H L Waldum

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Nidaros, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway

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Publications (307)1068.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Vagotomy causes inhibition of basal and post-prandial acid secretion in humans, but the knowledge about the trophic effect of the vagal nerves is limited. Vagotomy is known to induce hypergastrinemia and we aimed to study the long-term effects of proximal gastric vagotomy (PGV) on the oxyntic mucosa and the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell density in particular. Material and methods. Eleven patients operated with PGV because of duodenal ulcer and age- and sex-matched controls were examined 26 to 29 years postoperatively by gastroscopy with biopsies from the antrum and oxyntic mucosa. Neuroendocrine cell volume densities were calculated after immunohistochemical labeling of gastrin, the general neuroendocrine cell marker chromogranin A (CgA) and the ECL cell marker vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Gastritis was graded and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status was determined by polymerase chain reaction of gastric biopsies. Fasting serum gastrin and CgA were measured. Results. Serum gastrin was higher in the PGV group compared to controls (median 21.0 [interquartile range (IQR) = 22.0] pmol/L vs 13.0 [IQR = 4.0] pmol/L, p = 0.04). However, there was neither a significant difference in serum CgA or in CgA (neuroendocrine) nor VMAT2 (ECL cell) immunoreactive cell volume density in the oxyntic mucosa. There was significantly more inflammation and atrophy in H. pylori-positive patients, but PGV did not influence the grade of gastritis. Conclusion. Despite higher serum gastrin concentrations, patients operated with PGV did not have higher ECL cell mass or serum CgA. Vagotomy may prevent the development of ECL cell hyperplasia caused by a moderate hypergastrinemia.
    Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. E-cadherin plays a crucial role in the adhesion between epithelial cells and thus epithelial integrity. Moreover, germline mutations in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) causing loss of E-cadherin function (adhesion) leads to hereditary gastric cancer of the diffuse type, according to Laurén. Even sporadic gastric carcinomas of the diffuse type often lose E-cadherin expression due to mutations. Lack of E-cadherin has been recorded at an early phase in such carcinomas. For 25 years, we have provided evidence for neuroendocrine (NE) cell origin of gastric carcinomas of diffuse type. The present study was, therefore, done to examine whether normal NE cells in the gastrointestinal tract express E-cadherin or not. Methods. During upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, biopsies were taken from normal oxyntic mucosa, gastric carcinoids, gastric carcinomas, and from normal duodenal mucosa. Tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using antibodies toward chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and E-cadherin. Isolated mucosal cells were prepared from biopsies of normal mucosa and examined by antibodies against the same markers by immunofluorescence. Results. Normal gastrointestinal NE cells did not express E-cadherin as assessed by IHC or immunocytochemistry. No expression of E-cadherin was found on tumor cells from gastric carcinoids or cancer of diffuse type examined by IHC. Conclusion. Our findings, which are in contrast to some previous studies, may explain why there is a discrepancy between lack of atypia and malignant biological behavior of such tumors. Since they normally lack the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, reflected in their spread occurrence, only minor changes may result in malignant behavior.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: Serotonin (5-HT) most likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We aimed to test if venous plasma 5-HT is a potential biomarker of PAH. We also measured venous blood β-thromboglobulin (βTG) in all participants to ensure that any increase in serotonin levels measured is due to platelet release. Design: Blood samples from patients (n=9) with pulmonary arterial hypertension (Group 1 of the World Health Organization classification of pulmonary hypertension) as well as healthy volunteers (n=9) were analyzed. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure venous platelet-poor plasma 5-HT and β-TG in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and in age-matched normal controls. Results: Venous platelet-free plasma 5-HT and β-TG were almost similar in patients with PAH and healthy controls with only a slight trend towards increased 5-HT levels in patients with PAH. No correlation was found between venous platelet-poor plasma 5-HT and disease severity. There was no association between venous plasma 5-HT and the mean pulmonary artery pressure. Conclusions: Our data suggest that 5-HT is not significantly elevated in venous platelet-free plasma in patients with PAH and may accordingly not be a useful biomarker in this condition.
