[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia is the primary factor responsible for the microvascular, and to lesser extent, macrovascular complications. Despite this well established relationship, approximately half of all type 2 diabetic patients in the US have a HbA1c≥7.0%. In part, this is associated with the side effects, i.e. weight gain and hypoglycemia, of currently available antidiabetic agents and in part by the failure to utilize medications that reverse the basic pathophysiologic defects present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The kidney has been show to play a central role in the development of hyperglycemia by excessive production of glucose throughout the sleeping hours and enhanced reabsorption of filtered glucose by the renal tubules secondary to an increase in the threshold at which glucose spills into the urine. Recently, a new class of antidiabetic agents, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, has been developed and approved for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we examine their mechanism of action, efficacy, safety, and place in the therapeutic armamentarium. Since the SGLT2 inhibitors have a unique mode of action that differs from all other oral and injectable antidiabetic agents, they can be used at all stages of the disease and in combination with all other antidiabetic medications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In UKPDS stepwise addition of metformin, sulfonylurea, and basal insulin reduced microvascular complications, but A1c rose progressively to > 8.5% and ~ 65% of individuals required insulin therapy aft er 10.5 years. Yet metformin, add SU, add insulin remains the most frequently employed therapeutic recommendation in the US and other countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Weight loss of 5% to 10% can improve type 2 diabetes and related comorbidities. Few safe, effective weight-management drugs are currently available.
To investigate efficacy and safety of liraglutide vs placebo for weight management in adults with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Fifty-six-week randomized (2:1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial with 12-week observational off-drug follow-up period. The study was conducted at 126 sites in 9 countries between June 2011 and January 2013. Of 1361 participants assessed for eligibility, 846 were randomized. Inclusion criteria were body mass index of 27.0 or greater, age 18 years or older, taking 0 to 3 oral hypoglycemic agents (metformin, thiazolidinedione, sulfonylurea) with stable body weight, and glycated hemoglobin level 7.0% to 10.0%.
Once-daily, subcutaneous liraglutide (3.0 mg) (n = 423), liraglutide (1.8 mg) (n = 211), or placebo (n = 212), all as adjunct to 500 kcal/d dietary deficit and increased physical activity (≥150 min/wk).
Three coprimary end points: relative change in weight, proportion of participants losing 5% or more, or more than 10%, of baseline weight at week 56.
Baseline weight was 105.7 kg with liraglutide (3.0-mg dose), 105.8 kg with liraglutide (1.8-mg dose), and 106.5 kg with placebo. Weight loss was 6.0% (6.4 kg) with liraglutide (3.0-mg dose), 4.7% (5.0 kg) with liraglutide (1.8-mg dose), and 2.0% (2.2 kg) with placebo (estimated difference for liraglutide [3.0 mg] vs placebo, -4.00% [95% CI, -5.10% to -2.90%]; liraglutide [1.8 mg] vs placebo, -2.71% [95% CI, -4.00% to -1.42%]; P < .001 for both). Weight loss of 5% or greater occurred in 54.3% with liraglutide (3.0 mg) and 40.4% with liraglutide (1.8 mg) vs 21.4% with placebo (estimated difference for liraglutide [3.0 mg] vs placebo, 32.9% [95% CI, 24.6% to 41.2%]; for liraglutide [1.8 mg] vs placebo, 19.0% [95% CI, 9.1% to 28.8%]; P < .001 for both). Weight loss greater than 10% occurred in 25.2% with liraglutide (3.0 mg) and 15.9% with liraglutide (1.8 mg) vs 6.7% with placebo (estimated difference for liraglutide [3.0 mg] vs placebo, 18.5% [95% CI, 12.7% to 24.4%], P < .001; for liraglutide [1.8 mg] vs placebo, 9.3% [95% CI, 2.7% to 15.8%], P = .006). More gastrointestinal disorders were reported with liraglutide (3.0 mg) vs liraglutide (1.8 mg) and placebo. No pancreatitis was reported.
