Craig Hooper

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Атланта, Michigan, United States

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Publications (10)57.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Clinical and animal studies indicate that transfusions of older stored red blood cells (RBCs) impair clinical outcomes as compared to fresh RBC transfusions. It has been suggested that this effect is due to inhibition of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation after transfusion of older RBC units. However, to date this effect has not been identified in human transfusion recipients. Forty-three hospitalized patients with transfusion orders were randomly assigned to receive either fresh (<14 days) or older stored (>21 days) RBC units. Before transfusion, and at selected time points after the start of transfusion, endothelial function was assessed using noninvasive flow-mediated dilation assays. After transfusion of older RBC units, there was a significant reduction in NO-mediated vasodilation at 24 hours after transfusion (p = 0.045), while fresh RBC transfusions had no effect (p = 0.231). This study suggests for the first time a significant inhibitory effect of transfused RBC units stored more than 21 days on NO-mediated vasodilation in anemic hospitalized patients. This finding lends further support to the hypothesis that deranged NO signaling mediates adverse clinical effects of older RBC transfusions. Future investigations will be necessary to address possible confounding factors and confirm these results.
    Transfusion 11/2014; 55(4). DOI:10.1111/trf.12919 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Stromal derived factor-1α/CXCL12 is a chemoattractant responsible for homing of progenitor cells to ischemic tissues. We aimed to investigate the association of plasma CXCL12 with long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: 785 patients aged: 63 ± 12 undergoing coronary angiography were independently enrolled into discovery (N = 186) and replication (N = 599) cohorts. Baseline levels of plasma CXCL12 were measured using Quantikine CXCL12 ELISA assay (R&D systems). Patients were followed for cardiovascular death and/or myocardial infarction (MI) for a mean of 2.6 yrs. Cox proportional hazard was used to determine independent predictors of cardiovascular death/MI. Results: The incidence of cardiovascular death/MI was 13% (N = 99). High CXCL12 level based on best discriminatory threshold derived from the ROC analysis predicted risk of cardiovascular death/MI (HR = 4.81, p = 1 × 10(-6)) independent of traditional risk factors in the pooled cohort. Addition of CXCL12 to a baseline model was associated with a significant improvement in c-statistic (AUC: 0.67-0.73, p = 0.03). Addition of CXCL12 was associated with correct risk reclassification of 40% of events and 10.5% of non-events. Similarly for the outcome of cardiovascular death, the addition of the CXCL12 to the baseline model was associated with correct reclassification of 20.7% of events and 9% of non-events. These results were replicated in two independent cohorts. Conclusion: Plasma CXCL12 level is a strong independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CAD and improves risk reclassification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Atherosclerosis 10/2014; 238(1):113-118. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.10.094 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(12_S):. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(14)60069-3; 04/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background Background | Methods | Results | Conclusion We have shown that levels of circulating progenitor cells (PCs) predict future outcomes in patients with CAD. SDF-1a is a biomarker responsible for homing of PCs to ischemic tissues. We investigated the relationship between circulating levels of SDF1a and PCs and whether they enhance prediction of outcomes. Methods Background | Methods | Results | Conclusion 479 patients (age: 63±13 yrs.) undergoing coronary angiography were followed for mean 1.1 yrs. for incident cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (MI). Baseline levels of plasma SDF-1a were measured using ELISA (R&D systems). Flow cytometry was used to enumerate CD34+/CD133+ cells in CD45med mononuclear cells. Cox regression was used to determine predictors of outcome. Results Background | Methods | Results | Conclusion Death/MI occurred in 7.5% (n=36). SDF- 1a level did not correlate with CD34+/CD133+ cells (p=0.25). Both high SDF-1a level (>2679 ng/ml) and low CD34+/CD133+ levels (< 0.478 cells/μl) predicted risk of death/MI independent of other risk factors (HR: 3.4, p=0.005 and HR: 2.5, p=0.02, respectively). A composite risk score of SDF-1a and PC levels predicted risk of death/MI; thus, compared to those with low SDF-1a/high PCs, the hazard ratio was 8.5 (p=0.001) and 3.4 (p=0.04) for those with high SDF-1 a/low PCs and high SDF-1a/high PCs, respectively. The addition of the score to a model with traditional risk factors significantly improved discrimination (AUC: 0.70-0.78, p=0.03). Conclusion Background | Methods | Results | Conclusion A composite risk score of SDF-1a and PC levels significantly predicts risk of major outcomes in patients with CAD.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology; 04/2014
  • Am Heart Assoc; 11/2013
