Rui Hai Liu

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States

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Publications (93)294.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It is evident from various epidemiological studies that consumption of fruits and vegetables is essential to maintain health and in the disease prevention. Present study was designed to examine phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of three varieties of Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn). Shanlihong variety exhibited elevated levels of total phenolics and flavonoid contents, including free and bond phenolics. Procyanidin B2 was most abundant phenolic compound in all samples, followed by epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin. The free ORAC values, and free hydro-PSC values were 398.3-555.8μmolTE/gDW, and 299.1-370.9μmolVCE/gDW, respectively. Moreover, the free cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) values were 678-1200μmol of QE/100g DW in the no PBS wash protocol, and 345.9-532.9μmol of QE/100g DW in the PBS wash protocol. C. pinnatifida fruit could be valuable to promote consumer health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Food Chemistry 11/2015; 186:54-62. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.017 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single-factor experiment and Box–Behnken design (BBD) were applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of mulberry fruits polysaccharides (MFP). Under optimum conditions: ratio of water to raw material 40.25, extraction temperature 69 °C, ultrasonic power 190 W and extraction time 75 min, the MFP yield was 3.13% (±0.07%), in accordance to the predicted value of 3.04%. The mulberry fruits polysaccharides fractions was obtained by deproteinization (MFP-1), followed by decolorization and deionization (MFP-2). Carbohydrate content in MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 was 58.61% (±1.47%), 69.98% (±0.91%), 81.18% (±1.29%), as well as proteins was estimated 16.50% (±0.86%), 1.57% (±0.63%), 1.02% (±0.18%), respectively. The FT-IR indicated that MFP, MFP-1 and MFP-2 were acidic polysaccharides. The MFP-1 exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity, while MFP-2 showed the strongest hyperglycemic activity in vitro. This may be caused by their different compositions and physical properties in the different mulberry fruit polysaccharides fractions.
    Carbohydrate Polymers 05/2015; 130. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.05.003 · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Li Zhen Zhang, Rui Hai Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Commonly consumed foxtail millet varieties Jingu28 and Jingu34 were compared in terms of phytochemical composition, antioxidant property, and antiproliferative activity. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) was evaluated based on HepG2 cell cultivation. Antiproliferative properties against HepG2 and MDA cell were assayed by methylene blue assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was 78.79 and 114.22mg gallic acid equiv/100g DW in Jingu28 and Jingu34. Both varieties contained ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, syringic acid. Xanthophylls and zeaxanthin were also detected. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of the foxtail millet were 228.13 (Jingu28) and 355.03 (Jingu34) μmol of vitamin C equiv/100g, respectively. CAA values of the foxtail millet varieties ranged from 1.52 to 8.97μmol quercetin equiv/100g DW. The proliferation of MDA and HepG2 cancer cells were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to Jingu28 and Jingu34 extractions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Food Chemistry 05/2015; 174:495-501. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.089 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beneficial health effects of polyphenols depend on their daily consumption which may reflect the dietary pattern of a population. In this way, the objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and cellular antioxidant activity of Feijoada whole meal compared to its individual ingredients. Kale was the ingredient with the highest total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity. Black beans and rice were the main sources of bound phenolics, accounting for approximately 50% of the total phenolic content in each one. Black beans were also the main providers of phenolics in the feijoada whole meal. Dose dependent effect was observed for black beans, kale, and orange when cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) was measured, being orange the ingredient with the lowest EC50 value. Antiproliferative activity using HepG2 cells was only observed for the orange and kale extracts at 60 mg/ml. Feijoada whole meal extract and the combination of individual ingredients had no effect in this cancer cell line compared to the control. The interaction among ingredients composing a meal as for whole meals itself should be used more often as an approach to understand the relationship between dietary pattern and health benefits.
