[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene expression signatures relating mammary stem cell populations to breast cancers have focused on adult tissue. Here, we identify, isolate, and characterize the fetal mammary stem cell (fMaSC) state since the invasive and proliferative processes of mammogenesis resemble phases of cancer progression. fMaSC frequency peaks late in embryogenesis, enabling more extensive stem cell purification than achieved with adult tissue. fMaSCs are self-renewing, multipotent, and coexpress multiple mammary lineage markers. Gene expression, transplantation, and in vitro analyses reveal putative autocrine and paracrine regulatory mechanisms, including ErbB and FGF signaling pathways impinging on fMaSC growth. Expression profiles from fMaSCs and associated stroma exhibit significant similarities to basal-like and Her2+ intrinsic breast cancer subtypes. Our results reveal links between development and cancer and provide resources to identify new candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell cycle regulation in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is tightly controlled during homeostasis and in response to extrinsic stress. p53, a well-known tumor suppressor and transducer of diverse stress signals, has been implicated in maintaining HSC quiescence and self-renewal. However, the mechanisms that control its activity in HSCs, and how p53 activity contributes to HSC cell cycle control, are poorly understood. Here, we use a genetically engineered mouse to show that p53 C-terminal modification is critical for controlling HSC abundance during homeostasis and HSC and progenitor proliferation after irradiation. Preventing p53 C-terminal modification renders mice exquisitely radiosensitive due to defects in HSC/progenitor proliferation, a critical determinant for restoring hematopoiesis after irradiation. We show that fine-tuning the expression levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, a p53 target gene, contributes significantly to p53-mediated effects on the hematopoietic system. These results have implications for understanding cell competition in response to stresses involved in stem cell transplantation, recovery from adverse hematologic effects of DNA-damaging cancer therapies, and development of radioprotection strategies.
Genes & development 07/2011; 25(13):1426-38. · 12.08 Impact Factor