  • American Heart Association; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this study was to elucidate mechanisms underlying the link between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease by exploring the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D), an established marker of vitamin D status, and vascular function in healthy adults. Mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-mediated increased risk of cardiovascular disease remain unknown. Vitamin D influences endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, mediates inflammation, and modulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. We investigated the relationship between vitamin D status and vascular function in humans, with the hypothesis that vitamin D insufficiency will be associated with increased arterial stiffness and abnormal vascular function. We measured serum 25-OH D in 554 subjects. Endothelial function was assessed as brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, and microvascular function was assessed as digital reactive hyperemia index. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and radial tonometry-derived central augmentation index and subendocardial viability ratio were measured to assess arterial stiffness. Mean 25-OH D was 31.8 ± 14 ng/ml. After adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and medication use, 25-OH D remained independently associated with flow-mediated vasodilation (β = 0.1, p = 0.03), reactive hyperemia index (β = 0.23, p < 0.001), pulse wave velocity (β = -0.09, p = 0.04), augmentation index (β = -0.11, p = 0.03), and subendocardial viability ratio (β = 0.18, p = 0.001). In 42 subjects with vitamin D insufficiency, normalization of 25-OH D at 6 months was associated with increases in reactive hyperemia index (0.38 ± 0.14, p = 0.009) and subendocardial viability ratio (7.7 ± 3.1, p = 0.04), and a decrease in mean arterial pressure (4.6 ± 2.3 mm Hg, p = 0.02). Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in the conductance and resistance blood vessels in humans, irrespective of traditional risk burden. Our findings provide impetus for larger trials to assess the effects of vitamin D therapy in cardiovascular disease.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2011; 58(2):186-92. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.02.051 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration is inversely associated with peripheral arterial disease and hypertension. Vascular remodeling may play a role in this association, however, data relating vitamin D level to specific remodeling biomarkers among ESRD patients is sparse. We tested whether 25(OH)D concentration is associated with markers of vascular remodeling and inflammation in African American ESRD patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study among ESRD patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis within Emory University-affiliated outpatient hemodialysis units. Demographic, clinical and dialysis treatment data were collected via direct patient interview and review of patients records at the time of enrollment, and each patient gave blood samples. Associations between 25(OH)D and biomarker concentrations were estimated in univariate analyses using Pearson's correlation coefficients and in multivariate analyses using linear regression models. 25(OH) D concentration was entered in multivariate linear regression models as a continuous variable and binary variable (<15 ng/ml and ≥15 ng/ml). Adjusted estimate concentrations of biomarkers were compared between 25(OH) D groups using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, results were stratified by vascular access type. Among 91 patients, mean (standard deviation) 25(OH)D concentration was 18.8 (9.6) ng/ml, and was low (<15 ng/ml) in 43% of patients. In univariate analyses, low 25(OH) D was associated with lower serum calcium, higher serum phosphorus, and higher LDL concentrations. 25(OH) D concentration was inversely correlated with MMP-9 concentration (r = -0.29, p = 0.004). In multivariate analyses, MMP-9 concentration remained negatively associated with 25(OH) D concentration (P = 0.03) and anti-inflammatory IL-10 concentration positively correlated with 25(OH) D concentration (P = 0.04). Plasma MMP-9 and circulating 25(OH) D concentrations are significantly and inversely associated among ESRD patients. This finding may suggest a potential mechanism by which low circulating 25(OH) D functions as a cardiovascular risk factor.
    BMC Nephrology 05/2011; 12:24. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-12-24 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2010; 55(10). DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(10)61786-X · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) is a cofactor for the nitric oxide (NO) synthase enzymes, such that its insufficiency results in uncoupling of the enzyme, leading to release of superoxide rather than NO in disease states, including hypertension. We hypothesized that oral BH(4) will reduce arterial blood pressure (BP) and improve endothelial function in hypertensive subjects. Oral BH(4) was given to subjects with poorly controlled hypertension (BP >135/85 mm Hg) and weekly measurements of BP and endothelial function made. In Study 1, 5 or 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) of BH(4) (n=8) was administered orally for 8 weeks, and in Study 2, 200 and 400 mg of BH(4) (n=16) was given in divided doses for 4 weeks. Study 1: significant reductions in systolic (P=0.005) and mean BP (P=0.01) were observed with both doses of BH(4). Systolic BP was 15+/-15 mm Hg (P=0.04) lower after 5 weeks and persisted for the 8-week study period. Study 2: subjects given 400 mg BH(4) had decreased systolic (P=0.03) and mean BP (P=0.04), with a peak decline of 16+/-19 mm Hg (P=0.04) at 3 weeks. BP returned to baseline 4 weeks after discontinuation. Significant improvement in endothelial function was observed in Study 1 subjects and those receiving 400 mg BH(4). There was no significant change in subjects given the 200 mg dose. This pilot investigation indicates that oral BH(4) at a daily dose of 400 mg or higher has a significant and sustained antihypertensive effect in subjects with poorly controlled hypertension, an effect that is associated with improved endothelial NO bioavailability.
    Journal of Human Hypertension 07/2008; 22(6):401-7. DOI:10.1038/sj.jhh.1002329 · 2.69 Impact Factor