    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2015.04.002 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Dan Gan, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Rui Hai Liu, Hong Ye
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    ABSTRACT: The antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of an acidic polysaccharides fraction from Pholiota dinghuensis Bi mycelium (PDP-3) against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were investigated. As a result, PDP-3 displayed a significant prevention of cell growth towards MCF-7 cells, with an EC50 value of 38.35 µg/mL. Furthermore, PDP-3 induced significant apoptosis towards MCF-7 cells. From Western blot results, up-regulated p21 and down-regulated cyclin D1, CDK4 and PCNA, up-regulated Bax and down-regulated Bcl-2, caspase-9 and caspase-3 were found in the protein expressions of MCF-7 cells. In MCF-7 cells treated with PDP-3, down-regulated TRAF2 and up-regulated ASK1, phosphorylated of p38 and p53 were also found. Notably, PDP-3 treatment represented a significant decrease in both nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of ERα in MCF-7 cells. Therefore, p38/MAPK signal transduction pathway was the potential mechanism of PDP-3 in regulating both cell proliferation and apoptosis in oestrogen-dependent human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
    Journal of Functional Foods 01/2015; 12. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.12.008 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Water-soluble polysaccharides from Prunella vulgaris Linn (P. vulgaris) were fractionated using DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column to obtain several eluents of water (PV-P1), 0.1M NaCl (PV-P2) and 0.2M NaCl (PV-P3). Structural analyses showed that PV-P1 had a higher molecular weight and degree of branching as compared to PV-P2 and PV-P3. Tertiary structure analyses indicated that PV-P1, PV-P2 and PV-P3 did not have triple-helical conformation. PV-P2 and PV-P3 showed stronger antioxidant activities than PV-P1, as measured radical scavenging capacities. PV-P1 showed stronger immunomodulatory activities than PV-P2 and PV-P3 in term of stimulation of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. PV-P1, PV-P2 and PV-P3 did not exhibit cytotoxicities against RAW 264.7 at the concentrations tested. These results suggest that P. vulgaris polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant and immunomodulatory agents for the complementary medicine or functional foods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 01/2015; 75. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.01.010 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traditional medicines comprise a variety of health practices, approaches, knowledge, and beliefs. Documentation of traditional knowledge, estimation of total phenolics and antioxidant properties of plant species used as wild vegetables and in traditional medicines by the local communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan are targeted. Interviews, questionnaires, and focus group conversation with local informants are carried out to record ethno-medicinal values. Used value, percentage of people who have traditional knowledge, preference ranking and informant consensus factors were also measured. Standard analytical methods were applied to estimate phenolic contents and antioxidant properties in water and acetone extracts. A total of 39 plant species used as culinary vegetable and to treat 44 different health disorders are investigated. Significant levels of use value (0.571) and preference ranking (58% PPK, PR-5) are calculated for Ficus palmata, Ficus carica and Solanum nigrum respectively. Elevated levels of total phenolics (144.5mg GAE/100g FW), and flavonoid contents (142.5mg RtE/100g FW) are deliberated in the water extracts of Origanum vulgare, while Ficus palmata exhibits highest flavonol contents (142.7mg RtE/100g FW). Maximum DPPH activity is noted in the flowering buds of Bauhinia variegata (85.34%). However, highest values for OH(-) radical scavenging activity (75.12%), Fe(+3) reducing antioxidant power (54.50µM GAE/100g, FW), and total antioxidant capacity (180.8µM AAE/100g, FW) are measured in the water extracts of Origanum vulgare. Lesser Himalayas is a rich source of traditional cultural heritage, and plant biodiversity, which are under threat and necessitate urgent documentation. Present study is focused on the plant species used in traditional medicines and culinary vegetables as well. Preliminary determination of phenoloic contents and antioxidant properties of various plant species are carried out. Present work will introduce new resource of medicinal and food plants, which could be used as functional food. Furthermore, phytochemical profiling, cellular based antioxidant properties, and isolation of active ingredients will be useful for consumers, and in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries of the country. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 01/2015; 162. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2014.12.051 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Consumption of plant foods has been negatively associated with risk of developing chronic diseases, which is partly attributed to their rich and diverse phytochemicals. In order to promote the rational and effective application of Adinandra tea (Adinandra Jack), a traditional Chinese tea (Shiyacha) widely consumed as a health beverage, the complete phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of four varieties of Adinandra tea were analyzed. They were rich in phenolics and flavonoids, ranging from 71.29 to 140.54 mg gallic acid equivalents /g, and from 19.13 to 88.72 mg catechin equivalents /g respectively. Their antioxidant capacities were high as revealed by ORAC, PSC and CAA assay. Obvious antiproliferation effect was observed in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells, with EC50 ranging from 1.05 to 6.44 mg/mL, and from 2.26 to 8.02 mg/mL respectively. Among the four varieties compared, Nitida and Millettii had higher CAA value and anti-proliferation activity, while Latifolia contained considerable bound phenolics.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2014; 63(1). DOI:10.1021/jf503700v · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic antioxidant potential and protective effect of grape seed procyanidins (GSP) in combination with Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharides (AAP IV) on radiation injury in splenocytes. Rat splenocyte irradiation resulted in significantly higher apoptosis rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) (p < 0.005), reactive oxygen species (ROS) (p < 0.01); cell viability, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) (p < 0.01), catalase (CAT) (p < 0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (p < 0.05), activity and glutathione (GSH) (p < 0.01) levels were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. "GSP + AAP IV" treatment of rat splenocytes at doses of "GSP (0.3 μg/mL) + AAP IV (50 μg/mL)" displayed higher radioprotective and antioxidative effects than the administration of either GSP or AAP IV, as evident by lower levels of MDA (p < 0.001) concentration, as well as higher cell viability and T-SOD (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.005), GSH-PX (p < 0.01) and GSH content compared to the radiation group. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that "GSP + AAP IV" significantly ameliorated the decrease of spleen index (p < 0.005) and spleen GSH (p < 0.005) levels and significantly inhibited the increase of MDA (p < 0.005) levels of spleen with radiation-induced damage, compared with the non-treated group. The in vivo and in vitro results suggested that GSP and AAP IV have a synergistic protective effect against radiation-induced injury by improving the antioxidant and immunomodulation activities.
    Molecules 12/2014; 19(12):20675-20694. DOI:10.3390/molecules191220675 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the antioxidant activity of a tropical fruit juice and its antiproliferative and antimutagenic effects. The antioxidant activity was determined by several different methods, such as ORAC, ABTS, PSC (peroxyl radical scavenging capacity) and CAA (cellular antioxidant activity). The total of phenolics and flavonoids were determined, and the phenolic compounds were identified by LC-DAD-ESI-MS. The juice showed high total phenolic and flavonoid contents (838.44 ± 30.27 g GAE/100 g and 219.45 ± 12.27 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively). According to the PSC, CAA, ABTS and ORAC assays, the tropical fruit juice showed a high antioxidant value of 308.39 ± 3.10 μM AEE/100 g, 26.76 ± 4.47 μM QE/100 g, 167.17 ± 4.10 μM TE/g DW and 235.90 ± 11.90 μM TE/g DW, respectively. The proliferation of HepG2 was significantly inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, by exposure to the tropical fruit juice. Antimutagenic activity was investigated by micronucleous test in mice, and all doses evaluated (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg b.w.) showed beneficial effects. As a consequence, these results encourage further studies on the pharmacological and functional properties of this tropical fruit juice, in order to evaluate its use as a functional food, due to its beneficial health properties.
    Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie 12/2014; 59(2):1319–1324. DOI:10.1016/j.lwt.2014.04.002 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased consumption of vegetables or plant food has been associated with decreased risk of developing major chronic diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and age-related functional decline. Ramie leaves are rich in phenolics and flavonoids, which have been suggested for human health benefits. Phenolic contents, flavonoid contents, phenolic compounds, and anti-cancer properties in six species of ramie leaves were analyzed by Folin-reagent method, sodium borohydride/chloranil-based assay (SBC), HPLC method and antiproliferation, cytoxicity, respectively. Antioxidant activities were measured through peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) method, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method, and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). Research indicated that Boehmeria penduliflora contained the highest total phenolic content (2313.7±27.28 mg GAE/100 g FW), and flavonoid content (1682.4±27.70 mg CAE/100 g FW). Boehmeria tricuspis showed the highest PSC value (9574.8±117.63 µM vit. C equiv./100 g FW), while Boehmeria penduliflora indicated the highest ORAC value (330.44±16.88 µmol Trolox equiv./g FW). The antioxidant activities were correlated with phenolic contents and flavonoid contents. Boehmeria tricuspis had the highest antiproliferative capacity with the lowest EC50 (4.11±0.19 mg/mL). The results for the analyzed ramie for CAA were significantly different from each other (p<0.05), Boehmeria tricuspis had the highest CAA value (133.63±7.10 µmol QE/100 g). Benzoic acid, 4-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were the dominant phenolic ingredients in the ramie leaves according to HPLC analysis. Our research is the first report to study the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities in different species of ramie leaves for their health benefit.