[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National cohort and intercohort studies have been set to describe the differences of life expectancy (LE) of HIV-infected individuals.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of immune recovery (IR) on LE of patients with HIV undergoing combination antiretroviral therapy.
In this retrospective observational study, outcome measure was LE of patients with HIV compared with LE of northern Italian population. Group categorizations were as follows: patients with no immune recovery (nIR), patients with IR, patients who are immune maintained, and pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and post-HAART. Abridged life tables were constructed from age-specific mortality rates (per 1000 person years) to estimate LE from the age of 20-55 years.
A total of 9671 patients, 71% men, were included. After 2005, we assisted to a rapid increase in the overall rate of patients attaining IR in the community coupled with a progressive decrease of AIDS death, but not of non-AIDS deaths. In a 40-year-old patient, LE was 38.10 years [standard error (SE) = 2.60], 30.08 years (SE = 0.98), and 22.9 (SE = 0.69) in the IR, post-HAART group and nIR, respectively, compared with 41.38 years of the general Italian population. An approximately 5-year gap in LE was observed in IR patients.
We describe IR at a "community" level, related to calendar year and apparent 10 years after HAART introduction. HAART community IR is significantly influencing LE and is associated with the changing clinical picture of HIV disease. An increasing gradient of LE exists between nIR, post-HAART, and IR groups, with the latter, above the age of 40 years only, reaching LE of general population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the increased prevalence of noninfectious comorbidities (NICMs) observed among HIV-infected patients may result in increased direct costs of medical care compared to the general population. Our objective was to provide estimates of and describe factors contributing to direct costs for medical care among HIV-infected patients, focusing on NICM care expenditure.
A case-control study analyzing direct medical care costs in 2009. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced HIV-infected patients (cases) were compared to age, sex, and race-matched adults from the general population, included in the CINECA ARNO database (controls). NICMs evaluated included cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, bone fractures, and renal failure. Medical care cost information evaluated included pharmacy, outpatient, and inpatient hospital expenditures. Linear regression models were constructed to evaluate predictors of total care cost for the controls and cases.
There were 2854 cases and 8562 controls. Mean age was 46 years and 37% were women. We analyzed data from 29,275 drug prescription records. Positive predictors of health care cost in the overall population: HIV infection (β = 2878; confidence interval (CI) = 2001-3755); polypathology (β = 8911; CI = 8356-9466); age (β = 62; CI = 45-79); and ART exposure (β = 18,773; CI = 17,873-19,672). Predictors of health care cost among cases: Center for Disease Control group C (β = 1548; CI = 330-2766); polypathology (β = 11,081; CI = 9447-12,716); age < 50 years (β = 1903; CI = 542-3264); protease inhibitor exposure (per month of use; β = 69; CI = 53-85); CD4 count < 200 cells/mm(3) (β = 5438; CI = 3082-7795); and ART drug change (per change; β = 911; CI = 716-1106).
Total cost of medical care is higher in cases than controls. Lower medical costs associated with higher CD4 strata are offset by increases in the care costs needed for advancing age, particularly for NICMs.
ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research 01/2013; 5:481-488.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events in the general population. We studied the association of general adiposity measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and ectopic adipose tissue [visceral adipose tissue (VAT); liver fat (LF); EAT) with prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) (prior myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke, peripheral vascular disease] in 583 HIV-infected men. VAT, EAT, and LF (liver/spleen attenuation ratio < 1.1) were measured by computed tomography. Patients' mean age was 48.5 ± 8.1 years, prior CVD was present in 33 (5.7%) patients. Factors independently associated with CVD on multivariable analyses were age [incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.12], smoking (IRR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.22 to 6.01), Center for Disease Control group C (IRR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.41 to 6.76), EAT (IRR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.24, per 10 cm), LF (IRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.32), and VAT (IRR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.10, per 10 cm). Ectopic fat but not general adiposity measures were associated with prevalent CVD in men with HIV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: HIV-infected postmenopausal women have higher rates of bone loss than HIV negative women. We aimed to identify predictors of body mass density (BMD) in HIV infected women entering menopause and to evaluate the pre- and post-menopausal BMD change, with regard to tenofovir (TDF) use. Methods: Women with at least one DEXA measurement were enrolled. The observation period was divided into: "Reproductive period", "Menopause transition period", "Early menopause period", "Late menopause period". BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-4) and femur neck were measured by DEXA. Lowess smoothing curves were drawn to analyze impact of menopause and TDF on BMD. Three different longitudinal linear regression models with random effects were built. Longitudinal regression analysis fits cross sectional time series