[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal neovascularization is a common cause of vision loss in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age-related macular degeneration. Samul-tang (SMT) is a widely used traditional herbal medicine in East Asia and is also known as Shimotsu-to in Japanese and Si-Wu decoction in Chinese. This study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of SMT on retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR).
The mice were exposed to a 75 % concentration of oxygen for five days, starting on postnatal day 7 (P7-P12). The mice were then exposed to room air and were intraperitoneally injected with SMT (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) once per day for five days (P12-P16). On P17, we measured retinal neovascularization and evaluated both the expression of angiogenesis-related proteins and changes in the gene expression level in the mRNA.
SMT reduced the area of the central retina and reduced retinal neovascularization in OIR mice. The protein array revealed that SMT reduced the level of SDF-1 protein expression. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the HIF-1α, SDF-1, CXCR4 and VEGF mRNA levels in the retinas of OIR mice were elevated compared with those of normal control mice. However, SMT decreased the levels of HIF-1α, SDF-1, CXCR4 and VEGF mRNA in OIR mice.
We are the first to elucidate that SMT inhibits the retinal pathogenic angiogenesis induced by ischemic retinopathy in OIR mice. SMT significantly inhibited retinal neovascularization by downregulating HIF-1α, SDF-1, CXCR4 and VEGF. Based on the results of our study, SMT could be a useful herbal medicine for treating ischemic retinopathy.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2015; 15(1):271. DOI:10.1186/s12906-015-0800-7 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Podocyte injury contributes to renal damage and, eventually, to the occurrence of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of an ethanol extract from Rhizoma Polygonum cuspidatum (P. cuspidatum) on proteinuria and podocyte injury, and elucidate the underlying mechanism for streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic nephropathy. The protective effects of P. cuspidatum extract (PCE) on renal podocytes in STZ‑induced diabetic rats were also investigated. PCE (100 or 350 mg/kg/day) was administered to STZ‑induced diabetic rats for 16 weeks, and blood glucose levels, body weight and proteinuria were measured. A double labeling technique with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay was performed and synaptopodin expression was observed. In addition, cleaved caspase‑3, methylglyoxal (MGO) and 8‑hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8‑OHdG) expression levels were measured. STZ‑induced diabetic rats developed hyperglycemia and proteinuria. Increased apoptosis of the podocytes and increased cleaved caspase‑3, MGO and 8‑OHdG expression levels, as well as decreased synaptopodin expression were detected in the glomeruli of STZ‑induced diabetic rats. However, treatment with PCE for 16 weeks restored protein levels to normal, and reduced podocyte loss and apoptosis. Levels of caspase‑3 and MGO expression, as well as oxidative stress were ameliorated by PCE treatment. In addition, emodin, a biologically active ingredient of PCE, exerted an MGO scavenging effect and inhibited MGO‑derived advanced glycation end‑product formation. These findings indicate that PCE may be administered to prevent proteinuria and podocyte loss in STZ‑induced diabetic rats partly by inhibiting podocyte apoptosis and cleaved caspase‑3 expression, and by restoring the balance of oxidative stress and MGO expression.
Molecular Medicine Reports 08/2015; DOI:10.3892/mmr.2015.4214 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retinal accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a condition, which is found in diabetic retinopathy. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of Litsea japonica extract (LJE) and to elucidate its underlying protective mechanism in model diabetic db/db mice. Male, 7 ‑week‑old db/db mice were treated with LJE (100 or 250 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 12 weeks. The expression levels of AGEs and their receptor (RAGE) were subsequently assessed by immunohistochemistry. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and southwestern histochemistry were used to detect activated nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB). The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that LJE significantly reduced the expression levels of the AGEs and RAGE in the neural retinas of the db/db mice. LJE markedly inhibited the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells. In addition, LJE suppressed the activation of NF‑κB. These results suggested that LJE may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes‑induced retinal neurodegeneration, and the ability of LJE to attenuate retinal ganglion cell loss may be mediated by inhibition of the accumulation of AGEs.
