Jianning Zhang

Tianjin Medical University, T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China

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Publications (75)179.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage still has a high mortality and morbidity despite notable advances in surgical approaches to cerebral aneurysm (CA). We examined the role of aspirin in vascular inflammation and degeneration. CA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by ligating left common carotid artery and bilateral posterior renal arteries with or without aspirin treatment. The right anterior cerebral artery/olfactory artery (ACA/OA) bifurcations were stripped and assessed morphologically after Verhoeff's Van Gieson staining. Blood sample was obtained to examine circulating CD34(+) CD133(+) endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), platelet aggregation and platelet counts. Macrophages infiltration in aneurysmal wall was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2 and 9), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was examined by RT-PCR. 2 months after CA induction, surgically treated rats manifested aneurysmal degeneration in ACA/OA bifurcations. Aspirin-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in degradation of internal elastic lamina (IEL), medial layer thinning, CA size and macrophages infiltration with reduced expression of MMP-2 and 9 compared with rats in the CA group. RT-PCR demonstrated that the upregulation of NF-κB, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 after CA induction was reversed by aspirin treatment. Aspirin treatment following CA induction increased circulating EPCs to near control levels and reduced platelet aggregation without changing platelet counts. The evidence suggested that aspirin significantly reduced degeneration of aneurysm walls by inhibiting macrophages-mediated chronic inflammation and mobilizing EPCs.
    Neurochemical Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11064-015-1603-4 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) tends to cause the over-activation of inflammatory response and disruption of blood brain barrier (BBB), associating with long-term cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. Vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), as a suppressor in the angiogenesis specifically by inducing apoptosis in proliferating endothelial cells, has been applied to different diseases, especially the tumors. But rare study had been done in the field of brain injury. So in this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms associated with VEGI-induced neuroprotection following CNS injury in mice TBI models. We demonstrated that the VEGI treatment reduced the contusion brain tissue loss, the permeation of inflammatory cells (MPO(+)) and the activation of microglia (Iba-1(+)). The treatment up-regulated the tight junction proteins (CLN5, ZO-1 and OCLN), which are vital of importance for the integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB), the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) cell survival factors, while down-regulated the expression of TLR4, NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β,TNF-α, iNOS). The treatment also decreased the expression of reactive astrocytes (GFAP(+)), as well as the VEGF, and lowered the permeability of Evens Blue (EB). These findings suggested that the VEGI-treatment could alleviate the post-traumatic excessive inflammatory response, and maintain the stability of blood vessels, remitting the secondary brain damage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Brain research 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.04.035 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The consequences of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are lifelong and fatal. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) play an important role in the regulation of vascular structure and function. Our study examined the association between angiopoietin levels and functional outcomes among aSAH patients. We enrolled 37 aSAH patients and 39 controls (matched on age and sex) at the Department of Neurosurgery in Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Serum Ang-1, Ang-2, and Tie-2 levels were collected at 8, 24, and 72hours post-hemorrhage. After a 3-month follow-up period, patient outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS). Logistic regression examined the association between angiopoietin levels and outcomes (good [GOS: 4-5] vs. poor [GOS: 1-3]). aSAH patients had higher levels of Ang-1 at 8hours post-hemorrhage compared to controls. Among aSAH patients, Ang-1 levels at 8, 24, and 72hours post-hemorrhage were higher among patients with a good outcome. Compared to patients with low Ang-1 levels, high Ang-1 levels at 72hours post-hemorrhage were associated with a good outcome. High Ang-1 levels were associated with a good functional outcome after aSAH. Abnormal angiopoietin levels may disrupt the blood-brain barrier and contribute to functional outcomes in aSAH patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2015.05.038 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Survivin, a unique member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, has been suggested to play a crucial role in promoting the cell cycle and mediates mitosis during embryonic development. However, the role of survivin following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adult neurogenesis and apoptosis in the mouse dentate gyrus (DG) remains only partially understood. We adopted adenovirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) as a means of suppressing the expression of survivin and observed its effects on adult regeneration and neurological function in mice after brain injury. The mice were subjected to TBI, and the ipsilateral hippocampus was then examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting analyses. Brain slices were stained for BrdU and doublecortin (DCX). Our data showed that survivin knockdown inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the DG of the hippocampus soon after TBI. Furthermore, downregulation of survivin results in a significant increase in programmed cell death in the DG, as assessed using TUNEL and DAPI double staining. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to evaluate neurological function, which confirmed that knockdown of survivin worsen the memory capacity that was already compromised following TBI. Survivin in adult mice brains after TBI can be successfully down-regulated by RNAi, which inhibited adult hippocampal neurogenesis, promoted apoptotic cell death, and resulted in a negative role in the recovery of dysfunction following injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience 05/2015; 300. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.05.025 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between serum levels of angiopoietins (Ang) during an early period (within 72 h) and clinical outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). This prospective study was conducted at Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital. Blood samples from 37 aSAH patients were collected at 8 h (or < 8 h), 24 h, 72 h after an onset of SAH. The serum levels of Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie-2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). They were followed up for 3 months by Glasgow outcome score extended (GOSE). Those with GOSE > 5 were counted as a good outcome while those with GOSE ≤ 5 had a poor outcome. A total of 37 patients with aSAH and 39 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. The aSAH patients showed a significant rise of Ang-1 within 8 h as compared with HC. The outcomes were good (n = 15) and poor (n = 22). Serum Ang-1 at 8 h (or < 8 h), 24 h and 72 h in good outcomers showed significantly higher than that in poor outcomers [(52 ± 24) vs (37 ± 17) mg/L, (62 ± 26) vs (45 ± 17) mg/L, (107 ± 27) vs (72 ± 18) mg/L]. The serum level of Ang-1 at 8 h and 24 h was one of independent risk factors for aSAH patients by multiariable Logistic regression analysis [adjected OR (95% CI) 1.095 (1.015-1.181) and 1.109 (1.016-1.211)] (P < 0.05). High serum level of Ang-1 during an early period (within 72 h) was associated with good outcomers (r = 0.627, P < 0.001). The serum levels of angiopoietins are significantly altered in aSAH patients, especially higher in good outcomers. And abnormal levels of angiopoietins may affect early brain injury (EBI) after SAH, structural integrity and recovery of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and long-term outcomes in aSAH patients.
    Zhonghua yi xue za zhi 05/2015; 95(19):1513-1517.
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    ABSTRACT: Bilateral carotid artery stenosis patients had higher risk for suffering the stroke and also had higher opportunity to have complications when treated by CEA or CAS. This study sought to describe one center's experience on the treatment strategy. The patients with severe carotid artery stenosis treated by CEA or CAS between 2008 and 2013, including bilateral patients, were reviewed retrospectively. The treatment selection was dependent on each patient's medical situation, neurological condition, clinical and anatomic arterial factors. The main adverse events included the death from any cause, major stroke within 30 days and the death due to treated carotid artery, ipsilateral major stroke between 30 days and one year. 27 bilateral patients were treated, including 11 patients by bilateral CEA, 9 patients one side CEA and the other side CAS, and 7 patients bilateral CAS. 69 unilateral patients were treated by CEA and 75 unilateral patients by CAS. The incidence of main adverse events for the bilateral patients was 7.4%, similar to unilateral patients undergoing CEA and CAS (8.7% and 6.7%, respectively). Four treated carotid arteries in bilateral patients had restenosis within one year (4/54, 7.4%), which showed no significant difference to unilateral patients undergoing CEA or CAS (4/69 5.8% and 6/75 8.0%, respectively). There were also no more local complications in bilateral patients. Proper treatment selection on each patient's clinical characteristics and proper combination of staged CEA and CAS could achieve no inferior outcomes in bilateral patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    World Neurosurgery 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2015.03.067 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: miR-221/222 are two highly homologous microRNAs that are frequently upregulated in solid tumors. However, the effects of miR-221/222 in malignant gliomas have not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we found that miR-221/222 were significantly upregulated in human glioma samples and glioma cell lines. Both gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that miR-221/222 regulate cell proliferation, the cell cycle and apoptosis, in addition to, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis in glioma cell lines. Subsequent investigations revealed that TIMP2 is a direct target of miR-221/222, and overexpression of TIMP2 reduced the miR-221/222-mediated invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of glioma cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the suppression of miR-221/222 may be a feasible approach for inhibiting the malignant behaviors of glioma.
    Tumor Biology 03/2015; 36(5). DOI:10.1007/s13277-014-3017-3 · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Dong Yang, Huifang Zhou, Jianning Zhang, Li Liu
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Conclusions: The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated mechanism of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization, migration, and differentiation may occur in response to noise-induced acoustic trauma of the cochlea, leading to the protection of cochlear function. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in the cochlear vessel under an intensive noise environment. Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups. Acoustic trauma was induced by 120 dB SPL white noise for 4 h. Auditory function was evaluated by the auditory brainstem response threshold. Morphological changes of the cochleae, the expression of VEGF, and the circulation of EPCs in the peripheral blood were studied by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Results: Vascular recovery of the cochlea began after noise exposure. The change in the number of EPCs was consistent with the expression of VEGF at different time points after noise exposure. We propose that VEGF evokes specific permeable and chemotactic effects on the vascular endothelial cells. These effects can mobilize EPCs into the peripheral blood, leading the EPCs to target damaged sites and to exert a neoangiogenic effect.
