Bryan L Roth

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (395)2568.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of cellular signaling and are important targets of drug action. Of the approximately 350 nonolfactory human GPCRs, more than 100 are still considered to be 'orphans' because their endogenous ligands remain unknown. Here, we describe a unique open-source resource that allows interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome via a G protein-independent β-arrestin-recruitment assay. We validate this unique platform at more than 120 nonorphan human GPCR targets, demonstrate its utility for discovering new ligands for orphan human GPCRs and describe a method (parallel receptorome expression and screening via transcriptional output, with transcriptional activation following arrestin translocation (PRESTO-Tango)) for the simultaneous and parallel interrogation of the entire human nonolfactory GPCRome.
    Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/nsmb.3014 · 11.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The OPRM1 A118G polymorphism is the most widely studied μ-opioid receptor (MOR) variant. Although its involvement in acute alcohol effects is well characterized, less is known about the extent to which it alters responses to opioids. Prior work has shown that both electrophysiological and analgesic responses to morphine but not to fentanyl are moderated by OPRM1 A118G variation, but the mechanism behind this dissociation is not known. Here, we found that humanized mice carrying the 118GG allele (h/mOPRM1-118GG) were less sensitive than h/mOPRM1-118AA littermates to the rewarding effects of morphine and hydrocodone but not those of other opioids measured with intracranial self-stimulation. Reduced morphine reward in 118GG mice was associated with decreased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and reduced effects on GABA release in the ventral tegmental area that were not due to changes in drug potency or efficacy in vitro or receptor binding affinity. Fewer MOR binding sites were observed in h/mOPRM1-118GG mice, and pharmacological reduction of MOR availability unmasked genotypic differences in fentanyl sensitivity. These findings suggest that the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism decreases sensitivity to low potency agonists by decreasing receptor reserve without significantly altering receptor function.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 16 April 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.109.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 04/2015; DOI:10.1038/npp.2015.109 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neural function within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulates normal cognition, attention and impulse control, implicating neuroregulatory abnormalities within this region in mental dysfunction related to schizophrenia, depression and drug abuse. Both serotonin -2A (5-HT2A) and -2C (5-HT2C) receptors are known to be important in neuropsychiatric drug action and are distributed throughout the mPFC. However, their interactive role in serotonergic cortical regulation is poorly understood. While the main signal transduction mechanism for both receptors is stimulation of phosphoinositide production, they can have opposite effects downstream. 5-HT2A versus 5-HT2C receptor activation oppositely regulates behavior and can oppositely affect neurochemical release within the mPFC. These distinct receptor effects could be caused by their differential cellular distribution within the cortex and/or other areas. It is known that both receptors are located on GABAergic and pyramidal cells within the mPFC, but it is not clear whether they are expressed on the same or different cells. The present work employed immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy to examine this in layers V-VI of the prelimbic mPFC. The majority of GABA cells in the deep prelimbic mPFC expressed 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactivity. Furthermore, most cells expressing 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactivity notably co-expressed 5-HT2A receptors. However, 27% of 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactive cells were not GABAergic, indicating that a population of prelimbic pyramidal projection cells could express the 5-HT2C receptor. Indeed, some cells with 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptor co-labeling had a pyramidal shape and were expressed in the typical layered fashion of pyramidal cells. This indirectly demonstrates that 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors may be commonly co-expressed on GABAergic cells within the deep layers of the prelimbic mPFC and perhaps co-localized on a small population of local pyramidal projection cells. Thus a complex interplay of cortical 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor mechanisms exists, which if altered, could modulate efferent brain systems implicated in mental illness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience 03/2015; 297. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.03.050 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bifunctional μ- and δ-opioid receptor (OR) ligands are potential therapeutic alternatives, with diminished side effects, to alkaloid opiate analgesics. We solved the structure of human δ-OR bound to the bifunctional δ-OR antagonist and μ-OR agonist tetrapeptide H-Dmt-Tic-Phe-Phe-NH2 (DIPP-NH2) by serial femtosecond crystallography, revealing a cis-peptide bond between H-Dmt and Tic. The observed receptor-peptide interactions are critical for understanding of the pharmacological profiles of opioid peptides and for development of improved analgesics.
    Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/nsmb.2965 · 11.63 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: HDACI 59 A
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of a new series of compounds that are potent, selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists is described herein, as we continue our efforts to optimize the 2-phenylcyclopropylmethylamine scaffold. Modifications focused on the alkoxyl substituent present on the aromatic ring led to the identification of improved ligands with better potency at the 5-HT2C receptor and excellent selectivity against the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors. ADMET studies coupled with a behavioral test using the amphetamine-induced hyperactivity model identified four compounds possessing drug-like profiles and having antipsychotic properties. Compound (+)-16b, which displayed an EC50 of 4.2 nM at 5-HT2C, no activity at 5-HT2B, and an 89-fold selectivity against 5-HT2A, is one of the most potent and selective 5-HT2C agonists reported to date. The likely binding mode of this series of compounds to the 5-HT2C receptor was also investigated in a modeling study, using optimized models incorporating the structures of β2-adrenergic receptor and 5-HT2B receptor.
  • John D McCorvy, Bryan L Roth
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin receptors are prevalent throughout the nervous system and the periphery, and remain one of the most lucrative and promising drug discovery targets for disorders ranging from migraine headaches to neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. There are 14 distinct serotonin receptors, of which 13 are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are targets for approximately 40% of the approved medicines. Recent crystallographic and biochemical evidence has provided a converging understanding of the basic structure and functional mechanics of GPCR activation. Currently, two GPCR crystal structures exist for the serotonin family, the 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptor, with the antimigraine and valvulopathic drug ergotamine bound. The first serotonin crystal structures not only provide the first evidence of serotonin receptor topography but also provide mechanistic explanations into functional selectivity or biased agonism. This review will detail the findings of these crystal structures from a molecular and mutagenesis perspective for driving rational drug design for novel therapeutics incorporating biased signaling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2015.01.009 · 7.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, two independent technologies have emerged and been widely adopted by the neuroscience community for remotely controlling neuronal activity: optogenetics which utilize engineered channelrhodopsin and other opsins, and chemogenetics which utilize engineered G protein-coupled receptors (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)) and other orthologous ligand-receptor pairs. Using directed molecular evolution, two types of DREADDs derived from human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been developed: hM3Dq which activates neuronal firing, and hM4Di which inhibits neuronal firing. Importantly, these DREADDs were not activated by the native ligand acetylcholine, but selectively activated by clozapine N-oxide (CNO), a pharmacologically inert ligand. CNO has been used extensively in rodent models to activate DREADDs and although CNO is not subject to significant metabolic transformation in mice, a small fraction of CNO is apparently metabolized to clozapine in humans and guinea pigs, lessening the translational potential of DREADDs. To effectively translate the DREADD technology, the next generation of DREADD agonists are needed and a thorough understanding of structure - activity relationships (SAR) of DREADDs is required for developing such ligands. We therefore conducted the first SAR studies of hM3Dq. We explored multiple regions of the scaffold represented by CNO, identified interesting SAR trends, and discovered several compounds that are very potent hM3Dq agonists but do not activate the native human M3 receptor (hM3). We also discovered that the approved drug perlapine is a novel hM3Dq agonist with >10,000-fold selectivity for hM3Dq over hM3.