Molecular Medicine Reports 03/2015; DOI:10.3892/mmr.2015.3543 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Many dietary supplements have been sold through advertising their large number of beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus) help to prevent diabetes-induced retinal vascular dysfunction in vivo. V. myrtillus extract (VME; 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 6 weeks. All diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia, and VME did not affect the blood glucose levels and body weight during the experiments. In the fluorescein-dextran angiography, the fluorescein leakage was significantly reduced in diabetic rats treated with VME. VME treatment also decreased markers of diabetic retinopathy, such as retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and degradation of zonula occludens-1, occludin and claudin-5 in diabetic rats. In conclusion, VME may prevent or delay the onset of early diabetic retinopathy. These findings have important implications for prevention of diabetic retinopathy using a dietary bilberry supplement.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 01/2015; 66(2):1-7. DOI:10.3109/09637486.2014.979319 · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aldose reductase (AR) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the polyol pathway. AR-dependent synthesis of excess polyols leads to lens opacification in diabetic cataract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of Litsea japonica extract (LJE) on diabetes-induced lens opacification and its protective mechanism in db/db mice. Seven-week-old male db/db mice were treated with LJE (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 12 weeks. LJE dose dependently inhibited rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro (IC50 = 13.53 ± 0.74 µg/mL). In db/db mice, lens was slightly opacified, and lens fiber cells were swollen and ruptured. In addition, lenticular sorbitol accumulation was increased in db/db mice. However, the administration of LJE inhibited these lenticular sorbitol accumulation and lens architectural changes in db/db mice. Our results suggest that LJE might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes-induced lens opacification. The ability of LJE to suppress lenticular sorbitol accumulation may be mediated by the inhibition of AR activity.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2015; 2015:747830. DOI:10.1155/2015/747830 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is highly expressed in the renal tissues of patients with diabetic nephropathy, and it plays an important role in the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of root of Polygonum cuspidatum extract (PCE) on early renal glomerular proliferation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
PCE (100, 350 mg/kg/day) was administered to diabetic rats for 16 weeks. Blood glucose and albuminuria were measured. Renal histology, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression levels were also examined.
After 16 weeks of treatment with PCE, severe hyperglycemia and albuminuria were observed in the diabetic rats. The expressions levels of alpha-SMA and PCNA proteins were significantly increased in the glomeruli of the diabetic rats. The expression levels of PDGF-BB and its receptor expressions were greatly increased in the glomeruli of the diabetic rats. However, PCE markedly reduced albuminuria in the diabetic rats. PCE inhibited alpha-SMA and PCNA up-regulation and ameliorated PDGF-BB and PEGFR-Ss protein expression in the diabetic rats. In addition, the binding of PDGF-BB/PDGFR-Ss was inhibited by PCE as shown by an in vitro assay.
