[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Chromosome 19 Consortium, a part of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP, http://www.C-HPP.org ), is tasked with the understanding chromosome 19 functions at the gene and protein levels, as well as their roles in lung oncogenesis. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies revealed chromosome aberration in lung cancer subtypes, including ADC, SCC, LCC, and SCLC. The most common abnormality is 19p loss and 19q gain. Sixty-four aberrant genes identified in previous genomic studies and their encoded protein functions were further validated in the neXtProt database ( http://www.nextprot.org/ ). Among those, the loss of tumor suppressor genes STK11, MUM1, KISS1R (19p13.3), and BRG1 (19p13.13) is associated with lung oncogenesis or remote metastasis. Gene aberrations include translocation t(15, 19) (q13, p13.1) fusion oncogene BRD4-NUT, DNA repair genes (ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1), TGFβ1 pathway activation genes (TGFB1, LTBP4), Dyrk1B, and potential oncogenesis protector genes such as NFkB pathway inhibition genes (NFKBIB, PPP1R13L) and EGLN2. In conclusion, neXtProt is an effective resource for the validation of gene aberrations identified in genomic studies. It promises to enhance our understanding of lung cancer oncogenesis.
Cancer and metastasis reviews 05/2015; 34(2). DOI:10.1007/s10555-015-9556-2 · 7.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the utility of integrated strategies that employ both translation of ENCODE data and major proteomic technology pillars to improve the identification of the “missing proteins”, novel proteoforms, and PTMs. On one hand, databases in combination with bioinformatic tools are efficiently utilized to establish microarray-based transcript analysis and supply rapid protein identifications in clinical samples. On the other hand, sequence libraries are the foundation of targeted protein identification and quantification using mass spectrometric and immunoaffinity techniques. The results from combining proteoENCODEdb searches with experimental mass spectral data indicate that some alternative splicing forms detected at the transcript level are in fact translated to proteins. Our results provide a step toward the directives of the C-HPP initiative and related biomedical research.Keywords: Chromosome-centric Human Protein Project; ENCODE; glioma stem cell; protein sequence mass spectrometry; microassays; missing proteins
Journal of Proteome Research 11/2014; 14(2). DOI:10.1021/pr500564q · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni is an important cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis; strategies to prevent infection are hampered by a poor understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen. Previous work showed that C. jejuni could bind human histo-blood group antigens (BgAgs) in vitro and that BgAgs could inhibit the binding of C. jejuni to human intestinal mucosa ex vivo. Here, the major flagella subunit protein (FlaA) and the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were identified as BgAg-binding adhesins in C. jejuni NCTC11168. Significantly, the MOMP was shown to be O-glycosylated at Thr(268); previously only flagellin proteins were known to be O-glycosylated in C. jejuni. Substitution of MOMP Thr(268) led to significantly reduced binding to BgAgs. The O-glycan moiety was characterized as Gal(β1-3)-GalNAc(β1-4)-GalNAc(β1-4)-GalNAcα1-Thr(268); modelling suggested that O-glycosylation has a notable effect on the conformation of MOMP and this modulates BgAg-binding capacity. Glycosylation of MOMP at Thr(268) promoted cell-to-cell binding, biofilm formation and adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and was required for the optimal colonization of chickens by C. jejuni, confirming the significance of this O-glycosylation in pathogenesis.
Open Biology 01/2014; 4(1):130202. DOI:10.1098/rsob.130202 · 5.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Recommendations and outlines for standardization in biobanking processes are presented by a research team with long-term experience in clinical studies. These processes have important bearing on the use of samples in developing assays. These measurements are useful to document states of health and disease that are beneficial for academic research, commercial healthcare, drug development industry and government regulating agencies. There is a need for increasing awareness within proteomic and genomic communities regarding the basic concepts of collecting, storing and utilizing clinical samples. Quality control and sample suitability for analysis need to be documented and validated to ensure data integrity and establish contexts for interpretation of results. Standardized methods in proteomics and genomics are required to be practiced throughout the community allowing datasets to be comparable and shared for analysis. For example, sample processing of thousands of clinical samples, performed in 384 high-density sample tube systems in a fully automated workflow, preserves sample content and is presented showing validation criteria. Large studies will be accompanied by biological and molecular information with corresponding clinical records from patients and healthy donors. These developments position biobanks of human patient samples as an increasingly recognized major asset in disease research, future drug development and within patient care.
The current manuscript is of major relevance to the proteomic and genomic fields, as it outlines the standardization aspects of biobanking and the requirements that are needed to run future clinical studies that will benefit the patients where OMICS science will play a major role. A global view of the field is given where best practice and conventional acceptances are presented along with ongoing large-scale biobanking projects. The authors represent broadly stakeholders that cover the academic, pharma, biotech and healthcare fields with extensive experience and deliveries. This contribution will be a milestone paper to the proteomic and genomic scientists to present data in the future that will have impact to the life science area. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Standardization and Quality Control in Proteomics.
