M L Schneider

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (7)23.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we assessed behavioral responses to social separation at 8 months of age and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of biogenic amines and metabolites at 8 and 18 months of age in 12 rhesus monkeys derived from either stressed or undisturbed pregnancies. Compared to controls from undisturbed pregnancies, prenatal stress-derived monkeys had higher concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in CSF than controls. Norepinephrine and MHPG response to stress were both correlated between 8 and 18 months of age. There were few group differences in behavior during social separation; however, several behavioral differences between groups were found when monkeys were reunited with cage mates. Prenatally stressed monkeys spent more time clinging to their surrogates and exploring (including eating and drinking), while controls showed more locomotion and social play with their cage mates. Collectively, our findings suggest that chronic unpredictable psychological stress during pregnancy has long-lasting effects on noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity and behavior in the offspring of gestationally stressed primate mothers.
    Development and Psychopathology 02/1998; 10(3):427-40. DOI:10.1017/S0954579498001679 · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • E C Roughton, M L Schneider, L J Bromley, C L Coe
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal endocrine activation during pregnancy would affect the neurobehavioral state of primate offspring in a manner similar to that observed in human infants from pregnancies involving maternal substance abuse or maternal stress. Twenty-two rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were derived from females administered either adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), which increased the mother's endocrine activity, or saline solutions for 14 consecutive days during mid-pregnancy. On days 15 and 30 postpartum, infants underwent brief separations from their mothers and were videotaped for later evaluation of neurobehavioral state. Infants from mothers administered ACTH spent significantly more time in a drowsy state than did controls (p < .04), and the increased drowsiness tended to be most pronounced during the postseparation period, when acute stress was highest. In contrast, controls remained in a more active alert state (p < .03), presumably searching for their mother, a species-typical adaptive response to maternal separation. Female infants spent more time in distressed state than did males on day 15, and the proportion of time in distressed state decreased in all infants after administration of .2 ml of 24% sucrose solution. The results demonstrate that neurobehavioral state alterations are found in infants from mothers with increased endocrine activity during pregnancy. Neurobehavioral state disorganization can have an adverse impact on the human infant's concurrent and subsequent occupational performance. These findings establish the usefulness of the nonhuman primate model for advancing knowledge on early contributions to the development of human infant occupational behavior.
    The American journal of occupational therapy.: official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association 02/1998; 52(2):90-8. DOI:10.5014/ajot.52.2.90 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • A S Clarke, M L Schneider
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 02/1997; 807:490-1. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb51947.x · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • A S Clarke, D J Wittwer, D H Abbott, M L Schneider
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of stress to the pregnant mother on hormonal responses of the offspring to stressful events was investigated in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Six pregnant monkeys were repeatedly removed from their home cages and exposed to unpredictable noise during mid- to late gestation (Days 90-145 postconception), while six undisturbed pregnant mothers served as controls. Blood samples were collected from the juvenile offspring under anesthesia on four occasions and assayed for ACTH and cortisol. In a second experiment, blood samples were collected from the awake offspring under a baseline and four progressively stressful conditions. Offspring of stressed mothers showed higher ACTH and cortisol levels than control offspring at all four anesthesia samples and at a nonanesthesized home cage baseline. Prenatally stressed offspring also showed higher ACTH values in all four stress conditions. Cortisol values were similar for the two groups under the stress conditions. The disparity between the two groups in the relationship between ACTH and cortisol was greatest in the most stressful condition, suggesting regulatory differences between the two groups. These results indicate that offspring of primate mothers stressed during pregnancy show enhanced HPA axis responsivity to stressors later in life, and concur with rodent findings indicating that prenatal stress may have long-term effects on HPA axis regulation.
    Developmental Psychobiology 07/1994; 27(5):257-69. DOI:10.1002/dev.420270502 · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • C L Coe, J W Kemnitz, M L Schneider
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal and fetal/infant antibody levels were assessed across pregnancy and at birth to evaluate the prenatal transmission of IgG in the rhesus monkey. Although some antibody was evident in the fetus by midpregnancy, the marked increase in IgG occurred primarily during the last two weeks of pregnancy. This delay until the end of pregnancy would result in low antibody titers in premature infants. In contrast, when gestation length was normal, the placental transfer of IgG was resistant to both dexamethasone treatment and a prolonged period of stress during pregnancy. This resiliency occurred despite an effect of prenatal stress on other aspects of infant development, including physical growth and the fetal synthesis of complement proteins.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 08/1993; 22(5):294-300. · 0.89 Impact Factor
  • A S Clarke, M L Schneider
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of maternal psychological disturbance during pregnancy on postnatal responses of the offspring to stressful events was investigated in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Six pregnant monkeys were repeatedly removed from their home cages and briefly exposed to unpredictable noise during mid to late gestation (Days 90-145 postconception). Six undisturbed pregnant mothers served as controls. Behavioral data were later collected from the 18-month-old offspring under a baseline and four progressively stressful conditions. Social behaviors were considerably more affected by prenatal treatment than nonsocial behaviors. Prenatally stressed offspring showed more abnormal social behavior (mutual clinging) and less normal social behavior (proximity, contact) than controls. These results suggest that offspring of mothers stressed during pregnancy may show enhanced responsivity to stressors later in life, and concur with rodent findings indicating that prenatal stress may have long-term effects on behavioral reactivity.
    Developmental Psychobiology 07/1993; 26(5):293-304. DOI:10.1002/dev.420260506 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of early rearing conditions on immunologic development was investigated in infant monkeys. Lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and antibody responses to tetanus vaccination were compared in 30 rhesus monkeys reared under five different conditions. Lymphocyte responses to two mitogens (concanavalin A and pokeweed) were significantly increased in infants from disturbed rearing conditions compared with control infants that had been reared in an undisturbed manner by their mothers. The largest increases occurred in nursery-reared monkeys that had been fed Similac infant formula. The nursery-reared monkeys also tended to show lower natural killer cell activity, but there were no significant differences in response to vaccination. These findings support other research indicating that psychologic and nutritional aspects of the early rearing environment may have long-lasting effects on some, but not all, immune responses in the developing infant.
    Pediatrics 10/1992; 90(3 Pt 2):505-9. · 5.30 Impact Factor