Among overweight and obese participants with type 2 diabetes, use of subcutaneous liraglutide (3.0 mg) daily, compared with placebo, resulted in weight loss over 56 weeks. Further studies are needed to evaluate longer-term efficacy and safety.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/2015; 314(7):687-699. DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.9676 · 35.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05). The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10-4) gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) that was significantly enriched (P < 10-60) as a prime candidate for involvement in multiple relevant metabolic pathways. Illumina BeadChip derived ADH1B expression data was consistent with quantitative real time PCR data. We observed significant inverse correlations with waist circumference (2.8 x 10-9), BMI (5.4 x 10-6), and fasting plasma insulin (P < 0.001). These findings are consistent with a central role for ADH1B in obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits.
PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0119941. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119941 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
β-Cell dysfunction is a core defect in T2DM, and chronic, sustained hyperglycemia has been implicated in progressive β-cell failure, ie, glucotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lowering the plasma glucose concentration with dapagliflozin, a glucosuric agent, on β-cell function in T2DM individuals.
Research design and methods:
Twenty-four subjects with T2DM received dapagliflozin (n = 16) or placebo (n = 8) for 2 weeks, and a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin clamp were performed before and after treatment. Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were measured during the OGTT.
Dapagliflozin significantly lowered both the fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose concentrations and the incremental area under the plasma glucose concentration curve (ΔG0-120) during OGTT by -33 ± 5 mg/dL, -73 ± 9 mg/dL, and -60 ± 12 mg/dL · min, respectively, compared to -13 ± 9, -33 ± 13, and -18 ± 9 reductions in placebo-treated subjects (both P < .01). The incremental area under the plasma C-peptide concentration curve tended to increase in dapagliflozin-treated subjects, whereas it did not change in placebo-treated subjects. Thus, ΔC-Pep0-120/ΔG0-120 increased significantly in dapagliflozin-treated subjects, whereas it did not change in placebo-treated subjects (0.019 ± 0.005 vs 0.002 ± 0.006; P < .01). Dapagliflozin significantly improved whole-body insulin sensitivity (insulin clamp). Thus, β-cell function, measured as ΔC-Pep0-120/ ΔG0-120 ÷ insulin resistance, increased by 2-fold (P < .01) in dapagliflozin-treated vs placebo-treated subjects.
Lowering the plasma glucose concentration with dapagliflozin markedly improves β-cell function, providing strong support in man for the glucotoxic effect of hyperglycemia on β-cell function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin/linagliptin in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Research design and methods:
Subjects not receiving antidiabetes therapy for ≥12 weeks were randomized to empagliflozin 25 mg/linagliptin 5 mg (n = 137), empagliflozin 10 mg/linagliptin 5 mg (n = 136), empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 135), empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 134), or linagliptin 5 mg (n = 135) for 52 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24.
Mean HbA1c at baseline was 7.99-8.05% (64 mmol/mol). At week 24, adjusted mean (SE) changes from baseline in HbA1c with empagliflozin 25 mg/linagliptin 5 mg, empagliflozin 10 mg/linagliptin 5 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, empagliflozin 10 mg, and linagliptin 5 mg were -1.08 (0.06)% (-11.8 [0.7] mmol/mol), -1.24 (0.06)% (-13.6 [0.7] mmol/mol), -0.95 (0.06)% (-10.4 [0.7] mmol/mol), -0.83 (0.06)% (-9.1 [0.7] mmol/mol), and -0.67 (0.06)% (-7.3 [0.7] mmol/mol), respectively. Reductions in HbA1c were significantly greater for empagliflozin 25 mg/linagliptin 5 mg compared with linagliptin 5 mg (P < 0.001) but not compared with empagliflozin 25 mg and were significantly greater for empagliflozin 10 mg/linagliptin 5 mg compared with the individual components (P < 0.001 for both). At week 24, 55.4%, 62.3%, 41.5%, 38.8%, and 32.3% of subjects with baseline HbA1c ≥7% (≥53 mmol/mol) reached HbA1c <7% with empagliflozin 25 mg/linagliptin 5 mg, empagliflozin 10 mg/linagliptin 5 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, empagliflozin 10 mg, and linagliptin 5 mg, respectively. Efficacy was maintained at week 52. The proportion of subjects with adverse events (AEs) over 52 weeks was similar across groups (68.9-81.5%), with no confirmed hypoglycemic AEs.