Journal of proteomics 07/2013; 95. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2013.06.035 · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A first research development progress report of the Chromosome 19 Consortium with members from Sweden, Norway, Spain, United States, China and India, a part of the Chromosome-centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) global initiative, is presented ( http://www.c-hpp.org ). From the chromosome 19 peptide-targeted library constituting 6159 peptides, a pilot study was conducted using a subset with 125 isotope-labeled peptides. We applied an annotation strategy with triple quadrupole, ESI-Qtrap, and MALDI mass spectrometry platforms, comparing the quality of data within and in between these instrumental set-ups. LC-MS conditions were outlined by multiplex assay developments, followed by MRM assay developments. SRM was applied to biobank samples, quantifying kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) in plasma from prostate cancer patients. The antibody production has been initiated for more than 1200 genes from the entire chromosome 19, and the progress developments are presented. We developed a dedicated transcript microarray to serve as the mRNA identifier by screening cancer cell lines. NAPPA protein arrays were built to align with the transcript data with the Chromosome 19 NAPPA chip, dedicated to 90 proteins, as the first development delivery. We have introduced an IT-infrastructure utilizing a LIMS system that serves as the key interface for the research teams to share and explore data generated within the project. The cross-site data repository will form the basis for sample processing, including biological samples as well as patient samples from national Biobanks.
Journal of Proteome Research 12/2012; 12(1). DOI:10.1021/pr3008607 · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the alarming expansion in the diversity and occurrence of bacteria displaying virulence and resistance to antimicrobial agents, it is increasingly important to be able to detect these microorganisms and to differentiate and identify closely related species, as well as different strains of a given species. In this study, a mass spectrometry proteomics approach is applied, exploiting lipid-based protein immobilization (LPI), wherein intact bacterial cells are bound, via membrane-gold interactions, within a FlowCell. The bound cells are subjected to enzymatic digestion for the generation of peptides, which are subsequently identified, using LC-MS. Following database matching, strain-specific peptides are used for subspecies-level discrimination. The method is shown to enable a reliable typing and identification of closely related strains of the same bacterial species, herein illustrated for Helicobacter pylori .
Journal of Proteome Research 05/2012; 11(5):2710-2720. DOI:10.1021/pr2010633 · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used and clinically valuable marker for prostate disease. In order to enable the development of new PSA assays and progress the understanding of the biology of PSA we have analyzed PSA in seminal plasma.
PSA in seminal plasma from men attending a fertility clinic and healthy controls was analyzed using SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and mass spectrometry.
Using mass spectrometry, different forms of PSA could be identified in 1-9 bands seen on SDS-PAGE analysis of the respective sample. However, a majority of these molecular forms of PSA were not observed on Western blots. Enzymatic activity of PSA isoforms was demonstrated by sequencing data in zymogram gels. Multivariate analysis of clinical data revealed well-separated patient groups.
We demonstrated that PSA in seminal plasma occurs in several isoforms, yet not all were detectable using an antibody based clinical routine method. The heterogeneity of PSA expression might be of clinical significance, by an improved patient phenotyping.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteomic studies of respiratory disorders have the potential to identify protein biomarkers for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Utilisation of sensitive quantitative proteomic methods creates opportunities to determine individual patient proteomes. The aim of the current study was to determine if quantitative proteomics of bronchial biopsies from asthmatics can distinguish relevant biological functions and whether inhaled glucocorticoid treatment affects these functions.
Endobronchial biopsies were taken from untreated asthmatic patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 3). Asthmatic patients were randomised to double blind treatment with either placebo or budesonide (800 μg daily for 3 months) and new biopsies were obtained. Proteins extracted from the biopsies were digested and analysed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with a nanoLC-LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Spectra obtained were used to identify and quantify proteins. Pathways analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify significant biological pathways in asthma and determine how the expression of these pathways was changed by treatment.
More than 1800 proteins were identified and quantified in the bronchial biopsies of subjects. The pathway analysis revealed acute phase response signalling, cell-to-cell signalling and tissue development associations with proteins expressed in asthmatics compared to controls. The functions and pathways associated with placebo and budesonide treatment showed distinct differences, including the decreased association with acute phase proteins as a result of budesonide treatment compared to placebo.
Proteomic analysis of bronchial biopsy material can be used to identify and quantify proteins using highly sensitive technologies, without the need for pooling of samples from several patients. Distinct pathophysiological features of asthma can be identified using this approach and the expression of these features is changed by inhaled glucocorticoid treatment. Quantitative proteomics may be applied to identify mechanisms of disease that may assist in the accurate and timely diagnosis of asthma.
ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01378039.
Respiratory research 09/2011; 12(1):124. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-12-124 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate specific antigen (PSA), as a widely used clinical biomarker in prostate cancer diagnostics, exists in multiple molecular forms. However, all of these forms might not be recognized in a given sample by the standard immunoassays. Therefore, we have investigated PSA isoforms, separated by size, using mass spectrometric analyses. The objective of these developments was to identify and specify the various forms of PSA. To optimize successful identification of different PSA forms, we have developed a bioinformatic strategy, consisting of high resolution MALDI-MS PMF and sequencing MS/MS data searches. To improve sequence-based identification, the recently introduced Proteios software environment was employed, allowing the combination of multiple database search engines in an automated manner. We could unambiguously identify PSA in clinical samples by all detectable tryptic peptides, which were found to be common in several isoforms.
