[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
There is evidence that CD36 promotes foam cell formation through internalizing oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) into macrophages; therefore, it plays a key role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In addition, CD36 expression seems to be mediated by nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of PPAR-γ ligands, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) as an anti-atherogenic factor and ox-LDL as an atherogenic factor on CD36 expression. Mechanism of PPAR- γ action and its ligands in CD36 expression were also investigated.
Raw 264.7 macrophage cell line was treated with ox-LDL (100 and 150 μg protein/LDL) and EPA (100 and 200 μM) for 24 and 48 hours in absence or presence of PPAR-γ inhibitor, T0070907. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western-blotting were used for analysis of gene and protein expression, respectively.
Raw 264.7 exposures to ox-LDL and EPA resulted in increased expression of CD36 mRNA and protein; however, mRNA and PPAR-γ protein were not up-regulated significantly. Pre-incubation of cells with T0070907 led to decreased expression of CD36 when treated with ox-LDL and EPA.
It was confirmed that both EPA and ox-LDL increased CD36 expression but not PPAR-γ, and also co-treatment with PPAR-γ inhibitor decreased CD36 expression. We concluded that up-regulation of CD36 depends on PPAR-γ activation and is not related to increased expression of PPAR-γ. Induction of CD36 by EPA showed that CD36 suppression is not the means by which ω-3 fatty acids (EPA) provide protection against formation of atherosclerotic plaque.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Bradford protein assay is a popular method because of its rapidity, sensitivity and relative specificity. This method is subject to some interference by nonprotein compounds. In the present study, we describe the interference of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with Bradford assay. This interference is based on the interaction of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (CBB) with this cationic detergent. This study suggests that both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions involved in interaction of CTAB and CBB. The anionic and neutral forms of CBB bind to CTAB by electrostatic attractions which accelerate hydrophobic interactions of these CBB forms and hydrophobic tail of CTAB. Consequently, the hydrophobic regions of dominant free cationic form of CBB dye compete for tail of CTAB with two other forms of dye and gradually displace the primary hydrophobic interactions and rearrange the primary CBB-CTAB complex. This interaction of CTAB and CBB dye produces a primary 650 nm absorbing complex that then gradually rearranges to a complex that shows an absorbance shoulder at 800-950 nm. This study conclusively shows a strong response of CBB to CTAB that causes a time dependent and nearly additive interference with Bradford assay. This study also may promote an application of CBB for CTAB quantification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) in damaged nervous tissue is believed to prune glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans, thereby facilitates axon regeneration. However, the utilization of cABC I as therapeutics is notably restricted due to its thermal instability. In the present study, we have explored the possibility of themostabilization of cABC I through release of its conformational strain using Ramachandran plot information. In this regard, Gln140 with non-optimal φ and ψ values were replaced with Gly, Ala and Asn. The results indicated that Q140G and Q140A mutants were able to improve both activity and thermal stability of the enzyme while Q140N variant reduced the enzyme activity and destabilized it. Moreover, the two former variants displayed a remarkable resistance to trypsin degradation. Structural analysis of all mutants showed an increase in intrinsic fluorescence intensity and secondary structure content of Q140G and Q140A compared to the wild type which indicated more compact structure upon mutation. This investigation demonstrated that relief of conformational tension can be considered as a possible approach to increase the stability of the protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) from Proteus vulgaris cleaves glycosaminoglycan chains which are responsible for most of the inhibition of axon regrowth in spinal cord injury. The clinical utilization of this enzyme is mainly limited by its thermal instability. This study has been undertaken to determine the effects of glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose on cABC I activity and thermal stability. The results indicated that the enzyme catalytic activity and intrinsic fluorescence intensity increased in the presence of these cosolvents whereas no considerable conformational changes observed in far-UV CD spectra. Thermal CD experiment revealed an increase in T(m) of cABC I in the presence of cosolvents which was significant for trehalose. Our results support the idea that cABC I has stabilized in the presence of glycerol, sorbitol and trehalose. Therefore, the use of these cosolvents seems to be promising for improvement in shelf-life and clinical applications of this drug enzyme.
