[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-two Aedes aegypti populations collected throughout Thailand and five populations of Aedes albopictus from southern Thailand were subjected to standard WHO contact bioassays to assess susceptibility to three commonly used synthetic pyrethroids: permethrin, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin. A wide degree of physiological response to permethrin was detected in Ae. aegypti, ranging from 56.5% survival (Lampang, northern Thailand) to only 4% (Kalasin in northeastern and Phuket in southern Thailand). All 32 populations of Ae. aegypti were found to have evidence of incipient resistance (62.5%) or levels of survival deemed resistant (37.5%) to permethrin. Four populations of Ae. albopictus were found with incipient resistance (97 - 80% mortality) and one with resistance (< 80%) to permethrin. The majority of Ae. aegypti populations (68.7%) was susceptible (> 98% mortality) to deltamethrin, with incipient resistance (observed 97-82% mortality) in other localities. In contrast, all populations of Ae. aegypti were completely susceptible (100% mortality) to the recommended operational dosage of lambda-cyhalothrin. All five populations of Ae. albopictus were found completely susceptible to both deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Evidence of defined incipient or resistance to synthetic pyrethroids mandates appropriate response and countermeasures to mitigate further development and spread of resistance. In light of these findings, we conclude that routine and comprehensive susceptibility monitoring of dengue mosquito vectors to synthetic pyrethroids should be a required component of resistance management policies and disease control activities.