Nicola Williams

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (5)22.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells offers the prospect of immunization against many infectious diseases, but no subunit vaccine has induced CD8(+) T cells that correlate with efficacy in humans. Here we demonstrate that a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector followed by a modified vaccinia virus Ankara booster induces exceptionally high frequency T-cell responses (median >2400 SFC/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells) to the liver-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria antigen ME-TRAP. It induces sterile protective efficacy against heterologous strain sporozoites in three vaccinees (3/14, 21%), and delays time to patency through substantial reduction of liver-stage parasite burden in five more (5/14, 36%), P=0.008 compared with controls. The frequency of monofunctional interferon-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells, but not antibodies, correlates with sterile protection and delay in time to patency (Pcorrected=0.005). Vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells provide protection against human malaria, suggesting that a major limitation of previous vaccination approaches has been the insufficient magnitude of induced T cells.
    Nature Communications 11/2013; 4:2836. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The safety and immunogenicity of a new candidate tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, FP85A was evaluated alone and in heterologous prime-boost regimes with another candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A. This was an open label, non-controlled, non-randomized Phase I clinical trial. Healthy previously BCG-vaccinated adult subjects were enrolled sequentially into three groups and vaccinated with FP85A alone, or both FP85A and MVA85A, with a four week interval between vaccinations. Passive and active data on adverse events were collected. Immunogenicity was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immunospot (ELISpot), flow cytometry and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most adverse events were mild and there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. FP85A vaccination did not enhance antigen 85A-specific cellular immunity. When MVA85A vaccination was preceded by FP85A vaccination, cellular immune responses were lower compared with when MVA85A vaccination was the first immunisation. MVA85A vaccination, but not FP85A vaccination, induced anti-MVA IgG antibodies. Both MVA85A and FP85A vaccinations induced anti-FP9 IgG antibodies. In conclusion, FP85A vaccination was well tolerated but did not induce antigen-specific cellular immune responses. We hypothesize that FP85A induced anti-FP9 IgG antibodies with cross-reactivity for MVA85A, which may have mediated inhibition of the immune response to subsequent MVA85A. ClinicalTrials.gov identification number: NCT00653770.
    Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 11/2012; 9(1).
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    ABSTRACT: New tuberculosis vaccines are urgently needed to curtail the current epidemic. MVA85A is a subunit vaccine that could enhance immunity from BCG vaccination. To determine MVA85A safety and immunogenicity as well as interactions with other routine vaccines administered in infancy, we randomized healthy 4-month-old infants who had received Bacille Calmette-Guérin at birth to receive Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines alone, EPI and MVA85A simultaneously, or MVA85A alone. Adverse events were monitored throughout. Blood samples obtained before vaccination and at 1, 4, and 20 weeks after vaccination were used to assess safety and immunogenicity. The safety profile of both low and standard doses was comparable, but the standard dose was more immunogenic and therefore was selected for the second stage of the study. In total, 72 (first stage) and 142 (second stage) infants were enrolled. MVA85A was safe and well tolerated and induced a potent cellular immune response. Coadministration of MVA85A with EPI vaccines was associated with a significant reduction in MVA85A immunogenicity, but did not affect humoral responses to the EPI vaccines. These results provide important information regarding timing of immunizations, which is required for the design of infant efficacy trials with MVA85A, and suggest that modifications to the standard EPI schedule may be required to incorporate a new generation of T cell-inducing vaccines.
    Science translational medicine 06/2011; 3(88):88ra56. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Control of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is a global health priority and one that is likely to be achieved only through vaccination. The critical overlap with the HIV epidemic requires any effective TB vaccine regimen to be safe in individuals who are infected with HIV. The objectives of this clinical trial were to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a leading candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in healthy, HIV-infected adults. Design This was an open-label Phase I trial, performed in 20 healthy HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve subjects. Two different doses of MVA85A were each evaluated as a single immunisation in 10 subjects, with 24 weeks of follow-up. The safety of MVA85A was assessed by clinical and laboratory markers, including regular CD4 counts and HIV RNA load measurements. Vaccine immunogenicity was assessed by ex vivo interferon γ (IFN-γ) ELISpot assays and flow-cytometric analysis. Results MVA85A was safe in subjects with HIV infection, with an adverse-event profile comparable with historical data from previous trials in HIV-uninfected subjects. There were no clinically significant vaccine-related changes in CD4 count or HIV RNA load in any subjects, and no evidence from qPCR analyses to indicate that MVA85A vaccination leads to widespread preferential infection of vaccine-induced CD4 T cell populations. Both doses of MVA85A induced an antigen-specific IFN-γ response that was durable for 24 weeks, although of a lesser magnitude compared with historical data from HIV-uninfected subjects. The functional quality of the vaccine-induced T cell response in HIV-infected subjects was remarkably comparable with that observed in healthy HIV-uninfected controls, but less durable. Conclusion MVA85A is safe and immunogenic in healthy adults infected with HIV. Further safety and efficacy evaluation of this candidate vaccine in TB- and HIV-endemic areas is merited.
    BMJ Open 01/2011; 1(2):e000223. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The development of a new, more effective vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) for use in healthy and HIV-infected adults, children and infants, remains a global health priority. MVA85A is a candidate tuberculosis vaccine designed to enhance immunity to the existing vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). MVA85A entered clinical trials in 2002 and has now progressed to Phase IIb proof-of-concept efficacy trials in infants and HIV-infected adults in Africa.MethodsA detailed analysis was conducted of the cumulative safety data of intradermal delivery of MVA85A in 112 healthy adult subjects in a series of open label, single arm, non-controlled, Phase I safety and immunogenicity clinical trials in the UK. The trials differed with respect to previous mycobacterial exposure, vaccine regime and dose. Objective safety measures (local reaction size and body temperature) were evaluated for correlations with adaptive antigen-specific immune responses.ResultsAll subjects in the combined mid-dose group developed a local reaction, of which 92% were mild, 8% were moderate and no reactions were severe. Around 90% of subjects in each group reported at least one systemic adverse event, most commonly headache, myalgia, malaise, feeling feverish, fatigue and arthralgia. Of all systemic adverse events in the combined mid-dose group, 96% were mild, 3% were moderate and 1% were severe (but none of these were judged to be vaccine-related). Pre-vaccination mycobacterial exposure did not affect the adverse event profile. The size of local reaction and frequency of systemic adverse events increased with MVA85A vaccine dose. There were no documented fevers in the low-dose group, whilst 3% of subjects in the combined mid-dose group and 21% in the high-dose group had documented fevers. Peak local reactions were larger after a second poxvirus vaccination, but other local and systemic adverse events were comparable to a single MVA85A vaccination. No severe systemic AEs or serious adverse events in any group were judged to be vaccine-related. Local AEs compared favourably to BCG vaccine-induced local AE and systemic AEs after MVA85A vaccination were comparable to those after the live viral Yellow Fever vaccine in similar populations. There were no correlations found between local reaction size or body temperature and adaptive immune responses (measured by ex vivo interferon gamma Enzyme Linked Immunospot).Conclusions The candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A has been safely administered to over 100 healthy adults in the UK. Intradermal vaccination with MVA85A induced a transient, superficial reaction local to the injection site and mild short-lived viral symptoms. The local and systemic AE profile of MVA85A vaccination was comparable to published data of other intradermal vaccines and live viral vaccines respectively. Local reaction sizes and body temperature measurements did not correlate with the adaptive cellular immune response to MVA85A.
    Trials in Vaccinology. 1:27–35.