[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quadriceps or Q-angle is an index of the vector for the combined pull of the extensor mechanisms and the patellar tendon. It is used as an indicator for patellofemoral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this article is to systematically review and appraise the literature to determine the reliability and validity of this test. An electronic database search was performed accessing AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, the Cochrane database, EMBASE, ovid Medline, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), PsycINFO, Pubmed and Zetoc to April 2008. All English language, human subject, clinical trials, assessing the inter- or intra-tester reliability, or the criterion validity, were included. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme appraisal tool was used to establish the methodological quality of each study. Ten articles including 569 control and 179 patellofemoral disorder knees were reviewed. The findings suggest that there is considerable disagreement on the reliability and validity of the clinical Q-angle measurement. This may be due to a lack of standardisation in the measurement procedure. Further study is advocated to re-evaluate this topic using well-designed, and sufficiently large observational studies of specific patellofemoral dysfunction populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle haematomas may present in athletes following a muscle tear or contusion injury. The objective of this literature review was to examine the literature pertaining to the physiotherapeutic management of muscle haematomas. An electronic literature search was performed of the databases AMED, Cinahl, Embase, PEDro and Ovid Medline from their inception to April 2006. Human and animal subject, clinical trials, written in English, which could assist in the assessment of this topic, were included. Seventeen (of 7794) papers met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The review concluded that few clinical trials have been published assessing the efficacy of these strategies. Furthermore, since numerous methodological weaknesses plagued the limited evidence-base, it was not possible to support or refute the application of different physiotherapy modalities, for the treatment of muscle haematomas. Further study is recommended to identify the best therapeutic interventions to treat muscle haematomas.
Physical Therapy in Sport 11/2006; 7(4):201-9. · 1.37 Impact Factor