[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Inadvertent hyperventilation is associated with poor outcomes from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hypocapnic cerebral vasoconstriction is well described and causes an immediate and profound decrease in cerebral perfusion. The hemodynamic effects of positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) remain incompletely understood but may be equally important, particularly in the hypovolemic patient with TBI. Objective: Preliminary report on the application of a previously described mathematical model of perfusion and ventilation to prehospital data to predict intrathoracic pressure. Methods: Ventilation data from 108 TBI patients (76 ground transported, 32 helicopter transported) were used for this analysis. Ventilation rate (VR) and end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) values were used to estimate tidal volume (VT). The values for VR and estimated VT were then applied to a previously described mathematical model of perfusion and ventilation. This model allows input of various lung parameters to define a pressure–volume relationship, then derives mean intrathoracic pressure (MITP) for various VT and VR values. For this analysis, normal lung parameters were utilized. Separate analyses were performed assuming either fixed or variable PaCO2–PetCO2 differences. Ground and air medical patients were compared with regard to VR, PetCO2, estimated VT, and predicted MITP. Results: A total of 10,647 measurements were included from the 108 TBI patients, representing about 13 minutes of ventilation per patient. Mean VR values were higher for ground patients versus air patients (21.6 vs. 19.7 breaths/min; p < 0.01). Estimated VT values were similar for ground and air patients (399 mL vs. 392 mL; p = NS) in the fixed model but not the variable (636 vs. 688 mL, respectively; p < 0.01). Mean PetCO2 values were lower for ground versus air patients (30.6 vs. 33.8 mmHg; p < 0.01). Predicted MITP values were higher for ground versus air patients, assuming either fixed (9.0 vs. 8.1 mmHg; p < 0.01) or variable (10.9 vs. 9.7 mmHg; p < 0.01) PaCO2–PetCO2 differences. Conclusions: Predicted MITP values increased with ventilation rates. Future studies to externally validate this model are warranted.
Prehospital Emergency Care 10/2014; · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research has demonstrated significant relationships between peri-shock pause and survival to discharge from out-of hospital shockable cardiac arrest (OHCA).
To determine the impact of peri-shock pause on survival from OHCA during the ROC PRIMED randomized controlled trial.
We included patients in the ROC PRIMED trial who suffered OHCA between June 2007and November 2009, presented with a shockable rhythm and had CPR process data for at least one shock. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between peri-shock pause duration and survival to hospital discharge.
Among 2006 patients studied, the median (IQR) shock pause duration was: pre-shock pause 15seconds (8, 22); post-shock pause 6seconds (4, 9); and peri-shock pause 22.0seconds (14, 31). After adjusting for Utstein predictors of survival as well as CPR quality measures, the odds of survival to hospital discharge were significantly higher for patients with pre-shock pause <10seconds (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.11) and peri-shock pause<20seconds (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.85) when compared to patients with pre-shock pause ≥20seconds and peri-shock pause ≥40seconds. Post-shock pause was not significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge. Results for neurologically intact survival (Modified Rankin Score ≤3) were similar to our primary outcome.
In patients with cardiac arrest presenting in a shockable rhythm during the ROC PRIMED trial, shorter pre- and peri-shock pauses were significantly associated with higher odds of survival. Future cardiopulmonary education and technology should focus on minimizing all peri-shock pauses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Compression pauses may be particularly harmful following the electrical recovery but prior to the mechanical recovery from cardiopulmonary arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: A convenience sample of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) were identified. Data were exported from defibrillators to define compression pauses, electrocardiogram rhythm, PetCO2, and the presence of palpable pulses. Pulse-check episodes were randomly assigned to a derivation set (one-third) and a validation set (two-thirds). Both an unweighted and a weighted receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis were performed on the derivation set to identify optimal thresholds to predict ROSC using heart rate and PetCO2. A sequential decision guideline was generated to predict the presence of ROSC during compressions and confirm perfusion once compressions were stopped. The ability of this decision guideline to correctly identify pauses in which pulses were and were not palpated was then evaluated. A total of 145 patients with 349 compression pauses were included. The ROC analyses on the derivation set identified an optimal pre-pause heart rate threshold of >40beatsmin(-1) and an optimal PetCO2 threshold of >20mmHg to predict ROSC. A sequential decision guideline was developed using pre-pause heart rate and PetCO2 as well as the PetCO2 pattern during compression pauses to predict and rapidly confirm ROSC. This decision guideline demonstrated excellent predictive ability to identifying compression pauses with and without palpable pulses (positive predictive value 95%, negative predictive value 99%). The mean latency period between recovery of electrical and mechanical cardiac function was 78s (95% CI 36-120s). CONCLUSIONS: Heart rate and PetCO2 can predict ROSC without stopping compressions, and the PetCO2 pattern during compression pauses can rapidly confirm ROSC. Use of a sequential decision guideline using heart rate and PetCO2 may reduce unnecessary compression pauses during critical moments during recovery from cardiopulmonary arrest.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perishock pauses are pauses in chest compressions before and after defibrillatory shock. We examined the relationship between perishock pauses and survival to hospital discharge.
We included out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry-Cardiac Arrest who suffered arrest between December 2005 and June 2007, presented with a shockable rhythm (ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia), and had cardiopulmonary resuscitation process data for at least 1 shock (n=815). We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between survival and perishock pauses. In an analysis adjusted for Utstein predictors of survival, the odds of survival were significantly lower for patients with preshock pause ≥20 seconds (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.82) and perishock pause ≥40 seconds (odds ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.97) compared with patients with preshock pause <10 seconds and perishock pause <20 seconds. Postshock pause was not independently associated with a significant change in the odds of survival. Log-linear modeling depicted a decrease in survival to hospital discharge of 18% and 14% for every 5-second increase in both preshock and perishock pause interval (up to 40 and 50 seconds, respectively), with no significant association noted with changes in the postshock pause interval.
In patients with cardiac arrest presenting in a shockable rhythm, longer perishock and preshock pauses were independently associated with a decrease in survival to hospital discharge. The impact of preshock pause on survival suggests that refinement of automatic defibrillator software and paramedic education to minimize preshock pause delays may have a significant impact on survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The three-phase model of ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrest suggests a period of compressions to "prime" the heart prior to defibrillation attempts. In addition, post-shock compressions may increase the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The optimal intervals for shock delivery following cessation of compressions (pre-shock interval) and resumption of compressions following a shock (post-shock interval) remain unclear.
To define optimal pre- and post-defibrillation compression pauses for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA).
All patients suffering OOHCA from VF were identified over a 1-month period. Defibrillator data were abstracted and analyzed using the combination of ECG, impedance, and audio recording. Receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis was used to define the optimal pre- and post-shock compression intervals. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to quantify the relationship between these intervals and ROSC. Covariates included cumulative number of defibrillation attempts, intubation status, and administration of epinephrine in the immediate pre-shock compression cycle. Cluster adjustment was performed due to the possibility of multiple defibrillation attempts for each patient.
A total of 36 patients with 96 defibrillation attempts were included. The ROC analysis identified an optimal pre-shock interval of <3s and an optimal post-shock interval of <6s. Increased likelihood of ROSC was observed with a pre-shock interval <3s (adjusted OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.0-22.3, p=0.002) and a post-shock interval of <6s (adjusted OR 10.7, 95% CI 2.8-41.4, p=0.001). Likelihood of ROSC was substantially increased with the optimization of both pre- and post-shock intervals (adjusted OR 13.1, 95% CI 3.4-49.9, p<0.001).
Decreasing pre- and post-shock compression intervals increases the likelihood of ROSC in OOHCA from VF.