ABSTRACT: Adrenal trauma in children is rare and poorly characterized. To characterize these injuries better, we reviewed the contemporary experience at a large pediatric trauma center.
We queried the trauma registry of Children's Hospitals of Atlanta for all patients treated for adrenal trauma (ICD-9 codes 868.01 and 868.11) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. We performed a detailed chart review.
Of 12,045 patients who were treated for trauma during the study period 42 children (0.35%) with adrenal injuries were identified. All injuries resulted from blunt trauma. Motor vehicle crash was the most common mechanism, responsible for 41% of injuries. A total of 41 cases (98%) were diagnosed by computerized tomography and 1 during exploratory laparotomy for associated vascular injury. Injuries were to the right adrenal gland in 36 cases (86%), left in 5 (12%) and bilateral in 1 (2%). The most common associated regions were the liver (55%), head or brain (33%) and skeleton (31%). Five patients (12%) experienced isolated adrenal injuries. One patient required treatment for adrenal insufficiency and none required adrenalectomy, adrenalorrhaphy or adrenal embolization. Of patients with isolated adrenal injuries 2 were hospitalized and 3 were treated as outpatients. All had an unremarkable course.
Adrenal trauma in children is rare. Although typically associated with high morbidity, this outcome is likely from related injuries as an isolated adrenal injury generally portends a benign course.
The Journal of urology 07/2011; 186(1):248-51. · 4.02 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and pathologic characteristics of the prostate gland and prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy in patients with clinically localized disease in the early (1993 to 1998) and late (1999 to 2004) PSA eras.
From January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2004, 2067 patients aged 40 to 80 years with clinically localized prostate cancer underwent radical prostatectomy without neoadjuvant therapy at the Cleveland Clinic. The correlation among the preoperative PSA level, prostate volume, percentage of Gleason pattern 4/5, surgical Gleason score, and cancer volume was calculated using Pearson's and Spearman's tests for the early (1993 to 1998) and late (1999 to 2004) PSA eras. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of the percentage of Gleason pattern 4/5 and cancer volume during each era.
In both eras, the PSA level correlated positively with the percentage of Gleason pattern 4/5, surgical Gleason score, and prostate volume, with nearly identical r values. The PSA level also correlated with the cancer volume in the late PSA era (the only era for which cancer volume data were available). In the multivariate model, biopsy Gleason score, clinical T stage, and PSA level were independent predictors of percentage of Gleason pattern 4/5 in both eras and of cancer volume in the late PSA era.
Even in the late PSA era, the preoperative PSA level has retained its predictive value for the percentage of Gleason pattern 4/5 and cancer volume. The PSA level continues to have prognostic value for men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy.
Urology 11/2007; 70(4):711-6. · 2.43 Impact Factor
The Journal of Urology 03/2006; 175(3 Pt 1):1119. · 3.75 Impact Factor