Kyuhyung Jo

Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea

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Publications (15)37.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Retinal neovascularization is a common pathology in age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a vasoactive factor and has been implicated in proliferative retinopathies. Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse is the standard experimental model of proliferative retinopathies. Sipjeondaebo-tang (SDT) is the most widely used traditional herbal formula in East Asia, also known as Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang in Chinese and Juzen-taiho-to in Japanese. SDT has been known to exert anti-angiogenic activities in several tumor models, but the role of SDT in proliferative retinopathies remains unclear. Thus, the object of the present study is to examine the mechanism of action and efficacy of SDT on retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy (OIR) mice. Neonatal mice at postnatal day 7 (P7) were exposed to 75% concentration of oxygen for 5 days (P7-P12), and then returned to room air from P12 to P17 to induce retinal neovascularization. SDT were administered once per day for 5 consecutive days (P12-P16) by intraperitoneal injection. Retinal neovascularization was measured at P17. We used a protein array to evaluate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. Inhibitory activity of SDT on PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction was evaluated in vitro. Retinal neovascularization in the OIR mice was significantly decreased by SDT. SDT decreased the expression levels of PDGF-BB protein and VEGF mRNA. Moreover, SDT dose-dependently inhibited PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction (IC50 = 388.82 ± 7.31 µg/ml). In conclusion, SDT is a potent inhibitor of retinal neovascularization through inhibiting the pro-angiogenic effect of PDGF-BB.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2014; 234(3):229-36. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) properties is an important feature in the pathology of diabetic retinopathy. Endothelium integrity is important for the normal vascular function. Litsea japonica (Thunb.) Jussieu is a Korean native plant that is consumed as a vegetable food. In this study, we evaluated the ability of an ethanol extract of L. japonica to prevent retinal vascular leakages in db/db mice, which is an animal model of type II diabetes. L. japonica extracts (LJE, 100 and 250 mg/kg) were administered once a day, orally, for 12 weeks. Vehicle-treated db/db mice exhibited hyperglycemia and retinal vascular leakage. LJE treatment blocked diabetes-induced BRB breakdown and decreased retinal VEGF expression in db/db mice. LJE also inhibited the degradation of occludin, which is an important tight junction protein. These findings support the potential therapeutic usefulness of L. japonica for retinal vascular permeability diseases.
    Endocrine 11/2013; · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pyruvate is an endogenous antioxidant substance. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on retinal vascular injury in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the protective effect of EP on vascular cell apoptosis and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakage, we have used intravitreally methylglyoxal-(MGO-) injected rat eyes. Apoptosis of the retinal vascular cell that was stimulated by the intravitreal injection of MGO was evidently attenuated by the EP treatment. EP exerts inhibitory effect on MGO-induced vascular cell apoptosis by blocking oxidative injury. In addition, EP treatment prevented MGO-induced BRB breakage and the degradation of occludin, an important tight junction protein. These observations suggest that EP acts through an antioxidant mechanism to protect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in retinal vessels.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 01/2013; 2013:460820. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cataracts are a major cause of human blindness. Aldose reductase (AR) is an important rate-limiting enzyme that contributes to cataract induction in diabetic patients. Scopoletin is the main bioactive constituent of flower buds from Magnolia fargesii and is known to inhibit AR activity. To assess scopoletin's ability to mitigate sugar cataract formation in vivo, we studied its effects in a rat model of dietary galactose-induced sugar cataracts. Galactose-fed rats were orally dosed with scopoletin (10 or 50 mg/kg body weight) once a day for 2 weeks. Administering scopoletin delayed the progression of the cataracts that were induced by dietary galactose. Scopoletin also prevented galactose-induced changes in lens morphology, such as lens fiber swelling and membrane rupture. Scopoletin's protective effect against sugar cataracts was mediated by inhibiting both AR activity and oxidative stress. These results suggest that scopoletin is a useful treatment for sugar cataracts.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:787138. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KIOM-79, a herbal mixture of parched Puerariae radix, gingered Magnoliae cortex, Glycyrrhizae radix, and Euphorbiae radix, has a strong inhibitory effect on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation. We investigated the beneficial effects of KIOM-79 on cardiac fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. KIOM-79 (50 or 500 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 13 weeks. AGEs formation and collagen expression in the myocardium were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), transforming growth factor- β 1 (TGF- β 1), collagen IV, fibronectin, urotensin II, and urotensin II receptor were examined in the myocardial tissue of ZDF rats. KIOM-79 treatment at 500 mg/kg inhibited the accumulation of AGEs, reduced RAGE mRNA and protein expression, and reduced the upregulation of cardiac fibrogenic factors, such as fibronectin and collagen IV, in heart of ZDF rats. Additionally, KIOM-79 ameliorated urotensin II/receptor gene expression in the cardiac tissue of ZDF rats. Our findings indicate that KIOM-79 diminishes cardiac fibrosis in ZDF rats by preventing AGEs accumulation and RAGE overexpression and by modulating the cardiac urotensin II/receptor pathway, which decreases the amount of profibrotic factors, such as TGF- β 1, fibronectin, and collagen in cardiac tissue.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:547653. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in the eyes is a causative factor in retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. This study was designed to examine the pathogenic role of the high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein and the inhibitory effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP), a well-known antioxidant substance, in retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), one of the animal models of proliferative ischemic retinopathy. The OIR mouse model was used for our in vivo studies. The mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P11, after which the mice were brought to room air and intraperitoneally injected with EP (50 mg/kg, or 100 mg/kg) for five days. At P17, the mice were perfused with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, and flat-mounted retinas were used to measure nonperfused and neovascular tufts. In OIR mice, an intraperitoneal injection of EP reduced the nonperfused retinal area in the treatment group and significantly reduced the retinal neovascular tufts. In addition, EP inhibited the overexpression of HMGB1 in the retinas of OIR mice. These data suggest that EP could serve as an innovative pharmaceutical agent to prevent retinal neovascularization through inhibiting HMGB1 expression.