    Scandinavian cardiovascular journal: SCJ 01/2014; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)/interleukin (IL-6) pathway links chronic inflammation to colitis associated cancer (CAC). In this study, we examined the dynamic temporal changes of the NF-κB/IL-6 pathway during the procession of experimental CAC mouse model. Mice were sacrificed after induction for 14, 16, 18, and 22 weeks for the examination of tumor burden, inflammation degree, and protein level of NF-κB and IL-6 in bowel tissues. The results showed that tumor burden and inflammation severity in the bowels were gradually increased over the observed time-points. The expressions of IL-6 and NF-κB proteins were gradually increased after induction of dysplastic lesions over times. These data provide new information on the dynamic temporal changes of NF-κB/IL-6 pathway in relation to CAC development that may be relevant in the design of future investigations of therapeutic interventions to effectively target CAC processes.
    International journal of inflammation. 01/2014; 2014:130981.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To assess the exocrine and neuroendocrine properties of tumour cells in diffuse gastric cancer with signet ring cell differentiation. Material and methods Mucin mRNA and protein expressions (MUC1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AC, 6 and MUC13) were assessed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The neuroendocrine properties were evaluated by protein and mRNA expression of the general neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Results No MUC expression was observed in signet ring tumour cells including the amorphous substance in any of the nine cases. All cases showed immunoreactivity to synaptophysin, and seven out of nine cases immunoreactivity to chromogranin A in signet ring and non-signet ring tumour cells. Chromogranin A mRNA expression was observed in tumour cells in all samples with retained mRNA. Conclusions The lack of MUC protein and mRNA in signet ring tumour cells suggests the amorphous substance is not mucin. The lack of MUC mRNA expression in non-signet ring tumour cells questions exocrine differentiation in this tumour group. The abundant protein expression of the general neuroendocrine markers CgA and synaptophysin, and mRNA expression in tumour cells strengthens the hypothesis that this tumour group may be of neuroendocrine origin.
    Experimental and Molecular Pathology 01/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Helge L Waldum, Oyvind Hauso, Reidar Fossmark
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review, based upon 40 years of research, is to clear old controversies. The gastric juice is a strong acid with active enzymes (pepsin and lipase); ideal for killing swallowed microorganisms. Totally isolated rat stomach and histamine determination. Human gastric carcinomas were examined for ECL cell differentiation since tumours found in rodents after dosing with inhibitors of acid secretion were reclassified to be of ECL cell origin. The gastrin receptor is localized to the ECL cell only, where gastrin stimulates the function and growth. Drug induced hypoacidity induces hypergastrinemia and ECL cell hyperplasia responsible for rebound acid hypersecretion. Every condition with long-term hypergastrinemia disposes to ECL cell neoplasia. In man both atrophic gastritis and gastrinoma lead to ECL cell carcinoids. Proton pump inhibitors induce hypergastrinemia with ECL cell hyperplasia and ECL cell carcinoids that disappear when stopping treatment. The gastrin antagonist netazepide induces regression of ECL cell carcinoids due to atrophic gastritis. Human gastric carcinomas of diffuse type, particularly the signet ring subtype, show ECL cell differentiation, suggesting involvement of gastrin in the carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) causes gastritis and peptic ulcer and when infecting the antrum only, gives a slight hypergastrinemia with acid hypersecretion predisposing to duodenal ulcer, but protecting from gastric cancer. When Hp infection spreads to oxyntic mucosa, it induces atrophy, reduced acid secretion, marked hypergastrinemia and cancer. It is remarkable that the interaction between Hp and gastrin may explain the pathogenesis of most diseases in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Physiologica 11/2013; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastritis leading to hypergastrinemia and predisposes to gastric cancer. Our aim was to assess the role of gastrin in oxyntic mucosal inflammation in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils by means of the gastrin receptor antagonist netazepide (YF476). We studied 60 gerbils for 18 months and left five animals uninfected (control group), inoculated 55 with H. pylori, and treated 28 of