    Acta Oto-Laryngologica 02/2015; 135(6):1-7. DOI:10.3109/00016489.2014.1003092 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Notch pathway is a highly conserved pathway that regulates hippocampal neurogenesis during embryonic development and adulthood. It has become apparent that intracellular epigenetic modification including DNA methylation is deeply involved in fate specification of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, it is still unclear whether the Notch pathway regulates hippocampal neurogenesis by changing the Notch genes' DNA methylation status. Here, we present the evidence from DNA methylation profiling of Notch1, Hes1 and Ngn2 promoters during neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of postnatal, adult and traumatic brains. We observed the expression of Notch1, Hes1 and Ngn2 in hippocampal DG with qPCR, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. In addition, we investigated the methylation status of Notch pathway genes using the bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) method. The number of Notch1 or Hes1 (+) and BrdU (+) cells decreased in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the DG in the hippocampus following TBI. Nevertheless, the number of Ngn2-positive cells in the DG of injured mice was markedly higher than in the DG of non-TBI mice. Accordingly, the DNA methylation level of the three gene promoters changed with their expression in the DG. These findings suggest that the strict spatio-temporal expression of Notch effector genes plays an important role during hippocampal neurogenesis and suggests the possibility that Notch1, Hes1 and Ngn2 were regulated by changing some specific CpG sites of their promoters to further orchestrate neurogenesis in vivo. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Brain Research Bulletin 02/2015; 113. DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2015.02.003 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with coagulopathy, although it often lacks two key risk factors: severe bleeding and significant fluid resuscitation associated with hemorrhagic shock. The pathogenesis of TBI-associated coagulopathy remains poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that brain-derived microparticles (BDMPs) released from an injured brain induce a hypercoagulable state that rapidly turns into consumptive coagulopathy. Here, we report that mice subjected to fluid percussion injury (1.9±0.1 atm) developed a BDMP-dependent hypercoagulable state, with peak levels of plasma glial cell and neuronal BDMPs reaching 17,496 ± 4,833/µl and 18,388 ± 3,657/µl, respectively, 3 hrs post TBI. Uninjured mice injected with BDMPs developed a dose-dependent hyper-turned hypo-coagulable state measured by a progressively prolonged clotting time, fibrinogen depletion, and microvascular fibrin deposition in multiple organs. The BDMPs were measured 50 - 300 nm with intact membranes, expressing neuronal or glial cell markers and procoagulant phosphatidylserine and tissue factor. Their procoagulant activity was greater than platelet microparticles and was dose-dependently blocked by lactadherin. Microparticles were produced from injured hippocampal cells, transmigrated through the disrupted endothelial barrier in a platelet-dependent manner, and activated platelets. These data define a novel mechanism of TBI-associated coagulopathy in mice, identify early predictive markers and provide alternative therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 01/2015; 125(13). DOI:10.1182/blood-2014-09-598805 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our recent studies have identified increased expression of miR-21 in brain following traumatic brain injury (TBI), which alleviated brain edema that related to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. To analyze the potential effect of miR-21 on secondary BBB damage after TBI, we employed the fluid percussion injury rat model and manipulated the expression level of miR-21 in brain. We found that miR-21 level in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) in lesioned cerebral cortex can be upregulated or downregulated by intracerebroventricular infusion of miR-21 agomir or antagomir. Upregulated miR-21 level conferred a better neurological outcome of TBI, and alleviated TBI-induced secondary BBB damage and loss of tight junction proteins. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying this protective effect, we detected the impact of miR-21 on the expression of Angiopoietin-1(Ang-1) and Tie-2, which can promote the expression of tight junction proteins and amplify BBB stabilization. We found that miR-21 exerts the protective effect on BBB by activating the Ang-1/Tie-2 axis in BMVECs. Thus, miR-21 could be a potential therapeutic target for interventions of secondary BBB damage after TBI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Brain Research 01/2015; 1603. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.01.009 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present case study was to investigate the advantages of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) on the real-time guidance and monitoring of a stereotactic biopsy. The study describes a patient with intracranial lesions, which were examined by conventional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging using a 1.5T intraoperative MRI system. The digital and pre-operative positron emission/computed tomography image data were transferred to a BrainLAB planning workstation, and a variety of images were automatically fused. The BrainLAB software was then used to reconstruct the corticospinal tract (CST) and create a three-dimensional display of the anatomical association between the CST and the brain lesions. A Leksell surgical planning workstation was used to identify the ideal target site and a reasonable needle track for the biopsy. The 1.5T iMRI was used to effectively monitor the intracranial condition during the brain biopsy procedure. Post-operatively, the original symptoms of the patient were not aggravated and no further neurological deficits were apparent. The histopathological diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma was made. Using high-field iMRI, the multi-image fusion-guided stereotactic brain biopsy allows for a higher positive rate of biopsy and a lower incidence of complications. The approach of combining multi-image fusion images with the frame-based stereotactic biopsy may be clinically useful for intracranial lesions of deep functional areas.