regression models and allows to analyze repeated measures for each patient. Results: Fifty-five women were included. Median age at enrollment was 46 years (IQ range 44-49). Median observation period was 16 months (IQ range 8; 23) and 33 months (IQ range 23; 72) for pre- and post-menopausal respectively. At enrollment mean CD4 cell count was 553 cell/mL (±269.62) and HIV-VL was undetectable in 77.5% of patients: 6 women were not undergoing ART. Most common backbone TDF/FTC (46.9%) and ABC/3TC (20.4%). At the time of inclusion in the cohort osteopenia and ostoeporosis were present in 60% and 3.64%, respectively. At the time of last DEXA evaluation osteopenia and osteoporosis were present in 78.18% and 36.36%, respectively. The impact of menopause on lumbar BMD was depicted (fig. 1) using a lowess smoothing analysis according to current TDF exposure (as treated model). Lumbar BMD change predictors were years from menopause and TDF current exposure in the "Early menopause period" and years from menopause, Baseline lumbar BMD, BMI and vitD supplementation in the "Late menopause period". Discussion: This is the first study analyzing BMD across menopause. BMD was stable in the pre-menopause period while BMD loss characterized the post-menopause period. Traditional risk factors contributed to BMD change in the post -menopause period. Current TDF exposure was independently associated with BMD change in the "Early menopause period" only, but not confirmed in the "Late menopause period", suggesting a compensating mechanism occurring after the second year post-menopause.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2012; 15(6):18317. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may have a greater risk of noninfectious comorbidities (NICMs) compared with the general population. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for NICMs in a large cohort of HIV-infected adults and compared these findings with data from matched control subjects.
We performed a case-control study involving antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced HIV-infected patients treated at Modena University, Italy, from 2002 through 2009. These patients were compared with age-, sex-, and race-matched adults (control subjects) from the general population included in the CINECA ARNO database. NICMs included cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, bone fractures, and renal failure. Polypathology (Pp) was defined as the concurrent presence of ≥2 NICMs. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associated predictors of NICMs and Pp.
There were 2854 patients and 8562 control subjects. The mean age was 46 years, and 37% were women. Individual NICM and Pp prevalences in each age stratum were higher among patients than among controls (all P <.001). Pp prevalence among patients aged 41-50 years was similar to that among controls aged 51-60 years (P value was not statistically significant); diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, bone fractures, and renal failure were statistically independent after adjustment for sex, age, and hypertension. Logistic regression models showed that independent predictors of Pp in the overall cohort were (all P < .001) age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11), male sex (OR, 1.77), nadir CD4 cell count <200 cells/μL (OR, 4.46), and ART exposure (OR, 1.01).
Specific age-related NICMs and Pp were more common among HIV-infected patients than in the general population. The prevalence of Pp in HIV-infected persons anticipated Pp prevalence observed in the general population among persons who were 10 years older, and HIV-specific cofactors (lower nadir CD4 cell count and more prolonged ART exposure) were identified as risk factors. These data support the need for earlier screening for NICMs in HIV-infected patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morphological abnormalities (lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation) and metabolic changes (dyslipidaemia and glucose regulation impairment) have emerged as components of lipodystrophy and as major tolerability issues with long-term use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive patients. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are recognized as having the greatest impact in terms of metabolic complications, followed by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, while the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have the least impact. In particular, regimens based on the NNRTI nevirapine have been shown to achieve significant metabolic benefits and may help to improve dyslipidaemia. Improvements in body shape changes associated with lipodystrophy have also been reported when nevirapine replaced a PI in long-term triple therapy.
The objective of this cross-sectional observational ('real-world') study was to investigate the effect of three HAART regimens plus stable nevirapine therapy on morphological and metabolic components of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients.
Consecutive patients (aged >18 years) with serologically documented HIV infection, who had received HAART for at least 2 years and who had been diagnosed with lipodystrophy, were followed up as outpatients at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. Patients received stable nevirapine therapy plus fixed-dose combinations of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (Truvada(®); TVD), zidovudine plus lamivudine (3TC) [Combivir(®); CBV], or abacavir plus lamivudine (Kivexa(®); KVX). Multivariate regression analyses were performed to analyse predictors of four components of lipodystrophy: lipoatrophy using leg fat mass measured by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), fat accumulation using waist circumference, dyslipidaemia using apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratio, and glucose intolerance using the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR).
