[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Restricting alcohol outlets is being considered as a measure for preventing alcohol-related crashes. However, in many developing countries, alcohol availability is not regulated and its influence on motor vehicle traffic crashes is unknown. This study explores the association between traffic crashes and alcohol outlets in a Brazilian city. Method: Data were geocoded and exploratory analysis was conducted using the kernel density estimator. Two generalized additive models (GAMs) were implemented to predict the factors associated with alcohol-related crashes. Results: For 78 percent of the 3840 traffic crashes where the driver was a victim, there was at least one bar located within a 300-m radius. The median distances between an outlet were 124.4 and 130.7 m for a non-alcohol- and alcohol-related crashes, respectively (P =.13). The GAMs did not make evident any significant association between the outlet locations and alcohol-related crashes: the presence of at least one outlet was associated with alcohol-related crashes with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-1.17). Alcohol crashes are more likely to be observed among males (OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.21-2.06), young drivers vs. those aged 50 years+ (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.79-6.43), and crashes with fatalities (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = 0.98-3.04). Conclusions: Density of alcohol outlets was high all over the city and both alcohol- and non-alcohol-related crashes occurred near an outlet. The study helps to better understand the relationship between alcohol availability and traffic crashes in a middle-income country where licensing/zoning is absent and suggests that measures for restricting the physical availability of alcohol are necessary, even though further studies are still needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of oral fluid for monitoring drug consumption on roads has many advantages over conventional biological fluids; therefore, several immunoassays have been developed for this purpose. In this work, the ability of 3 commercial immunoassays to detect amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) in oral fluid was assessed. In addition, it was reviewed the main controlled ATSs available worldwide, as well as the oral fluid immunological screening tests that have been used for identifying ATSs in drivers.
The analytical specificity of amphetamine direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), methamphetamine direct ELISA (Immunalysis Corporation), and Oral-View saliva multidrug of abuse test (Alfa Scientific Designs) was evaluated using ATS-spiked oral fluid. Legislation and published articles that report the use of immunological screening tests to detect ATS consumption in conductors were reviewed, including the kit's technical information, project reports, police and drug databases.
Even at high concentrations, the tested assays were not able to detect methylphenidate, fenproporex, or diethylpropion, controlled ATSs legally marketed in many countries.
This evidences the need to develop new kits that enable one to control the misuse of prescription ATSs on roads through oral fluid immunoassays.
Therapeutic drug monitoring 02/2012; 34(1):98-109. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), fenproporex (FEN), diethylpropion (DIE) and methylphenidate (MPH) in oral fluid collected with Quantisal™ device has been developed and validated. Thereunto, in-matrix propylchloroformate derivatization followed by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed. Deuterium labeled AMP was used as internal standard for all the stimulants and analysis was performed using the selected ion monitoring mode. The detector response was linear for the studied drugs in the concentration range of 2-256 ng mL(-1) (neat oral fluid), except for FEN, whereas the linear range was 4-256 ng mL(-1). The detection limits were 0.5 ng mL(-1) (MET), 1 ng mL(-1) (MPH) and 2 ng mL(-1) (DIE, AMP, FEN), respectively. Accuracy of quality control samples remained within 98.2-111.9% of the target concentrations, while precision has not exceeded 15% of the relative standard deviation. Recoveries with Quantisal™ device ranged from 77.2% to 112.1%. Also, the goodness-of-fit concerning the ordinary least squares model in the statistical inference of data has been tested through residual plotting and ANOVA. The validated method can be easily automated and then used for screening and confirmation of amphetamine-type stimulants in drivers' oral fluid.