    ACS Chemical Neuroscience 01/2015; 6(3). DOI:10.1021/cn500325v · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TLQP-21, a VGF-encoded peptide is emerging as a novel target for obesity-associated disorders. TLQP-21 is found in the sympathetic nerve terminals in the adipose tissue and targets the G-protein-coupled receptor complement-3a receptor1 (C3aR1). The mechanisms of TLQP-21-induced receptor activation remain unexplored. Here, we report that TLQP-21 is intrinsically disordered and undergoes a disorder-to-order transition, adopting an α-helical conformation upon targeting cells expressing the C3aR1. We determined that the hot spots for TLQP-21 are located at the C terminus, with mutations in the last four amino acids progressively reducing the bioactivity and, a single site mutation (R21A) or C-terminal amidation abolishing its function completely. Additionally, the human TLQP-21 sequence carrying a S20A substitution activates the human C3aR1 receptor with lower potency compared to the rodent sequence. These studies reveal the mechanism of action of TLQP-21 and provide molecular templates for designing agonists and antagonists to modulate C3aR1 functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hu Zhu, Bryan L Roth
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, we created a family of engineered G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) called DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs) which can precisely control three major GPCR signaling pathways (Gq, Gi and Gs). DREADD technology has been successfully applied in a variety of in vivo studies to control GPCR signaling, and here we describe recent advances of DREADD technology, and discuss its potential application in drug discovery, gene therapy and tissue engineering. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
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    ABSTRACT: The hypothesis that functionally selective GPCR agonists may have enhanced therapeutic benefits has revitalized interest for many GPCR targets. In particular, although κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists are analgesic with a low risk of dependence and abuse, their utility is limited by a propensity to induce sedation, motor incoordination, hallucinations and dysphoria-like states. Several labs have produced a body of work implying that G-protein biased KOR agonists might be analgesic with fewer side-effects. Although this has been an intriguing hypothesis, suitably KOR selective and G-protein biased agonists have not been available to test this idea. Here we provide data using a G-protein biased agonist RB-64 which suggests that KOR-mediated G protein signaling induces analgesia and aversion, whereas β-arrestin 2 signaling may be associated with motor incoordination. Additionally, unlike unbiased KOR agonists, the G protein-biased ligand RB 64 does not induce sedation and does not have anhedonia-like actions, suggesting that a mechanism other than G protein signaling mediates these effects. Our findings provide the first evidence with a highly selective and G-protein biased tool compound that many, but not all, of the negative side effects of KOR agonists can be minimized by creating G protein biased KOR agonists.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2014; DOI:10.1124/jpet.114.216820 · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Daniel J Urban, Bryan L Roth
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decade, emerging synthetic biology technologies such as chemogenetics have dramatically transformed how pharmacologists and systems biologists deconstruct the involvement of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in a myriad of physiological and translational settings. Here we highlight a specific chemogenetic application that extends the utility of the concept of RASSLs (receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands): We have dubbed it DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs). As we show in this review, DREADDs are now used ubiquitously to modulate GPCR activity noninvasively in vivo. Results from these studies have directly implicated GPCR signaling in a large number of therapeutically relevant contexts. We also highlight recent applications of DREADD technology that have illuminated GPCR signaling processes that control pathways relevant to the treatment of eating disorders, obesity, and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities. Additionally, we provide an overview of the potential utility of chemogenetic technologies for transformative therapeutics. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 55 is January 06, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Pharmacology 09/2014; 55(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010814-124803 · 18.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neoclerodane diterpenoid salvinorin A is a major secondary metabolite isolated from the psychoactive plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A has been shown to have high affinity and selectivity for the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). To study the ligand-receptor interactions that occur between salvinorin A and the KOR, a new series of salvinorin A derivatives bearing potentially reactive Michael acceptor functional groups at C-2 was synthesized and used to probe the salvinorin A binding site. The κ-, δ-, and μ-opioid receptor (KOR, DOR and MOR, respectively) binding affinities and KOR efficacies were measured for the new compounds. Although none showed wash-resistant irreversible binding, most of them showed high affinity for the KOR, and some exhibited dual affinity to KOR and MOR. Molecular modeling techniques based on the recently-determined crystal structure of the KOR combined with results from mutagenesis studies, competitive binding, functional assays and structure-activity relationships, and previous salvinorin A-KOR interaction models were used to identify putative interaction modes of the new compounds with the KOR and MOR.