the infected animals with netazepide (Hp+YF476 group). Twenty-seven infected animals were given no treatment (Hp group). We measured plasma gastrin and intraluminal pH. H. pylori detection and histologic evaluations of the stomach were carried out. All 55 inoculated animals were H. pylori positive at termination. Eighteen animals in the Hp group had gastritis. There was a threefold increase in mucosal thickness in the Hp group compared to the Hp+YF476 group, and a threefold increase in oxyntic neuroendocrine cells in the Hp group compared to the Hp+YF476 group (p < .05). All animals in the Hp+YF476 group had macro- and microscopically normal findings in the stomach. Plasma gastrin was higher in the Hp group than in the control group (172 ± 16 pmol/L vs 124 ± 5 pmol/L, p < .05) and highest in the Hp+YF476 group (530 ± 36 pmol/L). Intraluminal pH was higher in the Hp group than in the Hp+YF476 group (2.51 vs 2.30, p < .05). The gastrin antagonist netazepide prevents H. pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. Thus, gastrin has a key role in the inflammatory reaction of the gastric mucosa to H. pylori infection in this species.
    Helicobacter 07/2013; · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides may influence the pathogenesis and course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We sought to clarify the role of the antimicrobial glycoprotein lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in the colon by determining its localization and regulation in IBD. Following a microarray gene expression study of colonic biopsies from a large IBD population (n=133), LCN2 was localized using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Moreover, we examined the regulation of LCN2 in HT-29 cells with a panel of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) and sought evidence by immunohistochemistry that the most relevant PRR, the Toll-like receptor TLR3, was indeed expressed in colonic epithelium in IBD.LCN2 was among the ten most upregulated genes in both active ulcerative colitis (UCa) and active Crohn`s disease (CDa) vs healthy controls. LCN2 protein was found in both epithelial cells and infiltrating neutrophils, while mRNA synthesis was located solely to epithelial cells indicating that de novo synthesis and thus regulation of LCN2 as measured in the gene expression analysis takes place in the mucosal epithelial cells. LCN2 is a putative biomarker in feces for intestinal inflammation, different from calprotectin due to its epithelial site of synthesis. LCN2 release from the colonic epithelial cell line HT-29 was enhanced by both IL-1β and the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), and TLR3 was shown to be constitutively expressed in colonic epithelial cells and markedly increased during inflammation.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 05/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Reidar Fossmark, Helge Waldum
    International Journal of Cancer 04/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stomach is innervated by the vagal nerve. Several studies have demonstrated that the vagal nerve has a trophic effect on the rat oxyntic mucosa and that the trophic effect of hypergastrinemia is dependent on intact vagal innervation. The effect of vagal denervation on gastric carcinogenesis has been examined in Mastomys natalensis and hypergastrinemic transgenic INS-GAS mice, with no effect of unilateral vagotomy in Mastomys but an anti-carcinogenic effect in INS-GAS mice. A proportion of female Japanese cotton rats develop spontaneous hypergastrinemia and ECL cell derived gastric carcinomas. In the current study we have examined the effects of unilateral anterior subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on gastric carcinogenesis. Female Japanese cotton rats were operated with unilateral anterior vagotomy or sham-operation at age 2months and were terminated at age 10months. Ten of fifteen animals operated by anterior vagotomy and 11 of 16 sham-operated developed hypergastrinemia. Vagotomy did not affect intragastric pH or serum gastrin. When comparing the anterior and posterior side of the stomachs, vagotomy did not affect the occurrence of dysplasia or carcinoma development in the oxyntic mucosa. However, vagotomy resulted in lower stomach weight and reduced oxyntic mucosal thickness on the anterior side. Vagotomy also resulted in a reduction in volume density of chromogranin A positive cells in the oxyntic mucosa. In conclusion, vagotomy reduced the trophic effects of hypergastrinemia on the ECL cell and oxyntic mucosa, but did not prevent gastric carcinogenesis in female Japanese cotton rats. The effects of vagotomy gastric carcinogenesis in animal models are conflicting and further studies in patients should be done to clarify the clinically significant effects of vagotomy.