These results suggest that PCE has an inhibitory effect on mesangial proliferation in diabetic renal tissues via the inhibition of the interaction of PDGF-BB with its receptor. PCE may have beneficial effects in preventing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2014; 14(1):477. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-477 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HL-217 is a new synthetic angiogenesis inhibitor. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a vasoactive factor and has been implicated in proliferative retinopathies. In this study, we examined the mechanism of action and efficacy of topical application of HL-217 on subretinal neovascularization in very low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Vldlr−/−) mice. In three-week-old male Vldlr−/− mice, HL-217 (1.5 or 3 mg/ml) was administered twice per day for 4 weeks by topical eye drop instillation. Neovascular areas were then measured. We used a protein array to evaluate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. The inhibitory effect of HL-217 on the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction was evaluated in vitro. The neovascular area in the Vldlr−/− mice was significantly reduced by HL-217. Additionally, HL-217 decreased the expression levels of PDGF-BB protein and VEGF mRNA. Moreover, HL-217 dose-dependently inhibited the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction (IC50 = 38.9 ± 0.7 μM). These results suggest that HL-217 is a potent inhibitor of PDGF-BB. HL-217, when applied topically, is an effective inhibitor of subretinal neovascularization due to its ability to inhibit the pro-angiogenic effects of PDGF-BB.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2014; 456(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.11.033 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal neovascularization is a common pathology in age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a vasoactive factor and has been implicated in proliferative retinopathies. Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse is the standard experimental model of proliferative retinopathies. Sipjeondaebo-tang (SDT) is the most widely used traditional herbal formula in East Asia, also known as Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese and Juzen-taiho-to in Japanese. SDT has been known to exert anti-angiogenic activities in several tumor models, but the role of SDT in proliferative retinopathies remains unclear. Thus, the object of the present study is to examine the mechanism of action and efficacy of SDT on retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy (OIR) mice. Neonatal mice at postnatal day 7 (P7) were exposed to 75% concentration of oxygen for 5 days (P7-P12), and then returned to room air from P12 to P17 to induce retinal neovascularization. SDT were administered once per day for 5 consecutive days (P12-P16) by intraperitoneal injection. Retinal neovascularization was measured at P17. We used a protein array to evaluate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. Inhibitory activity of SDT on PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction was evaluated in vitro. Retinal neovascularization in the OIR mice was significantly decreased by SDT. SDT decreased the expression levels of PDGF-BB protein and VEGF mRNA. Moreover, SDT dose-dependently inhibited PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction (IC50 = 388.82 ± 7.31 µg/ml). In conclusion, SDT is a potent inhibitor of retinal neovascularization through inhibiting the pro-angiogenic effect of PDGF-BB.
The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2014; 234(3):229-36. DOI:10.1620/tjem.234.229 · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) properties is an important feature in the pathology of diabetic retinopathy. Endothelium integrity is important for the normal vascular function. Litsea japonica (Thunb.) Jussieu is a Korean native plant that is consumed as a vegetable food. In this study, we evaluated the ability of an ethanol extract of L. japonica to prevent retinal vascular leakages in db/db mice, which is an animal model of type II diabetes. L. japonica extracts (LJE, 100 and 250 mg/kg) were administered once a day, orally, for 12 weeks. Vehicle-treated db/db mice exhibited hyperglycemia and retinal vascular leakage. LJE treatment blocked diabetes-induced BRB breakdown and decreased retinal VEGF expression in db/db mice. LJE also inhibited the degradation of occludin, which is an important tight junction protein. These findings support the potential therapeutic usefulness of L. japonica for retinal vascular permeability diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in the eyes is a causative factor in retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. This study was designed to examine the pathogenic role of the high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein and the inhibitory effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP), a well-known antioxidant substance, in retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), one of the animal models of proliferative ischemic retinopathy. The OIR mouse model was used for our in vivo studies. The mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P11, after which the mice were brought to room air and intraperitoneally injected with EP (50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg) for five days. At P17, the mice were perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, and flat-mounted retinas were used to measure nonperfused and neovascular tufts. In OIR mice, an intraperitoneal injection of EP reduced the nonperfused retinal area in the treatment group and significantly reduced the retinal neovascular tufts. In addition, EP inhibited the overexpression of HMGB1 in the retinas of OIR mice. These data suggest that EP could serve as an innovative pharmaceutical agent to prevent retinal neovascularization through inhibiting HMGB1 expression.
