[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Donor-specific HLA alloantibodies may cause acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and significantly compromise allograft survival. The clinical relevance of antibodies directed against some HLA class II antigens, particularly HLA-DP, is less clear with conflicting reports on their pathogenicity. We report two patients with high levels of pretransplant donor-specific HLA-DP antibodies who subsequently developed recurrent acute AMR and graft failure. In both cases, there were no other donor-specific HLA alloantibodies, suggesting that the HLA-DP-specific antibodies may be directly pathogenic.
American Journal of Transplantation 07/2012; 12(10):2845-8. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder in which deficiency of α-Galactosidase A (α-Gal A), leads to accumulation of glycosphingolipids in the vascular endothelium, kidneys and heart. Males with classical disease present in childhood, however some individuals with low levels of α-Gal A activity present atypically with adult onset renal impairment. Screening studies in patients with established end-stage renal failure (ESRF) suggest that up to 1.5% of patients have sub-normal α-Gal A levels. We used the dried blood spot (DBS) enzyme activity test to screen for undiagnosed Fabry disease in patients with ESRF.
Male hemodialysis patients treated at a single UK center (n = 155) were screened using the DBS assay. In patients with low enzyme activity on DBS, α-Gal A activity was assessed in plasma and leucocytes.
8 of the 155 (5%) patients screened showed low enzyme activity on the DBS assay. Confirmatory testing of plasma and leucocyte α-Gal A activity showed normal activity in all cases tested, indicating a false positive DBS result.
This study is the first screening program in UK hemodialysis patients using the DBS test and did not identify any new cases of Fabry disease. In this cohort, the DBS enzyme assay had a false positive rate of 2.6%, emphasizing the need for validation with alternative techniques.