    Regulatory Peptides 03/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: Autophagy has dual roles in tumorigenesis: tumor-promoting or tumor-suppressing. The aim of the present study was to examine autophagy-related markers by immunohistochemistry in gastric carcinoids and adenocarcinomas in rodent models and patients. Methods: Gastric carcinoids in Mastomys were induced by loxtidine treatment. Spontaneously developed gastric adenocarcinomas in Japanese cotton rats and INS-GAS transgenic mice were included. Patient tissue samples of gastric carcinoids or adenocarcinomas were collected. Immunohistochemistry was performed against autophagy-related gene protein-6 (ATG-6, also called beclin-1), ATG-5 and ATG-16. Results: In tumor-free Mastomys, ATG-5, ATG-16 and beclin-1 were immunepositive in the gastric mucosa. In tumor-bearing Mastomys, ATG-5 and ATG-16 were negative in the tumors, whereas beclin-1 was positive in four of five animals. In carcinoid patients, ATG-5 was negative in six of ten, ATG-16 negative in nine of ten, and beclin-1 negative in three of ten patients. In cotton rats, ATG-5 and ATG-16 were negative in all tumors. Beclin-1 was negative in three of five rats. In INS-GAS mice, ATG-5 and beclin-1 were positive in the tumor area, but the numbers of immunopositive cells per gland were reduced by about 50% in comparison with wild-type mice. In adenocarcinoma patients, ATG-5 and ATG-16 were negative in eight of ten, and beclin-1 positive in all ten patients. Conclusions: An impaired autophagy took place at the stage of formation of ATG-5-ATG-12-ATG-16 complex in both gastric carcinoids and adenocarcinoma of both rodent models and patients. ATG-5 and ATG-16 might be better markers than beclin-1 in assessing autophagy in these lesions.
    Histology and histopathology 02/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Serotonin is produced in enterochromaffin (EC) cells, taken up and stored in platelets and released during platelet activation. Measurement of platelet-poor plasma serotonin is difficult, mainly due to platelet activation during blood sampling. We aimed to establish a method to assess the influence of platelet release upon platelet-poor plasma serotonin measurement by concomitant determination of serotonin, β-thromboglobulin (β-TG) and chromogranin A (CgA). Methods. Blood samples from patients with thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia and small intestinal neuroendocrine (EC-cell) tumors (SI-NETs) as well as healthy volunteers were analyzed. We also measured serotonin in venous and arterial samples from patients undergoing coronary angiography to evaluate peripheral serotonin metabolism. Results. Serotonin and CgA were significantly higher in patients with SI-NETs compared to all other groups implying EC cell origin of serotonin in patients with SI-NETs. We found that the serotonin concentration was similar in patients with thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia, whereas plasma β-TG was higher and lower respectively. A high EDTA concentration in the sampling tubes gave significantly lower serotonin concentrations. Serotonin concentrations did not differ between arterial and venous blood. Conclusions. Our methodology to measure platelet-poor plasma serotonin was appropriate. Blood platelet numbers did not affect the level of serotonin in contrast to β-TG.
