Piia-Riitta Karhemo

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (3)9.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Details of metastasis, the deadliest aspect of cancer, are unclear. Cell surface proteins play central roles in adhesive contacts between the tumor cell and the stroma during metastasis. We optimized a fast, small-scale isolation of biotinylated cell surface proteins to reveal novel metastasis-associated players from an isogenic pair of human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells with opposite metastatic phenotypes. Isolated proteins were trypsin digested and analyzed using LC-MS/MS followed by quantitation with the Progenesis LC-MS software. Sixteen proteins displayed over twofold expression differences between the metastatic and non-metastatic cells. Interestingly, overexpression of most of them (14/16) in the metastatic cells indicates a gain of novel surface protein profile as compared to the non-metastatic ones. All five validated, differentially expressed proteins showed higher expression in the metastatic cells in culture, and four of these were further validated in vivo. Moreover, we analyzed expression of two of the identified proteins, CD109 and ITGA6 in 3-dimensional cultures of six melanoma cell lines. Both proteins marked the surface of cells derived from melanoma metastasis over cells derived from primary melanoma. The unbiased identification and validation of both known and novel metastasis-associated proteins indicate a reliable approach for the identification of differentially expressed surface proteins.
    Journal of proteomics 07/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    Piia-Riitta Karhemo, Maija Hyvönen, Pirjo Laakkonen
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    ABSTRACT: Oncoproteomics aims to the discovery of molecular markers, drug targets, and pathways by studying cancer specific protein expression, localization, modification, and interaction. Cell surface proteins play a central role in several pathological conditions, including cancer and its metastatic spread. However, cell surface proteins are underrepresented in proteomics analyses performed from the whole cell extracts due to their hydrophobicity and low abundance. Different methods have been developed to enrich and isolate the cell surface proteins to reduce sample complexity. Despite the method selected, the primary difficulty encountered is the solubilization of the hydrophobic transmembrane proteins from the lipid bilayer. This review focuses on proteomic analyses of metastasis-associated proteins identified using the cell surface biotinylation method. Interestingly, also certain intracellular proteins were identified from the cell surface samples. The function of these proteins at the cell surface might well differ from their function inside the cell.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 01/2012; 3:192.
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a multifunctional protein involved in a complex network of interactions. The role of NPM in oncogenesis is controversial. The NPM gene (NPM1) is mutated or rearranged in a number of hematological disorders, but such changes have not been detected in solid cancers. However, experiments with cultured NPM-null cells and with mice carrying a single inactivated NPM allele indicate a tumor suppressor function for NPM. To resolve the role of NPM in solid cancers, we examined its expression and localization in histologically normal breast tissue and a large array of human breast carcinoma samples (n = 1160), and also evaluated its association with clinicopathological variables and patient survival. The intensity and localization (nucleolar, nuclear, cytoplasmic) of NPM varied across clinical samples. No mutations explaining the differences were found, but the present findings indicate that expression levels of NPM affected its localization. Our study also revealed a novel granular staining pattern for NPM, which was an independent prognostic factor of poor prognosis. In addition, reduced levels of NPM protein were associated with poor prognosis. Furthermore, luminal epithelial cells of histologically normal breast displayed high levels of NPM and overexpression of NPM in the invasive MDA-MB-231 cells abrogated their growth in soft agar. These results support a tumor suppressive role for NPM in breast cancer.
    American Journal Of Pathology 06/2011; 179(2):1004-14. · 4.60 Impact Factor