    Journal of Diabetes Research 01/2013; 2013:245271. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of L. japonica extract (LJE) against renal damage in the db/db mouse. LJE (100 or 250 mg/kg per day) was given to diabetic mice for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and proteinuria were examined. In in vitro assay of the inhibition of AGE formation, immunohistochemical analysis of podocyte loss and AGE accumulations were performed. In 20-week-old db/db mice, severe hyperglycemia developed, and proteinuria was significantly increased. Diabetes induced markedly morphological alterations to the renal glomerular cells. AGE accumulations and podocyte loss were detected in renal glomeruli. LJE treatment significantly reduced proteinuria and AGE accumulations in diabetic mice. Moreover, the loss of nephrin, an important slit diaphragm component in the kidneys, was restored by LJE treatment. Our studies suggest that LJE might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The ability of LJE to attenuate proteinuria and podocyte dysfunction may be mediated by the inhibition of AGE accumulation in the context of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:769416. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Six new cycloartane-type triterpenes (1-6), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β-triol (1), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β,16β-tetraol (2), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,16β-triol (3), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,7β,16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (4), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (5), and 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (6), were isolated from the leaves of Homonoia riparia, together with one known compound, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β,16β-tetraol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (7). The structures of the new triterpenes were established by spectroscopic studies and from chemical evidence, and the inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 3-7 on VEGF-induced vascular permeability were examined in vivo in rats using the Miles assay. In addition, the inhibitory effect of 7 on VEGF-induced tube formation by HUVECs in vitro was investigated.
    Journal of Natural Products 06/2012; 75(7):1312-8. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinal pericyte loss is one of the histopathological hallmarks of early diabetic retinopathy. Puerarin (4'-7-dihydroxy-8-beta-d-glucosylisoflavone), which is an isoflavone-C-glucoside, causes various pharmacological effects that include antihyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we determined the efficacy and possible mechanism of puerarin on the advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced apoptosis of cultured bovine retinal pericytes and rat retinal pericytes in intravitreally AGE-modified rat serum albumin (RSA)-injected eyes. Puerarin significantly inhibited pericyte apoptosis, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and NADPH oxidase activity by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p47phox and Rac1 which were induced by the AGE-BSA treatment. The puerarin treatment markedly suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). In addition, the in vivo apoptosis of the retinal pericyte of rats that was stimulated by the intravitreal injection of AGE-RSA was evidently attenuated by the puerarin treatment. These results demonstrate that puerarin may exert inhibitory effects on AGE-induced pericyte apoptosis by interfering with the NADPH oxidase-related ROS pathways and blocking NF-κB activation, thereby ameliorating retinal microvascular dysfunction.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2012; 53(2):357-65. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the early signs of diabetic retinopathy is the alteration of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), which may involve the breakdown of endothelial cell tight junctions. Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a cytotoxic metabolite that is produced from glycolysis in vivo. Elevated levels of MGO are observed in a number of pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders and diabetic complications. Herein, we hypothesize that increased levels of MGO disrupt the tight junction protein known as occludin protein by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), leading to breakage of the BRB. MGO was intravitreally injected into eyes of rats. BRB leakage, MMPs activity, and occludin were investigated in intravitreally MGO-injected eyes. When normoglycemic rats were intravitreally injected with 400 μM MGO, there was widespread leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) from the retinal vasculature when compared to control retinas. In addition, MGO-injected retinas demonstrated increases of both activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, and the degradation of occludin was found in the MGO-injected retinas. The results suggest that the activation of MMPs by elevated levels of MGO in the retina may facilitate an increase in vascular permeability by a mechanism involving proteolytic degradation of occludin. These findings may have implications for the role of MGO in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 01/2012; 250(5):691-7. