[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered.
Korean journal of urology. 09/2014; 55(9):568-573.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the serial changes in sexual function in the short-term period after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to investigate whether a change in each domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is associated with improvement of micturition.
Thirty-eight potent men who underwent HoLEP and in whom complete 12-month follow-up data on the IIEF were available were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent a baseline evaluation for BPH. The surgical outcome was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively by use of the International Prostate Symptom Score, IIEF, and uroflowmetry.
The mean age and body mass index of the patients was 64.5±6.2 years and 24.2±2.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Mean total prostate volume and transitional zone volume were 48.8±18.8 ml and 24.2±16.1 ml, respectively. Most IIEF domain scores showed a slight decrease at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery but recovered to the baseline or showed a marginal but nonsignificant increase at 12 months postoperatively compared with baseline. Orgasmic function and the overall sexual satisfaction domain score remained slightly reduced up to 12 months postoperatively. There was no significant correlation between improvement of micturition and change in sexual function throughout the follow-up period after surgery.
Although HoLEP achieves significant improvements in micturition, overall sexual function decreases slightly in the early postoperative period, but recovers to the baseline at 12 months postoperatively. Our data suggest that changes in sexual function after HoLEP are not associated with improvement of micturition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to maximize the antitumor effect of an anticancer vaccine based on genetically modified endothelial cells by combining it with the platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor imatinib.
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were infected with 10 MOI of Ad-CMV-mGMCSF to make anticancer vaccines. One million mouse bladder cancer cells (MBT-2) were subcutaneously inoculated in C3H mice. The experimental groups included the following: Group 1 (phosphate-buffered saline), Group 2 (anticancer vaccine and GM-CSF), Group 3 (imatinib), and Group 4 (anticancer vaccine, GM-CSF, and imatinib). Tumor growth and body weight were measured weekly. At 4 weeks, the tumors were immunostained with anti-CD31, and microvessel density (MVD) was measured. To evaluate the immunological mechanism of each treatment, flow cytometry analysis of activated CD4 and CD8 cells was performed.
At 4 weeks, the mean body weight of each group, excluding the extracted tumor weight, was not significantly different. Since week 3, the mean tumor volume in Group 4 was the smallest among the treatment groups (p<0.05), and a synergistic suppressive effect on tumor volume was observed in Group 4. The MVD in Group 4 was the most suppressed among the treatment groups (p<0.05), and a synergistic anti-angiogenic effect was observed. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that activated CD4+ and CD8+ cells increased in Group 2 and decreased in Group 3 compared with the other groups.
The combination of genetically modified endothelial cell vaccines and imatinib showed a synergistic antiangiogenic effect in bladder cancer.