Journal of proteomics 06/2011; 75(1):202-10. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2011.06.008 · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a method to enrich for glycoproteins from proteomic samples. Sialylated glycoproteins were selectively periodate-oxidized, captured on hydrazide beads, trypsinized and released by acid hydrolysis of sialic acid glycosidic bonds. Mass spectrometric fragment analysis allowed identification of glycan structures, and additional fragmentation of deglycosylated ions yielded peptide sequence information, which allowed glycan attachment site and protein identification. We identified 36 N-linked and 44 O-linked glycosylation sites on glycoproteins from human cerebrospinal fluid.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a test sample study to try to identify errors leading to irreproducibility, including incompleteness of peptide sampling, in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We distributed an equimolar test sample, comprising 20 highly purified recombinant human proteins, to 27 laboratories. Each protein contained one or more unique tryptic peptides of 1,250 Da to test for ion selection and sampling in the mass spectrometer. Of the 27 labs, members of only 7 labs initially reported all 20 proteins correctly, and members of only 1 lab reported all tryptic peptides of 1,250 Da. Centralized analysis of the raw data, however, revealed that all 20 proteins and most of the 1,250 Da peptides had been detected in all 27 labs. Our centralized analysis determined missed identifications (false negatives), environmental contamination, database matching and curation of protein identifications as sources of problems. Improved search engines and databases are needed for mass spectrometry-based proteomics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of the important role of membrane proteins in adhesion, invasion, and intracellular survival of pathogens in the host, membrane proteins are of potential interest in the search for drug targets or biomarkers. We have established a mass spectrometry-based method that allows characterization of the outer membrane protein (OMP) profile of clinical isolates from of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Subcellular fractionation and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1D-GE) analysis was combined with nano-liquid chromatography Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (nano-LC FT-ICR MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of fifteen H. pylori strains associated either with duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer, or isolated from asymptomatic H. pylori infected carriers. Over 60 unique membrane or membrane-associated proteins, including 30 of the 33 theoretically predicted OMPs, were identified from the strains. Several membrane proteins, including Omp11 and BabA, were found to be expressed by all strains. In the search for clinical markers we found that Omp26 was expressed by all disease-related strains but was only present in one out of five strains from asymptomatic carriers, which makes Omp26 a potential target for further investigation in the search for proteins unique to disease-related H. pylori strains. In addition, presence of Omp30 and absence of Omp6 seemed to be associated with H. pylori strains causing duodenal ulcer.
Journal of Proteome Research 12/2006; 5(11):3197-204. DOI:10.1021/pr060181p · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori can give rise to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. All H. pylori strains express the surface-localized protein HpaA, a promising candidate for a vaccine against H. pylori infection. To study the physiological importance of HpaA, a mutation of the hpaA gene was introduced into a mouse-adapted H. pylori strain. To justify that the interruption of the hpaA gene did not cause any polar effects of downstream genes or was associated with a second site mutation, the protein expression patterns of the mutant and wild-type strains were characterized by two different proteomic approaches. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis of whole-cell extracts and subcellular fractionation combined with nano-liquid chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for outer membrane protein profiling revealed only minor differences in the protein profile between the mutant and the wild-type strains. Therefore, the mutant strain was tested for its colonizing ability in a well-established mouse model. While inoculation with the wild-type strain resulted in heavily H. pylori-infected mice, the HpaA mutant strain was not able to establish colonization. Thus, by combining proteomic analysis and in vivo studies, we conclude that HpaA is essential for the colonization of H. pylori in mice.
Infection and Immunity 03/2006; 74(2):920-6. DOI:10.1128/IAI.74.2.920-926.2006 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical cross-linking of proteins is a well-established method for structural mapping of small protein complexes. When combined with mass spectrometry, cross-linking can reveal protein topology and identify contact sites between the peptide surfaces. When applied to surface-exposed proteins from pathogenic organisms, the method can reveal structural details that are useful in vaccine design. In order to investigate the possibilities of applying cross-linking on larger protein complexes, we selected the urease enzyme from Helicobacter pylori as a model. This membrane-associated protein complex consists of two subunits: [alpha] (26.5 kDa) and [beta] (61.7 kDa). Three ([alpha][beta]) heterodimers form a trimeric ([alpha][beta])3 assembly which further associates into a unique dodecameric 1.1 MDa complex composed of four ([alpha][beta])3 units. Cross-linked peptides from trypsin-digested urease complex were analyzed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and molecular modeling. Two potential cross-linked peptides (present in the cross-linked sample but undetectable in [alpha], [beta], and native complex) were assigned. Molecular modeling of urease [alpha][beta] complex and trimeric urease units ([alpha][beta])3 revealed a linkage site between the [alpha]-subunit and the [beta]-subunit, and an internal cross-linkage in the [beta]-subunit.
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 05/2004; 234(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijms.2004.02.021 · 1.97 Impact Factor