[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several population-based and cohort studies have reported an increased risk of second cancers in lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). The cause of second cancers in LPDs is probably multifactorial, and the relative contribution of treatments, genetic predisposition, and immune dysfunction typical of LPDs is still unclear.
We retrospectively studied 230 patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) to assess the frequency, characteristics, and predictive factors of second cancers and to evaluate whether patients with WM are at higher risk of second cancers compared with an age- and sex-matched control population.
In a competing-risk model, the cumulative incidence of solid cancers was 6% at 5 years, 11% at 10 years, and 17% at 15 years, whereas the incidence of hematologic malignancies was 4% at 5 years, 7% at 10 years, and 8% at 15 years. Compared with an age- and sex-matched population, the overall risk of second cancers was 1.7-fold higher than expected (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.38; P = .002). Patients with WM were at increased risk for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 8.64; 95% CI, 3.88-19.22; P < .0001), myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) (SIR 9.5; 95% CI, 3.6-25.3; P < .0001), and brain cancer (SIR, 7.59; 95% CI, 1.9-30.4; P < .0001). The risk of a second hematologic malignancy was 5-fold higher in treated than in untreated patients (P = .08).
Patients with WM are at increased risk of DLBCL, MDS/AML, and brain cancers compared with the general population. Further studies are needed to clarify whether the increased incidence of second cancers is related to treatments, to the immunologic impairment associated with the disease, or to genetic predisposition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes the case of a previously healthy young man who presented with fever, pharyngitis, cervical lymphadenopathy, lymphocytosis, and severe thrombocytopenia. Serological tests for Epstein-Barr virus were diagnostic of a primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis but severe thrombocytopenia aroused the suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disease. T-cell receptor gene analysis performed on peripheral and bone marrow blood revealed a T-cell receptor γ-chain rearrangement without the evidence of malignancy using standard histologic and immunophenotype studies. Signs and symptoms of the infectious disease, blood count, and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement resolved with observation without the evidence of emergence of a lymphoproliferative disease. In the contest of a suspected lymphoproliferative disease, molecular results should be integrated with all available data for an appropriate diagnosis.
Medical Oncology 05/2011; 29(3):2300-2. DOI:10.1007/s12032-011-9987-8 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the risk of transformation of asymptomatic immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy (aIgM MG) into symptomatic lymphoproliferative disease in 287 patients all analyzed for bone marrow histopathology and immunophenotyping. This series included 201 patients with IgM MG of undetermined significance (IgM MGUS) and 86 with smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (sWM). After a median of 50 months (range, 12-322 months), 32 cases of aIgM-MG (11.1%) evolved into symptomatic malignant lymphoproliferative disease, as follows: symptomatic WM (n=26), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=6). The cumulative transformation percentage at 5 and 10 years was 8% and 19.5%, respectively. The parameters significantly correlated with evolution were, at univariate analysis, BM lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum MC, serum IgM size, and serum IgA size. Among patients with aIgM-MG, those at high risk of evolution were patients with sWM, a distinct entity with serum IgM monoclonal protein≥3 g/dL and/or ≥10% bone marrow lymphoplasmacytic infiltration.