Reductions from baseline in HbA1c with empagliflozin/linagliptin were significantly different versus linagliptin and empagliflozin 10 mg but not versus empagliflozin 25 mg. Empagliflozin/linagliptin was well tolerated.
Diabetes Care 01/2015; 38(3). DOI:10.2337/dc14-2365 · 8.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The objective was to test the clinical utility of Quantose M(Q) to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity after pioglitazone therapy in prediabetic subjects. Quantose M(Q) is derived from fasting measurements of insulin, α-hydroxybutyrate, linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, and oleate, three nonglucose metabolites shown to correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal.
Research design and methods:
Participants were 428 of the total of 602 ACT NOW impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/d) or placebo and followed for 2.4 years. At baseline and study end, fasting plasma metabolites required for determination of Quantose, glycated hemoglobin, and oral glucose tolerance test with frequent plasma insulin and glucose measurements to calculate the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity were obtained.
Pioglitazone treatment lowered IGT conversion to diabetes (hazard ratio = 0.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.50; P < .0001). Although glycated hemoglobin did not track with insulin sensitivity, Quantose M(Q) increased in pioglitazone-treated subjects (by 1.45 [3.45] mg·min(-1)·kgwbm(-1)) (median [interquartile range]) (P < .001 vs placebo), as did the Matsuda index (by 3.05 [4.77] units; P < .0001). Quantose M(Q) correlated with the Matsuda index at baseline and change in the Matsuda index from baseline (rho, 0.85 and 0.79, respectively; P < .0001) and was progressively higher across closeout glucose tolerance status (diabetes, IGT, normal glucose tolerance). In logistic models including only anthropometric and fasting measurements, Quantose M(Q) outperformed both Matsuda and fasting insulin in predicting incident diabetes.
In IGT subjects, Quantose M(Q) parallels changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with pioglitazone therapy. Due to its strong correlation with improved insulin sensitivity and its ease of use, Quantose M(Q) may serve as a useful clinical test to identify and monitor therapy in insulin-resistant patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Premature infants develop hyperglycemia shortly after birth, increasing their morbidity and death. Surviving infants have increased incidence of diabetes as young adults. Our understanding of the biological basis for the insulin resistance of prematurity and developmental regulation of glucose production remains fragmentary. The objective of this study was to examine maturational differences in insulin sensitivity and the insulin-signaling pathway in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of 30 neonatal baboons utilizing the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Preterm (67% gestation) baboons had reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity shortly after birth (M value 12.5±1.5 vs. 21.8±4.4 mg/kg·min in term baboons) and at 2 weeks of age (M value 12.8±2.6 vs. 16.3±4.2, respectively). Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation, but these responses were significantly lower in preterm baboons during the first week of life (3.2-fold versus 9.8-fold). Preterm baboons had lower GLUT1 protein content throughout the first 2 weeks of life (8-12% of term). In preterm baboons, serum free fatty acids (FFA) did not decrease in response to insulin whereas FFA decreased by >80% in term baboons; the impaired suppression of FFA in preterm animals was paired with decreased GLUT4 protein content in adipose tissue. In conclusion, peripheral insulin resistance and impaired non-insulin dependent glucose uptake play an important role in hyperglycemia of prematurity. Impaired insulin signaling (reduced Akt) contributes to the defect in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Counter-regulatory hormones are not major contributors.