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108140. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108140 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g) and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g) and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g), cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash) and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts).The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105146. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105146 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Understanding the influence of processing operations such as drying/dehydration, canning, extrusion, high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field and ohmic heating on the phytochemicals of fruits, vegetables and grains is important in retaining the health benefiting properties of these antioxidative compounds in processed food products. Most of the previous investigations in the literature on the antioxidants of fruits, vegetables, and grains have shown that food processing operations reduced the antioxidants of the processed foods, which is also the usual consumer perception. However, in the last decade some articles in the literature reported that the evaluation of nutritional quality of processd fruits and vegetables not only depend on the quantity of vitamin C but should include analyses of other antioxidant phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. Thermal processing increased the total antioxidant activity of tomato and sweet corn. Most importantly, analysis also depends on the condition, type, and mechanism of antioxidant assays used. This review aims to provide concise information on the influence of various thermal and non-thermal food processing operations on the stability and kinetics of health beneficial phenolic antioxidants of fruits, vegetables and grains.
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 08/2013; 55(7). DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.654142 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phenolics including flavonoids are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. The objective of the study was to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and antiproliferative properties of selected cerrado fruits named gabiroba (Campomanesia cambessedeana Berg), murici (Byrsonoma verbascifolia Rich) and guapeva (Pouteria guardneriana Radlk). Gabiroba fruit showed the highest amount of total phenolics (851.0 ± 40.7 mg/100 g fruit) and the highest antioxidant activity for both the performed assays (ORAC 8027.5 ± 378.6 μmol TE/100 g fruit and PSC 2342.5 ± 48.1 μmol AAE/100 g fruit). Gabiroba fruit and the pulp of guapeva had the highest antiproliferative capacity with the lowest EC50 40.7 ± 4.8 mg/mL and 37.9 ± 2.2 mg/mL, respectively. The results for the analyzed fruits for CAA were not significantly different from each other (p < 0.05) (murici 41.3 ± 17.8; gabiroba 33.9 ± 18.8 and the pulp of guapeva 23.3 ± 4.2 μmol quercetin/100 g fruit). More than 30 phenolic compounds in the pulp of guapeva, gabiroba and murici extracts were identified in the present study using ESI–TOF-MS. These results characterized for the first time the functional activity of selected Brazilian fruits and demonstrated the importance of these fruits from cerrado biome.
    Food Research International 08/2013; 53(1):417–425. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2013.04.024 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Vegetables can provide vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids, minerals and dietary fibers for optimal health benefits. However, some nutrients contained in many fruits and vegetables cannot meet of the complete nutrition need in the human body. Biotechnology has the potential to improve the nutritional value of crops. Considering the high consumption of romaine lettuce in human diet worldwide, the objective of study is to enhance the contents of vitamin C, phenolics and antioxidant activity in lettuce leaves by genetic engineering techniques. The gene expression level, vitamin C content, total phenolics, as well as total and cellular antioxidant activities were analyzed by real-time PCR, HPLC, Folin–Ciocalteu, Hydro-PSC and CAA methods, respectively. The bio-fortification of genetically engineered lettuce increased vitamin C up to 48.94 ± 1.34 mg/100 g FW following the increased over-expression of At GLDH. This is almost a 3.2-fold increase as the content when compared with wild type lettuce (p < 0.05). In addition, phenolic compounds in transgenic lettuce contained 120.4 ± 1.62 mg GA equiv./100 g FW, almost double the phenolic content of the wild type. Total antioxidant activities were 735.4 ± 47.7 μmol vitamin C equiv./100 g FW, cellular antioxidant activities were 7.33 ± 0.86 μmol quercetin equiv./100 g FW (PBS wash) and 18.14 ± 0.68 μmol quercetin equiv./100 g FW (No PBS wash) in transgenic lettuce, respectively, 1.5, 4 and twofold increases when compared with the wild type. This study suggests that bio-fortification by genetic engineering has great potential to improve vitamin C, phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in lettuce.
    Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 08/2013; 114(2). DOI:10.1007/s11240-013-0318-y · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Rui Hai Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements.
    Advances in Nutrition 05/2013; 4(3):384S-392S. DOI:10.3945/an.112.003517 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of developing major chronic diseases. These health benefits have been attributed in part to their unique phytochemicals. Little is known about the complete profiles of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of different adlay varieties. The objectives of this study were to determine the phytochemicals profiles of the three adlay varieties, including both free and bound of total phenolics and total flavonoids, and to determine the total antioxidant activity of adlay. The free, bound, and total phenolic contents of adlay samples ranged from 31.23 to 45.19 , from 28.07 to 30.86 , and from 59.30 to 76.04 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of sample, respectively. On average, the bound phenolics contributed 45.3% of total phenolic content of the adlay varieties analyzed. The free, bound, and total flavonoid contents of adlay samples ranged from 6.21 to 18.24 , from 18.68 to 35.27 , and from 24.88 to 52.86 mg of catechin equivalents/100 g, respectively. The average values of bound flavonoids contributed 71.1% of total flavonoids of the adlay varieties analyzed. The percentage contribution of flavonoid content to phenolic content of free, bound and total ranged from 11.6 to 35.2 %, from 50.5 to 66.8 %, and from 24.6 to 50.5 %. The free, bound, and total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of adlay samples ranged from 231.9 to 316.6 , from 209.0 to 351.4 , and from 440.9 to 668.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g , respectively. The average ORAC values of bound phytochemicals contributed 48.1 % of total antioxidant activity of the adlay varieties analyzed. The content of totel polyphenol and the antioxidant capacity are obviously different among different species. Liaoning 5 adlay and Longyi 1 adlay are significantly better than Guizhou heigu adlay. The adlay extracts has obvious proliferate inhibition on human liver cancer cells, and substantially in the experimental concentration range, the adlay sample itself has no cytotoxicity. Knowing the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of adlay gives insights to its potential application to promote health.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2013; 61(21). DOI:10.1021/jf400556s · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    Rahul Venugopal, Rui Hai Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women in the United States. A growing emphasis is being placed on alternative medicine and dietary approaches toward prevention of potential diseases. Phytochemicals are bioactive compounds that are naturally present in foods that, when acting in synergy, bestow potential anti-cancer properties. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, and ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, are two bioactive compounds that are at the forefront in scientific research. Previous animal studies have documented the anti-cancer properties of resveratrol on breast cancer cells and research groups have recently been able to identify the anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and induction of apoptosis properties of resveratrol along with the signal transduction pathways that the compound affects. Ursolic acid has been cast into the limelight with the recent discovery documenting its anti-inflammation and anti-cancer activities by targeting signal pathways, especially in the prevention of breast cancer.
    12/2012; 1(1):1–13. DOI:10.1016/j.fshw.2012.12.001
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    ABSTRACT: A colorimetric method for the determination of total antioxidant activity in a variety of foods and beverages was validated in both a single-laboratory validation and a collaborative laboratory validation study. The procedure involved extraction of the antioxidants directly into a methanol-water solution containing a known amount of 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thus promoting the rapid reaction of extracted materials with DPPH. The reaction was monitored by spectrophotometric measurement of the absorbance loss at 517 nm. Antioxidant activity was quantified relative to a dilution series of vitamin E analog standards (Trolox), which were analyzed in parallel simultaneously with the food and beverage samples. The antioxidant activities of the samples ranged from 131 to 131 000 micromole Trolox equivalents/100 g. Statistical analysis of the results showed that nine of the 11 matrixes gave acceptable HorRat values, indicating that the method performed well in these cases. The acceptable matrixes include pomegranate juice, blueberry juice, carrot juice, green tea, wine, rosemary spice, ready-to-eat cereal, and yogurt. Two samples failed the HorRat test: the first was an almond milk that had an antioxidant level below the practical LOQ for the method; the second was a sample of canola oil with added omega-3 fatty acid that was immiscible in the reaction medium.
    Journal of AOAC International 11/2012; 95(6):1562-9. DOI:10.5740/jaoacint.CS2012_04 · 1.39 Impact Factor