Journal of Diabetes Research 11/2013; 2013:245271. DOI:10.1155/2013/245271 · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KIOM-79, a herbal mixture of parched Puerariae radix, gingered Magnoliae cortex, Glycyrrhizae radix, and Euphorbiae radix, has a strong inhibitory effect on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation. We investigated the beneficial effects of KIOM-79 on cardiac fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. KIOM-79 (50 or 500 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 13 weeks. AGEs formation and collagen expression in the myocardium were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), transforming growth factor- β 1 (TGF- β 1), collagen IV, fibronectin, urotensin II, and urotensin II receptor were examined in the myocardial tissue of ZDF rats. KIOM-79 treatment at 500 mg/kg inhibited the accumulation of AGEs, reduced RAGE mRNA and protein expression, and reduced the upregulation of cardiac fibrogenic factors, such as fibronectin and collagen IV, in heart of ZDF rats. Additionally, KIOM-79 ameliorated urotensin II/receptor gene expression in the cardiac tissue of ZDF rats. Our findings indicate that KIOM-79 diminishes cardiac fibrosis in ZDF rats by preventing AGEs accumulation and RAGE overexpression and by modulating the cardiac urotensin II/receptor pathway, which decreases the amount of profibrotic factors, such as TGF- β 1, fibronectin, and collagen in cardiac tissue.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2013; 2013:547653. DOI:10.1155/2013/547653 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cataracts are a major cause of human blindness. Aldose reductase (AR) is an important rate-limiting enzyme that contributes to cataract induction in diabetic patients. Scopoletin is the main bioactive constituent of flower buds from Magnolia fargesii and is known to inhibit AR activity. To assess scopoletin's ability to mitigate sugar cataract formation in vivo, we studied its effects in a rat model of dietary galactose-induced sugar cataracts. Galactose-fed rats were orally dosed with scopoletin (10 or 50 mg/kg body weight) once a day for 2 weeks. Administering scopoletin delayed the progression of the cataracts that were induced by dietary galactose. Scopoletin also prevented galactose-induced changes in lens morphology, such as lens fiber swelling and membrane rupture. Scopoletin's protective effect against sugar cataracts was mediated by inhibiting both AR activity and oxidative stress. These results suggest that scopoletin is a useful treatment for sugar cataracts.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2013; 2013:787138. DOI:10.1155/2013/787138 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of L. japonica extract (LJE) against renal damage in the db/db mouse. LJE (100 or 250 mg/kg per day) was given to diabetic mice for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and proteinuria were examined. In in vitro assay of the inhibition of AGE formation, immunohistochemical analysis of podocyte loss and AGE accumulations were performed. In 20-week-old db/db mice, severe hyperglycemia developed, and proteinuria was significantly increased. Diabetes induced markedly morphological alterations to the renal glomerular cells. AGE accumulations and podocyte loss were detected in renal glomeruli. LJE treatment significantly reduced proteinuria and AGE accumulations in diabetic mice. Moreover, the loss of nephrin, an important slit diaphragm component in the kidneys, was restored by LJE treatment. Our studies suggest that LJE might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The ability of LJE to attenuate proteinuria and podocyte dysfunction may be mediated by the inhibition of AGE accumulation in the context of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2013; 2013(4):769416. DOI:10.1155/2013/769416 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyruvate is an endogenous antioxidant substance. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on retinal vascular injury in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the protective effect of EP on vascular cell apoptosis and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakage, we have used intravitreally methylglyoxal-(MGO-) injected rat eyes. Apoptosis of the retinal vascular cell that was stimulated by the intravitreal injection of MGO was evidently attenuated by the EP treatment. EP exerts inhibitory effect on MGO-induced vascular cell apoptosis by blocking oxidative injury. In addition, EP treatment prevented MGO-induced BRB breakage and the degradation of occludin, an important tight junction protein. These observations suggest that EP acts through an antioxidant mechanism to protect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in retinal vessels.
