24 patients showed characteristic features of PSC on cholangiography and 11 out of 24 had compatible hepatic histologic abnormalities with a mean time to diagnosis of 360 and 1,350 days, respectively. Both cholangiographic and hepatic histologic findings suggestive of PSC recurrence were seen in nine patients. The higher incidence and later onset of nonanastomotic biliary strictures in patients with PSC compared with a non-PSC control group is supportive of the fact that PSC does recur following liver transplantation. We were unable to identify specific clinical risk factors for recurrent PSC, and the overall patient and graft survival in patients with recurrent PSC was similar to those without evidence of recurrence. Our observations provide convincing evidence that PSC frequently recurs in the hepatic allograft using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cause of fulminant hepatic failure in children remains unknown, but a viral origin has been suspected in most cases. The recently discovered blood-borne virus, hepatitis G, has been suggested as a possible causative agent.
Six consecutive children who underwent liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure were studied. The children were tested for hepatitis G virus antibodies and hepatitis G virus RNA by polymerase chain reaction after excluding other causes of fulminant hepatic failure.
No evidence of hepatitis G virus infection was found in these patients.
Hepatitis G virus is unlikely to be a common cause of fulminant hepatic failure in pediatric patients from the upper midwestern United States.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 05/1999; 28(4):400-3. · 2.20 Impact Factor