[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vibrio cholerae O1 causes cholera, a dehydrating diarrheal disease. We have previously shown that V. cholerae-specific memory B cell responses develop after cholera infection, and we hypothesize that these mediate long-term protective immunity against cholera. We prospectively followed household contacts of cholera patients to determine whether the presence of circulating V. cholerae O1 antigen-specific memory B cells on enrollment was associated with protection against V. cholerae infection over a 30-day period. Two hundred thirty-six household contacts of 122 index patients with cholera were enrolled. The presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific IgG memory B cells in peripheral blood on study entry was associated with a 68% decrease in the risk of infection in household contacts (P = 0.032). No protection was associated with cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB)-specific memory B cells or IgA memory B cells specific to LPS. These results suggest that LPS-specific IgG memory B cells may be important in protection against infection with V. cholerae O1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current oral cholera vaccines induce lower protective efficacy and shorter duration of protection against cholera than wild-type infection provides, and this difference is most pronounced in young children. Despite this, there are limited data comparing immune responses in children following wild-type disease versus vaccination, especially with regard to memory responses associated with long-term immunity. Here, we report a comparison of immune responses in young children (2 to 5 years of age; n = 20) and older children (6 to 17 years of age; n = 20) given two doses of an oral killed cholera vaccine containing recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) 14 days apart and compare these responses to those induced in similarly aged children recovering from infection with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Bangladesh. We found that the two vaccine groups had comparable vibriocidal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific plasma antibody responses. Vaccinees developed lower levels of IgG memory B cell (MBC) responses against CtxB but no significant MBC responses against LPS. In contrast, children recovering from natural cholera infection developed prominent LPS IgG and IgA MBC responses, as well as CtxB IgG MBC responses. Plasma LPS IgG, IgA, and IgM responses, as well as vibriocidal responses, were also significantly higher in children following disease than after vaccination. Our findings suggest that acute and memory immune responses following oral cholera vaccination in children are significantly lower than those observed following wild-type disease, especially responses targeting LPS. These findings may explain, in part, the lower efficacy of oral cholera vaccination in children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children bear a large component of the global burden of cholera. Despite this, little is known about immune responses to cholera in children, especially those under 5 years of age. Cholera vaccine studies have demonstrated lower long-term protective efficacy in young children than in older children and adults. Memory B cell (MBC) responses may correlate with duration of protection following infection and vaccination. Here we report a comparison of immune responses in young children (3 to 5 years of age; n = 17), older children (6 to 17 years of age; n = 17), and adults (18 to 60 years of age; n = 68) hospitalized with cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We found that young children had lower baseline vibriocidal antibody titers and higher fold increases in titer between day 2 and day 7 than adults. Young children had higher baseline IgG plasma antibody levels to Vibrio cholerae antigens, although the magnitudes of responses at days 7 and 30 were similar across age groups. As a surrogate marker for mucosal immune responses, we assessed day 7 antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses. These were comparable across age groups, although there was a trend for older age groups to have higher levels of lipopolysaccharide-specific IgA ASC responses. All age groups developed comparable MBC responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide and cholera toxin B subunit at day 30. These findings suggest that young children are able to mount robust vibriocidal, plasma antibody, ASC, and MBC responses against V. cholerae O1, suggesting that under an optimal vaccination strategy, young children could achieve protective efficacy comparable to that induced in adults.