ABSTRACT: Hydronephrosis (HN) and obstruction are closely associated, but upper urinary tract dilatation can occur without significant obstruction. Despite some pitfalls, conventional ultrasonography and diuretic renography (DR) are the main means of evaluation of HN in children. Recent reports have demonstrated color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) to reliably identify ureteric jets in the bladder. The aim of this study was to evaluate this method as a diagnostic tool to distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive dilatations of the upper tract.
We evaluated 51 patients (37 boys and 14 girls), aged 3 months to 14 years (median 4 years), who presented with unilateral grade III and IV hydronephrosis with suspicion of pyeloureteral junction obstruction. All patients underwent DR and evaluation of ureteric jets by transverse CDSG of the bladder within a maximum of 2 weeks. Obstruction was considered in the DR when the hydronephrotic unit showed a differential renal function of less than 40%, or when symptomatic intermittent renal colic was present in older children. The number of ureteric jets was counted over a 5-min period and the frequency calculated for each ureteral orifice. Relative jet frequency (RJF) was defined as frequency of the hydronephrotic side divided by total ureteric jet frequency. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) plots were constructed to determine the best cut-off for RJF, in order to identify renal units with obstructive hydronephrosis.
Twenty-three (45.1%) hydronephrotic units were considered obstructed. The mean RJF differed between obstructive (0.09+/-0.15) and non-obstructive hydronephrosis (0.42+/-0.11) (p<0.001). ROC analysis revealed that RJF <0.25 was the best threshold, and correctly discriminated obstruction in 91.2% of the children with a sensitivity of 87% (95% CI 78.6-98.2%) and specificity of 96.4% (95% CI 87.8-99%). The positive likelihood ratio was 24.3 and the area under the ROC curve was 0.92 (95% CI 0.86-0.98).
RJF <25% was found to be a good indicator of obstruction in children with unilateral hydronephrosis. CDUS evaluation of ureteric jets is an easy and non-invasive method that can be used as an initial diagnostic tool, and in follow-up cases, to differentiate obstructed from non-obstructed hydronephrosis in the pediatric population.
Journal of pediatric urology 04/2008; 4(2):113-7. · 1.38 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is the method most commonly used in men for voluntary sterilization purposes. We report two cases of early recanalization following vasectomies performed in 1085 men for sterilization purposes at a tertiary public institution between January 2000 and November 2003. Thus, the risk of 0.2% of failure due to early recanalization should be explained and the fertility implications stressed. Written documentation recording the clarification presented at consultation is essential.
TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 02/2006; 6:2366-9. · 1.66 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To report a case of bilateral giant renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis, with successful treatment, and to review the literature concerning angiomyolipoma treatment.
Patient with tuberous sclerosis and angiomyolipoma diagnosed by ultrasonography during her pregnancy. At that time, the angiomyolipoma on the right side was 9 cm in diameter. Conservative management was selected during her pregnancy. The patient returned 7 years later, with a 24.7 x 19.2 x 10.7 cm tumor on the right side and another of 13 x 11.5 x 6.5 cm on the left side, in addition to multiple small angiomyolipomas. A nephron-sparing surgery with tumoral enucleation was performed on the right side, and after 3 months, the tumor on the left side was removed. Renal function in the post-operative period was preserved, and contrast medium progression was uniform and adequate in both kidneys.
We conclude that an angiomyolipoma larger than 4 cm should be removed surgically, since they have a greater growth rate and pose a risk of hemorrhage. Resection of smaller tumors is safe and has decreased morbidity. Tumoral enucleation is an effective treatment method that preserves kidney function.
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas 58(2):103-8.