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify effective herb to treat obesity, we screened 115 herbal extracts for inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase (triacylg-ycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) activity in vitro. Of the extracts tested, Cudrania tricuspidata leaves exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effect on lipase activity with an IC(50) value of 9.91 μg/mL. Antilipid absorption effects of C. tricuspidata leaves were examined in rats after oral administration of lipid emulsions containing 50 or 250 mg C. tricuspidata/kg body weight. Plasma triacylglycerol levels 2 h after the oral administration of emulsions containing C. tricuspidata were significantly reduced compared to the untreated group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that C. tricuspidata leaves may be useful for the treatment of obesity.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:878365. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KIOM-79 is an herbal mixture of parched Puerariae radix, gingered Magnoliae cortex, Glycyrrhizae radix and Euphorbiae radix. In the present study, we determined the efficacy and possible mechanism of KIOM-79 on the advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced apoptosis of cultured bovine retinal pericytes and rat retinal pericytes in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Seven-week-old male ZDF rats were treated with KIOM-79 (50 mg/kg body weight) once a day orally for 13 weeks. KIOM-79 significantly inhibited pericyte apoptosis which were induced by the AGE-BSA treatment. The KIOM-79 treatment markedly suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) through the inhibition of inhibitory κB kinase complex. In addition, the oral administration of KIOM-79 inhibited the changes in retinal vasculature (vascular hyperpermeability, acellular capillary). KIOM-79 strongly inhibited pericyte apoptosis, NF-κB activation and the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and tumor necrosis factor-α. Our results suggest that KIOM-79 may exert inhibitory effects on AGE-induced pericyte apoptosis by blocking NF-κB activation, thereby ameliorating retinal microvascular dysfunction.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e43591. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been considered to be a potential causative factor of injury to lens epithelial cells (LECs). Damage of LECs is believed to contribute to cataract formation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect of AGEs on LECs both in vitro and in vivo. We examined the accumulation of argpyrimidine, a methylglyoxal-derived AGE, and the expression of apoptosis-related molecules including nuclear factor- kappaB (NF-κB), Bax, and Bcl-2 in the human LEC line HLE-B3 and in cataractous lenses of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. In cataractous lenses from twenty-oneweek- old ZDF rats, LEC apoptosis was markedly increased, and the accumulation of argpyrimidine as well as subsequent activation of NF-κB in LECs were significantly enhanced. The ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 protein levels was also increased. In addition, the accumulation of argpyrimidine triggered apoptosis in methylglyoxal- treated HLE-B3 cells. However, the presence of pyridoxamine (an AGEs inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (a NF-κB inhibitor) prevented apoptosis in HLE-B3 cells through the inhibition of argpyrimidine formation and the blockage of NF-κB nuclear translocalization, respectively. These results suggest that the cellular accumulation of argpyrimidine in LECs is NF-κB-dependent and pro-apoptotic.
    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 12/2011; 44(2):167-75. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, CA), a phenolic compound found ubiquitously in plants, has antidiabetic effect in diabetic animal models. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CA on diabetic cataractogenesis. We evaluated the aldose reductase (AR) activity during cataract development in 50% galactose-fed rats, an animal model of sugar cataract. Galactose-fed rats were treated orally with CA (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight) once a day for 2 weeks. In vehicle-treated galactose-fed rats, lens opacity was increased, and lens fiber swelling and membrane rupture were observed. In addition, AR protein was highly expressed in lens epithelial cells and lens cortical fibers of galactose-fed rats. However, CA inhibited the rat AR activity in vitro, and the administration of CA prevented the development of sugar cataract through the inhibition of AR activity. These observations suggest that CA is useful for the treatment of sugar cataract.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 05/2011; 34(5):847-52. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the experiment reported here was to assess the involvement of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway in the development of rat diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection in 7-week-old male rats. At 20 weeks of age, renal expression of HMGB1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of RAGE and NF-κB activity was studied by Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay in renal tissues of normoglycemic and diabetic rats, respectively. HMGB1 was highly expressed in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear patterns in diabetic renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells, although in normal rats, HMGB1 was expressed only in the cell nuclei. The expression of RAGE, a potential receptor for HMGB1, and NF-κB activity were also greater in diabetic than in normal rats. Moreover, diabetes increased the binding of NF-κB to the RAGE promoter. These findings suggest that hyperglycemia-induced HMGB1 release may induce the renal injury in diabetic rats, and that the pathogenic role of HMGB1 might be dependent on RAGE and through activation of NF-κB.
    American Journal of Nephrology 01/2011; 33(6):524-9. · 2.62 Impact Factor