    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 01/2013; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    Reidar Fossmark, Helge Waldum
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Primary (AL) amyloidosis of the gastrointestinal tract is relatively rare, and symptomatic amyloidosis of the stomach is even more seldom. We present the case of a patient who was referred to upper endoscopy because of weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Large areas of intramucosal hemorrhages were seen, and biopsies resulted in profuse bleeding stopped with endoscopic clips. The biopsies showed amyloid depositions and further workup revealed that the patient also had cardiac and neuropathic involvements. The patient started treatment with dexamethasone, melphalan and bortezomib. After treatment was started the nausea and epigastric discomfort improved, and a reduction in the biochemical markers troponin T, NT-proBNP, and M-component was observed. Gastric amyloidosis is rarely seen at upper endoscopy in patients without a previously established diagnosis, but the unusual endoscopic findings and bleeding tendency after biopsy should be kept in mind by gastroenterologists.
    Case reports in gastrointestinal medicine. 01/2013; 2013:525439.
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    ABSTRACT: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), genetic susceptibility together with environmental factors disturbs gut homeostasis producing chronic inflammation. The two main IBD subtypes are Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). We present the to-date largest microarray gene expression study on IBD encompassing both inflamed and un-inflamed colonic tissue. A meta-analysis including all available, comparable data was used to explore important aspects of IBD inflammation, thereby validating consistent gene expression patterns. Colon pinch biopsies from IBD patients were analysed using Illumina whole genome gene expression technology. Differential expression (DE) was identified using LIMMA linear model in the R statistical computing environment. Results were enriched for gene ontology (GO) categories. Sets of genes encoding antimicrobial proteins (AMP) and proteins involved in T helper (Th) cell differentiation were used in the interpretation of the results. All available data sets were analysed using the same methods, and results were compared on a global and focused level as t-scores. Gene expression in inflamed mucosa from UC and CD are remarkably similar. The meta-analysis confirmed this. The patterns of AMP and Th cell-related gene expression were also very similar, except for which was consistently higher expressed in UC than in CD. Un-inflamed tissue from patients demonstrated minimal differences from healthy controls. There is no difference in the Th subgroup involvement between UC and CD. Th1/Th17 related expression, with little Th2 differentiation, dominated both diseases. The different expression between UC and CD suggests an IBD subtype specific role. AMPs, previously little studied, are strongly overexpressed in IBD. The presented meta-analysis provides a sound background for further research on IBD pathobiology.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56818. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic atrophic gastritis have long-term gastric hypoacidity, and secondary hypergastrinaemia. Some also develop gastric ECL cells carcinoids (type 1 GC). Most type 1 GC remain indolent, but some metastasise. Patients undergo surveillance, and some are treated with somatostatin analogues, endoscopic resection or surgery. Netazepide (YF476) is a highly selective, potent and orally active gastrin receptor antagonist, which has anti-tumour activity in various rodent models of gastric neoplasia driven by hypergastrinaemia. Netazepide has been studied in healthy volunteers. AIM: To assess the effect of netazepide on type 1 GC. METHODS: Eight patients with multiple type 1 GC received oral netazepide once daily for 12 weeks, with follow-up at 12 weeks in an open-label, pilot trial. Upper endoscopy was performed at 0, 6, 12 and 24 weeks, and carcinoids were counted and measured. Fasting serum gastrin and chromogranin A (CgA) and safety and tolerability were assessed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 weeks. RESULTS: Netazepide was well tolerated. All patients had a reduction in the number and size of their largest carcinoid. CgA was reduced to normal levels at 3 weeks and remained so until 12 weeks, but had returned to pre-treatment levels at 24 weeks. Gastrin remained unchanged throughout treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The gastrin receptor antagonist netazepide is a promising new medical treatment for type 1 gastric carcinoids, which appear to be gastrin-dependent. Controlled studies and long-term treatment are justified to find out whether netazepide treatment can eradicate type 1 gastric carcinoids.