Overall, 101 patients were enrolled (TVD group = 61, CBV group = 20, KVX group = 20); 191 observations were analysed. Male sex was associated with reduced leg fat mass, while age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with increased leg fat mass (all p < 0.05). Leg fat mass and male sex were associated with increased waist circumference (p < 0.001 for both). Leg fat mass predicted reduced ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, while age and BMI predicted increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (all p < 0.05). BMI predicted HOMA-IR increase (p = 0.0017). No differences in lipoatrophy, central fat accumulation, dyslipidaemia or glucose metabolism were observed among any of the three different nevirapine plus nucleoside backbone groups (TVD, CBV or KVX).
HAART including nevirapine has a limited impact on components of lipodystrophy in patients with HIV infection. Further studies are needed to verify if nevirapine overcomes the expected distinct lipodystrophy risk profile associated with different nucleoside backbone therapies.
Clinical Drug Investigation 09/2011; 31(11):759-67. · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular risk is increased in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population, making HIV disease an ideal model to investigate the pathogenesis and natural history of atherosclerosis. In this pilot study, we compared the progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) between HIV-infected and uninfected patients.
Atherosclerosis progression was assessed in 25 HIV-infected men and 13 HIV-negative controls by means of sequential CAC scans using CT. A CAC score progression ≥ 15%/year was used as a surrogate marker of increased risk of cardiovascular events.
During a median follow-up of 11 months, a CAC score increase ≥ 15%/year was detected in 14 HIV-infected patients (56%) and 4 HIV-negative individuals (31%). HIV infection, age and hypercholesterolaemia were independently associated with a CAC score increase ≥ 15%/year in an adjusted Cox regression model.
HIV infection, age and hypercholesterolaemia were independently associated with CAC progression. HIV as well as traditional risk factors contribute to accelerate atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 06/2011; 66(8):1857-60. · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although half of HIV-infected patients develop lipodystrophy and metabolic complications, there exists no simple clinical screening tool to discern the high from the low-risk HIV-infected patient. Thus, we evaluated the associations between waist circumference (WC) combined with triglyceride (TG) levels and the severity of lipodystrophy and cardiovascular risk among HIV-infected men and women.
1481 HIV-infected men and 841 HIV-infected women were recruited between 2005 and 2009 at the metabolic clinic of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia in Italy. Within each gender, patients were categorized into 4 groups according to WC and TG levels. Total and regional fat and fat-free mass were assessed by duel-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT) were quantified by computed tomography. Various cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in clinic after an overnight fast.
The high TG/high WC men had the most VAT (208.0 ± 94.4 cm(2)), as well as the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (42.2%) and type-2 diabetes (16.2%), and the highest Framingham risk score (10.3 ± 6.5) in comparison to other groups (p<0.05 for all). High TG/high WC women also had elevated VAT (150.0 ± 97.9 cm(2)) and a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (53.3%), hypertension (30.5%) and type-2 diabetes (12.0%), and Framingham risk score(2.9 ± 2.8) by comparison to low TG/low WC women (p<0.05 for all).
A simple tool combining WC and TG levels can discriminate high- from low-risk HIV-infected patients.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e25032. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most striking effect of increased survival and improved quality of life in HIV-infected women undergoing antiretroviral therapy is the feasibility of motherhood-desire satisfaction. However, such advantages are often associated with drug-related metabolic toxicities, particularly relevant in the pregnancy context. Recent guidelines provide recommendations and trends for the use of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women, but current literature falls short of providing specific insights on the need for metabolic monitoring and treatment in HIV-infected pregnant women. In this review we provide specific insight into the state-of-the-art of: detection, evaluation, and management of metabolic alterations in this special population. Pregnancy is in fact a metabolic transition process, potentially associated with specific diseases in the mother, in the newborn, and in the adulthood of the child. We will not simply discuss antiretroviral therapy metabolic toxicities, but rather their interaction with the physiological metabolic changes occurring during pregnancy. Close monitoring is needed to diagnose metabolic alterations that can lead to adverse outcomes in the mother, in the newborn, and potentially in adulthood. Lifestyle interventions and an appropriate metabolic tailoring of antiretroviral therapy drugs need to be considered in the prevention and treatment of metabolic alteration during pregnancy.