    Planta Medica 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.07.077 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work from our labs has indicated that a tropane analog of haloperidol with potent D2 binding but designed to avoid the formation of MPP(+)-like metabolites, such as 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxobutyl)pyridin-1-ium (BCPP(+)) still produced catalepsy, suggesting a strong role for the D2 receptor in the production of catalepsy in rats, and hence EPS in humans. This study tested the hypothesis that further modifications of the tropane analog to produce compounds with less potent binding to the D2 receptor than haloperidol, would produce less catalepsy. These tests have now revealed that while haloperidol produced maximum catalepsy, these compounds produced moderate to low levels of catalepsy. Compound 9, with the least binding affinity to the D2R, produced the least catalepsy and highest Minimum Adverse Effective Dose (MAED) of the analogs tested regardless of their affinities at other receptors including the 5-HT1AR. These observations support the hypothesis that moderation of the D2 binding of the tropane analogs could reduce catalepsy potential in rats and consequently EPS in man.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 07/2014; 24(17). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.07.018 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Smoothened receptor (SMO) mediates signal transduction in the hedgehog pathway, which is implicated in normal development and carcinogenesis. SMO antagonists can suppress the growth of some tumours; however, mutations at SMO have been found to abolish their antitumour effects, a phenomenon known as chemoresistance. Here we report three crystal structures of human SMO bound to the antagonists SANT1 and Anta XV, and the agonist, SAG1.5, at 2.6-2.8 Å resolution. The long and narrow cavity in the transmembrane domain of SMO harbours multiple ligand binding sites, where SANT1 binds at a deeper site as compared with other ligands. Distinct interactions at D473(6.54f) elucidated the structural basis for the differential effects of chemoresistance mutations on SMO antagonists. The agonist SAG1.5 induces a conformational rearrangement of the binding pocket residues, which could contribute to SMO activation. Collectively, these studies reveal the structural basis for the modulation of SMO by small molecules.
    Nature Communications 07/2014; 5:4355. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5355 · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • Hu Zhu, Bryan L Roth
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    ABSTRACT: In this issue of Neuron, Stachniak et al. (2014) determine that the chemogenetic silencer hM4Di-DREADD suppresses presynaptic glutamate release, and by generating an axon-targeted hM4Di variant they demonstrate that it can be used to locally silence synaptic transmission in neural circuits.
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    ABSTRACT: GPR88 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) enriched in the striatum. Genetic deletion and gene expression studies have suggested that GPR88 plays an important role in the regulation of striatal functions and is implicated in psychiatric disorders. The signal transduction pathway and receptor functions of GPR88, however, are still largely unknown due to the lack of endogenous and synthetic ligands. In this paper, we report the synthesis of a GPR88 agonist 2-PCCA and its pure diastereomers, which were functionally characterized in both transiently and stably expressing GPR88 HEK293 cells. 2-PCCA inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner in cells expressing GPR88 but not in the control cells, suggesting that the observed cAMP inhibition is mediated through GPR88 and that GPR88 is coupled to Gαi. 2-PCCA did not induce calcium mobilization in GPR88 cells, indicating no Gαq-mediated response. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of 2-PCCA was also conducted to explore the key structural features for GPR88 agonist activity.
    ACS Chemical Neuroscience 05/2014; 5(7). DOI:10.1021/cn500082p · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite their functional and structural diversity, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) share a common mechanism of signal transduction via conformational changes in the seven-transmembrane (7TM) helical domain. New major insights into this mechanism come from the recent crystallographic discoveries of a partially hydrated sodium ion that is specifically bound in the middle of the 7TM bundle of multiple class A GPCRs. This review discusses the remarkable structural conservation and distinct features of the Na(+) pocket in this most populous GPCR class, as well as the conformational collapse of the pocket on receptor activation. New insights help to explain allosteric effects of sodium on GPCR agonist binding and activation, and highlight its role as a key co-factor in class A GPCR function.
    Trends in Biochemical Sciences 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.tibs.2014.03.002 · 13.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18k Citations
2,568.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2015
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      North Carolina, United States
    • Texas A&M University - Galveston
      Galveston, Texas, United States
    • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
    • Organix Inc.
      Woburn, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007–2013
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1984–2012
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      • Laboratory of Neuropsychology
      Maryland, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • University of Missouri - St. Louis
      Saint Louis, Michigan, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Toronto
      • Structural Genomics Consortium
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences
      Bengalūru, Karnataka, India
  • 2010
    • Comprehensive Blood and Cancer Center
      Ghandinagar, Gujarat, India
  • 1992–2010
    • Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2009
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • University of Mississippi
      • School of Pharmacy
      Mississippi, United States
  • 2002–2008
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Medicinal Chemistry
      Richmond, VA, United States
  • 2000–2007
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Nashville, MI, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1989
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1980–1984
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States