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 10/2012; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion and give hypergastrinemia secondary to gastric hypoacidity. PPI treatment therefore induces enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia. Long-term hypergastrinemia in rodents and man also leads to ECL cell neoplasia. Whether long-term PPI treatment will induce ECL cell neoplasia in man has been disputed. To describe gastric carcinoids in two patients with a history of long-term PPI use. Two patients had been taking PPI for 12-13 years due to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. At routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy a solitary tumour was found in the oxyntic mucosa of both patients. Histology from the tumours showed in both cases a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour. Biopsies from flat oxyntic mucosa showed no signs of atrophic gastritis and a normal presence of parietal cells in both cases, but hyperplasia of ECL cells. The tumour in patient 1 was resected endoscopically. After cessation of PPI treatment the tumour regressed in patient 2 and the ECL cell hyperplasia regressed in both patients. In patient 2 serum gastrin and chromogranin A were elevated during PPI treatment, and normalised after cessation of treatment. In patient 1, unfortunately, we had serum only after treatment, and at that time both parameters were normal. These cases show that hypergastrinemia secondary to proton pump inhibitors treatment, like other causes of hypergastrinemia, may induce enterochromaffin-like cell carcinoids in man.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 08/2012; 36(7):644-9. · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • Helge Lyder Waldum, Oyvind Hauso
    Gut 07/2012; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We explored the gene expression in colonic biopsies of active and inactive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in an extensive material of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 were among the upregulated genes. This study examined the expression of CXCL10 and the mechanisms for its release in patients with UC or CD and in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines. METHODS: A microarray gene expression analysis was done on colonic biopsies (n = 133) from patients with IBD. Biopsies were studied with immunohistochemistry for CXCL10 and CXCR3 expression. Mechanisms for CXCL10 release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in the colonic epithelial cell lines HT-29 and SW620 were studied upon pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation. RESULTS: CXCL10 and CXCR3 mRNA abundances were increased in biopsies from active UC and CD compared to inactive disease and controls. CXCL10 was mainly localized to mucosal epithelial cells, with increased immunostaining in active IBD. CXCR3-positive cells were scattered in the lamina propria. CXCL10 was secreted from the colonic epithelial cell lines in response to the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)). This ligand also induced a marked release of CXCL10 in PBMCs from IBD patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: We identified CXCL10 and CXCR3 as upregulated genes in colonic mucosa in active IBD. The TLR3-ligand poly(I:C) markedly increased release of CXCL10 in colonic epithelial cell lines, suggesting a TLR3-mediated CXCL10 release from mucosal epithelial cells in IBD patients. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012;).
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 06/2012; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In situ hybridization (ISH) is a method that detects and localizes DNA or RNA in morphologically preserved tissue and cell preparations. The method is based on the principle that DNA or RNA will undergo hydrogen binding to complimentary sequences. Selective probes are labeled and used in order to detect specific sequences in tissues or cell preparations. Even though the method has improved over the past decades, there are still issues with sensitivity and specificity. The protocols are nonstandardized, and often time consuming due to multiple steps. In this paper, we have used a new and commercially available ISH kit for the detection of mRNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. We have used both human and Mongolian gerbil tissue, and we evaluated mRNA expression of the neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and histidine decarboxylase in both normal tissue and poorly differentiated tumor. In our experience, this method offers excellent sensitivity and specificity. The protocol is more standardized, and our results have been consistent. It is also less time consuming than conventional ISH protocols.
    Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology: AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry 06/2012; · 1.63 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,068.26 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2014
    • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Nidaros, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway
    • Norwegian University of Technology and Science
      Nidaros, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway
  • 2004–2013
    • NTNU Samfunnsforskning
      Nidaros, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2002–2013
    • St. Olavs Hospital
      • • Department of Gastroenterology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Nidaros, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway
  • 1988–2008
    • Diakonhjemmet Hospital (Norway)
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 2007
    • Universitetet i Tromsø
      • Department of Clinical Medicine (IKM)
      Tromsø, Troms Fylke, Norway
  • 1986–2007
    • University Hospital of North Norway
      Tromsø, Troms, Norway
  • 1989
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Centre for Medical Parasitology
      København, Capital Region, Denmark