[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hormonal male contraception based on testosterone alone or on a combination of testosterone with a gestagen has been shown to suppress spermatogenesis effectively and to be fully reversible. However, clinical studies to date have only included volunteers with so-called 'normal' semen values by WHO standards. As a male contraceptive should be available to all interested men regardless of their semen parameters, we investigated how volunteers with subnormal semen parameters would respond to hormonal male contraception. During a 34-week treatment phase, the volunteers received injections of 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate in weeks 0, 6, 14 and 24. This was followed by a 24-week recovery and follow-up period. As it was not known whether men with subnormal semen parameters would recover to starting levels, cryopreservation of semen was offered to all subnormal volunteers. Twenty-three men with normal semen parameters and 18 with sperm counts below 20 million completed the trial. The normal volunteers showed the expected response with 17 suppressing sperm counts below 1 million/ejaculate (13 showing azoospermia) and six not-suppressing below 1 million sperm/ejaculate. By the end of the recovery period, all sperm counts had returned to the range of starting values. The subnormal group showed a similar pattern with 13 of 18 (= 72%) men suppressing below 1 million/ejaculate (8/18 = 44% showing azoospermia) and the remaining 5 of 18 (= 28%) not-suppressing sperm counts below 1 million/ejaculate. All sperm counts returned to the starting range. The study shows that in Caucasian men with normal sperm counts as well as in men with subnormal sperm counts, testosterone alone can produce azoospermia in about half and suppression below one million in about two-thirds of the volunteers. The same proportion of men in both groups appears to require an additional gestagen for full contraceptive protection. Most importantly, regarding suppressibility and reversibility, volunteers with normal and subnormal sperm counts display the same pattern.
International Journal of Andrology 06/2011; 34(6 Pt 1):556-67. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review illustrates the principle of hormonal male contraception and gives an overview of current trials aiming at the development of a marketable hormonal contraceptive for men. The principle of male hormonal contraception is based on strong suppression of gonadotropins in order to arrest spermatogenesis at the spermatogonial stem cell level, thus leading to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Until now, it has not been possible to interrupt spermatogenesis effectively without simultaneously inhibiting the production of androgens by Leydig cells, resulting in a deficiency of extra-testicular androgens. Therefore, testosterone needs to be replaced. By administering exogenous testosterone alone azoospermia can be reached in East Asians, whereas azoospermia is only achieved in two-thirds of Caucasian volunteers so that in these men an additional agent is required. Currently injectable testosterone combined with gestagens or administered as implants are being tested for possible licensing. Although scrotal and non-scrotal testosterone patches, orally administered testosterone undecanoate and testosterone gels are generally well tolerated and provide stable testosterone levels in the normal range, their use showed generally disappointing efficacy due to insufficient gonadotropin suppression. Further large multi-centre studies are required to establish the contraceptive efficacy of the most promising steroid combinations.
The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 07/2006; 11(2):69-80. · 1.84 Impact Factor