[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The worldwide prevalence of geohelminths and their unique place in evolutionary biology have attracted research focus. These major soil-transmitted intestinal nematodes that cause human diseases are the nematode roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the two hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), often collectively referred as geohelminths. Studies of geohelminthiasis in poorly nourished children in developing regions report that geohelminths contribute to stunted growth and cognitive impairment. Insights into immunology have shed light on the modulatory role of the parasite on the host immune system and have defined the role of T cells in controlling geohelminthic infection. Recent molecular biological techniques have created an opportunity to analyse the interaction between parasites and their hosts at the molecular level. This paper is a review of the recent literature that examined the prevalence of geohelminthiasis in developing countries, the association between geohelminths in relation to public health, parasitological/diagnostic features, and therapeutic and preventive aspects of these major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) pathogens in humans.
The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 01/2014; 8(1):5-16. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The magnitude of shigellosis in developing countries is largely unknown because an affordable detection method is not available. Current laboratory diagnosis of Shigella spp. is laborious and time consuming and has low sensitivity. Hence, in the present study, a molecular-based diagnostic assay which amplifies simultaneously four specific genes to identify invC for Shigella genus, rfc for S. flexneri, wbgZ for S. sonnei, and rfpB for S. dysenteriae, as well as one internal control (ompA) gene, was developed in a single reaction to detect and differentiate Shigella spp. Validation with 120 Shigella strains and 37 non-Shigella strains yielded 100% specificity. The sensitivity of the PCR was 100 pg of genomic DNA, 5.4 × 10(4) CFU/ml, or approximately 120 CFU per reaction mixture of bacteria. The sensitivity of the pentaplex PCR assay was further improved following preincubation of the stool samples in Gram-negative broth. A preliminary study with 30 diarrhoeal specimens resulted in no cross-reaction with other non-Shigella strains tested. We conclude that the developed pentaplex PCR assay is robust and can provide information about the four target genes that are essential for the identification of the Shigella genus and the three Shigella species responsible for the majority of shigellosis cases.
BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:412370.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: In Malaysia, Shigella spp. is the third most common bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella spp. isolated from patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2001 to December 2009. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective study was used. Stool samples from patients were cultured using a standard culture method. Shigella spp. isolates were identified by biochemical and serological methods, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. RESULTS: A total of 138 Shigella spp. were isolated from a total of 14,830 routine stool specimens, yielding an isolation rate of 0.93% that corresponded to 9.99% of the 1,381 bacterial pathogens isolated. Of these isolates, S. sonnei was the predominant species, followed by S. flexneri and S. boydii. Seasonal variation was noticed, and no significant differences were detected in the demographic data for S. flexneri and S. sonnei. The susceptibility of all isolated Shigella strains was tested against seven antibiotics. Ceftriaxone (99.1%), ciprofloxacin (98.4%), and nalidixic acid (93.8%) were effective against the Shigella strains, whereas tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole exhibited high frequencies of resistance (58.4% and 53.8%, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study is important for public health education aimed at reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with Shigella spp. infection. Our results also will be helpful for paediatricians and microbiologists in the selection of appropriate antibiotics for the management of diarrhoea.
Community Medicine 06/2011; 19(3):231-236. · 1.23 Impact Factor