International journal of biological macromolecules 04/2012; 50(3):487-92. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.01.009 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene D allele is an independent risk factor for early onset coronary artery disease (CAD). Little is known about the concomitant presence of the ACE gene D allele and paraoxonase (PON1) codon 192 arginine (Arg) on the severity of CAD. Regarding the high rate of CAD among Iranians the aim of present study was to examine the hypothesis of synergistic effects between ACE-D and PON1-Arg alleles on predisposition and the severity of CAD in our population. The PON1 192 and ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP and PCR, respectively in 414 individuals undergoing their first coronary angiography. Patients were placed into one of two groups: CAD and control without CAD or diabetes. We mentioned the synergistic effects of both genes and not ACE gene alone is a risk factor for CAD. We found that PON1 Arg 192 and ACE D allele act synergistically to increase the risk of CAD (OR 1.3, P = 0.044). Our results showed a significant correlation between the possession of both PON1 192 Arg and the ACE D allele and the extent of CAD in CAD patients and CAD subjects without diabetes, represented by the increased frequency of three-vessel disease with OR 2.7, P = 0.046; χ(2) = 4, P = 0.046 and OR 2.4, P = 0.051; χ(2) = 3.8, P = 0.051, respectively. We found that PON1 Arg 192 and ACE D alleles act synergistically to increase the risk of CAD in CAD patients and CAD subjects without diabetes from west of Iran, who have high frequency of three-vessel disease. Our data suggest that PON1 192 Arg and the ACE D allele in combination with each other can be important independent risk factor for severity of CAD in patients carrying both PON1 192 Arg and the ACE D allele in a west population of Iran.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the paraoxonase (PON1) codon 192 polymorphism [glutamine (Q)/arginine (R)] in coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the PON1 gene polymorphism is an independent risk factor for severity of coronary artery disease in patients from west of Iran. The PON1-Arg-192 genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP in 414 individuals undergoing their first coronary angiography. Patients were placed into one of two groups: CAD and control without CAD or diabetes. The frequency of PON1-Arg-192 allele was significantly higher in the CAD (23.4 vs. 16%, P = 0.032) than in the control group and there was a higher risk of developing CAD (OR = 1.6, P = 0.02). In addition, this difference remained significant after adjustment for without history of diabetes (OR = 1.47, P = 0.048), presence of normolipidemia and absence of history of blood pressure (OR = 1.4, P = 0.05). This result indicated PON1-Arg-192 allele is a risk factor of CAD also when correcting for conventional risk factors. We found a significant association between the PON1-Arg-192 genotype (QR + RR) and the extent of CAD in CAD patients and CAD subjects without diabetes, represented by the increased frequency of three-vessel disease with OR = 1.49, P = 0.046; χ2 = 3.82, P = 0.048 and OR = 1.46, P = 0.05; χ2 = 3.48, P = 0.051, respectively. The CAD patients carrying PON1-Arg-192 genotype (QR + RR) had lower plasma HDL-C level (P = 0.019) and higher plasma LDL-C(P = 0.01) and TG(P = 0.05). Our results indicated that PON1-Arg-192 allele can be important independent risk factor of CAD in a west population of Iran, with carriers of PON1-Arg-192 having an increased frequency of three-vessel disease and also having a distinct plasma lipids profile. Larger collaborative studies are needed to confirm these results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine and other choline esters and is also involved in lipid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate any association between BuChE serum phenotype and activity and lipid profile of ischemic stroke patients.
We determined serum BuChE activities and phenotypes, and levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C and triacylglyerol (TG) in 33 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 12 h of the onset of the attack and 29 controls.
The mean (+/-SD) serum BuChE activity and the BuChE of U/A phenotype in the stroke individuals were significantly lower and higher than that of the control (315 (+/-124) IU/L. vs. 384 (+/-99) IU/L, p=0.02, t=-2.4 and 21.2% vs.3.4%, p=0.026 respectively).
Our results showed that a negative correlation between BuChE activity with TC level, in addition the frequency of BuChE phenotypes with low activity is high in stroke patients, who have high levels of cholesterol, may have increased susceptibility to stroke.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are evidence suggesting that APOE-varepsilon4 allele play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by reducing peripheral levels and activities of a broad spectrum of nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants systems. However, the link between APOE genotype, oxidative stress, and AD has yet to be established. In this study we examined whether antioxidant defense mechanism exacerbates the risk of AD in individual carrying APOE-varepsilon4 allele in a population from Tehran, Iran.
We determined the enzymatic activities of the erythrocyte Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and serum level of total antioxidant status(TAS) in various APOE genotypes in 91 patients with AD and 91 healthy subjects as control group (age and sex-matched).
The results showed that the TAS level and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants CAT and GSH-Px were significantly lower and the SOD activity was significantly higher in AD patients compared to controls. The AD patients with APOE-varepsilon4 allele genotype had significantly lower serum TAS concentration and lower erythrocytes GSH-Px and CAT activities (p=0.001) but significantly higher erythrocytes Cu-Zn SOD activity (p=0.001) than the non-APOE-varepsilon4 carrier AD and the control group. In addition, the association observed between the factors involved in an antioxidant defense mechanism and APOE-varepsilon4 allele in AD increased with age of the subjects.
These data indicate that the reduced serum level of TAS and activity of CAT, GSH-Px and increased SOD exacerbate the risk of AD in individuals carrying APOE-varepsilon4 allele. The reduced antioxidants defense in APOE-varepsilon4 allele carrier may contribute to beta-amyloidosis. This effect, however, is more pronounced in the AD patients older than 75 years of age. This suggests that a therapeutic modality should be considered for these subjects.