Journal of Diabetes Research 02/2013; 2013:460820. DOI:10.1155/2013/460820 · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify effective herb to treat obesity, we screened 115 herbal extracts for inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase (triacylg-ycerol acylhydrolase, EC 126.96.36.199) activity in vitro. Of the extracts tested, Cudrania tricuspidata leaves exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effect on lipase activity with an IC(50) value of 9.91 μg/mL. Antilipid absorption effects of C. tricuspidata leaves were examined in rats after oral administration of lipid emulsions containing 50 or 250 mg C. tricuspidata/kg body weight. Plasma triacylglycerol levels 2 h after the oral administration of emulsions containing C. tricuspidata were significantly reduced compared to the untreated group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that C. tricuspidata leaves may be useful for the treatment of obesity.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2012; 2012:878365. DOI:10.1155/2012/878365 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KIOM-79 is an herbal mixture of parched Puerariae radix, gingered Magnoliae cortex, Glycyrrhizae radix and Euphorbiae radix. In the present study, we determined the efficacy and possible mechanism of KIOM-79 on the advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced apoptosis of cultured bovine retinal pericytes and rat retinal pericytes in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Seven-week-old male ZDF rats were treated with KIOM-79 (50 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 13 weeks. KIOM-79 significantly inhibited pericyte apoptosis which were induced by the AGE-BSA treatment. The KIOM-79 treatment markedly suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) through the inhibition of inhibitory κB kinase complex. In addition, the oral administration of KIOM-79 inhibited the changes in retinal vasculature (vascular hyperpermeability, acellular capillary). KIOM-79 strongly inhibited pericyte apoptosis, NF-κB activation and the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and tumor necrosis factor-α. Our results suggest that KIOM-79 may exert inhibitory effects on AGE-induced pericyte apoptosis by blocking NF-κB activation, thereby ameliorating retinal microvascular dysfunction.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e43591. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043591 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six new cycloartane-type triterpenes (1-6), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β-triol (1), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β,16β-tetraol (2), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,16β-triol (3), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,7β,16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (4), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (5), and 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (6), were isolated from the leaves of Homonoia riparia, together with one known compound, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β,16β-tetraol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (7). The structures of the new triterpenes were established by spectroscopic studies and from chemical evidence, and the inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 3-7 on VEGF-induced vascular permeability were examined in vivo in rats using the Miles assay. In addition, the inhibitory effect of 7 on VEGF-induced tube formation by HUVECs in vitro was investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal pericyte loss is one of the histopathological hallmarks of early diabetic retinopathy. Puerarin (4'-7-dihydroxy-8-beta-d-glucosylisoflavone), which is an isoflavone-C-glucoside, causes various pharmacological effects that include antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we determined the efficacy and possible mechanism of puerarin on the advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced apoptosis of cultured bovine retinal pericytes and rat retinal pericytes in intravitreally AGE-modified rat serum albumin (RSA)-injected eyes. Puerarin significantly inhibited pericyte apoptosis, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and NADPH oxidase activity by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p47phox and Rac1 which were induced by the AGE-BSA treatment. The puerarin treatment markedly suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). In addition, the in vivo apoptosis of the retinal pericyte of rats that was stimulated by the intravitreal injection of AGE-RSA was evidently attenuated by the puerarin treatment. These results demonstrate that puerarin may exert inhibitory effects on AGE-induced pericyte apoptosis by interfering with the NADPH oxidase-related ROS pathways and blocking NF-κB activation, thereby ameliorating retinal microvascular dysfunction.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2012; 53(2):357-65. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.04.030 · 5.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the early signs of diabetic retinopathy is the alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), which may involve the breakdown of endothelial cell tight junctions. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a cytotoxic metabolite that is produced from glycolysis in vivo. Elevated levels of MGO are observed in a number of pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders and diabetic complications. Herein, we hypothesize that increased levels of MGO disrupt the tight junction protein known as occludin protein by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to breakage of the BRB.
MGO was intravitreally injected into eyes of rats. BRB leakage, MMPs activity, and occludin were investigated in intravitreally MGO-injected eyes.
When normoglycemic rats were intravitreally injected with 400 μM MGO, there was widespread leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) from the retinal vasculature when compared to control retinas. In addition, MGO-injected retinas demonstrated increases of both activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and the degradation of occludin was found in the MGO-injected retinas.
The results suggest that the activation of MMPs by elevated levels of MGO in the retina may facilitate an increase in vascular permeability by a mechanism involving proteolytic degradation of occludin. These findings may have implications for the role of MGO in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 01/2012; 250(5):691-7. DOI:10.1007/s00417-011-1912-5 · 2.33 Impact Factor