    Oncology letters 01/2015; 9(1):223-226. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2680 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the diagnostic and therapeutic values of stereotactic guidance of intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) for multiple intracranial lesions. We retrospectively assessed 18 patients with multiple intracranial lesions undergoing stereotactic guidance of high-field iMRI between June 2011 and May 2013. The procedures included biopsy of stereotactic guidance (n = 6), stereotactic aspiration and drainage for brain abscess (n = 4), stereotactic aspiration and intracavitary irradiation with (32)P for mixed solid and cystic craniopharyngiomas (n = 3) and stereotactic hematoma evacuation (n = 5). For 6 cases with high-field iMRI stereotactic guidance, the target lesions were precisely predetermined and pathological specimens confirmed by clinical follow-up results. For 12 cases with multiple cystic lesions and multiple intracranial hematoma, aspiration of hematoma and liquids was satisfactory. And the course of clinical treatment was significantly shortened. And there was a lower incidence of postoperative complications. iMRI may guide precisely stereotactic surgery. And it has important clinical significance for confirming the diagnosis of multiple intracranial lesions and shortening their treatment courses.
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral aneurysm (CA) rupture is a major cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage with high morbidity and mortality. Using an animal model, we examined the potential of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) transfusion on vascular degeneration after CA induction and underlying mechanisms. CA was induced in the right anterior cerebral artery-olfactory artery (ACA/OA) bifurcations in Sprague-Dawley rats with or without ECFCs transfusion. The degeneration of internal elastic lamina (IEL), media thickness and CA size were evaluated. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2 and 9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The macrophages infiltration and apoptosis of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were examined immunohistologically. Rats in CA+ECFCs transfusion group showed a notable reduction in IEL degeneration, media thinning and CA size compared with those in CA+saline group. ECFCs transfusion inhibited the MMP-driven wall destruction by downregulating MMP-2, MMP-9 expression and upregulating TIMP-1. ECFCs transfusion dramatically decreased VCAM-1 and NF-κB expression, increased eNOS expression and caused no change in MCP-1 expression, which was accompanied by reduced macrophages infiltration. Moreover, ECFCs transfusion reversed downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and upregulation of iNOS expression, and decreased SMCs apoptosis. Collectively, these findings suggest that ECFCs transfusion confers protection against degeneration of aneurysmal wall by inhibiting inflammatory cascades and SMCs apoptosis.
    Brain Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.09.077 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of chronic disability and death in young adults worldwide. Multiple cellular, molecular and biochemical changes impact the development and outcome of TBI. Neuronal cell apoptosis, which is an important pathological change in secondary brain damage, is crucial to determine the functional recovery after TBI. miR-21, a widely-reported oncogene, which can reduce cell apoptosis in cancer, has been confirmed to be an pronounced up-regulated miRNA after TBI in animal model. Our study is designed to investigate whether miR-21 has the function of antiapoptosis in experimental TBI model in vitro and to explore the possible regulatory mechanism of miR-21 on neuronal apoptosis. The scratch cell injury was performed to mimic TBI-induced apoptosis in neurons, and miR-21 agomir/antagomir was transfected to up-/down-regulate the miR-21 level. Our data suggests that miR-21 can reduce the number of TUNEL-positive neurons. Meanwhile, miR-21 decreased the expression level of PTEN, and increased the phosphorylation of Akt significantly. In neurons transfected with miR-21 agomir, the expression of Bcl-2 was promoted while the caspase-3, caspase-9 and bax level were down-regulated, which are crucially the downstream apoptosis-related proteins of PTEN-Akt signaling pathway. In conclusion, miR-21 can exert the function of reducing neuronal apoptosis through activating the PTEN-Akt signaling pathway. Our research provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis following TBI, which reminds that miR-21may be a potential therapeutic target for TBI treatment.
    Brain Research 09/2014; 1582. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.07.045 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating platelets are anucleated and multi-functional cells that participate in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. Multiple ligands and mechanical forces activate platelets, leading to cytoskeletal rearrangement and dramatic shape-changes. Such dramatic changes in platelets membrane structures are commonly detected by optical and electron microscopy after platelets are fixed. We have recently developed a method to study the membrane morphology of live platelets using Hopping Probe Ion Conductance Microscopy (HPICM). We have successfully used this technology to study the process of platelet microvesiculation upon exposure to selective agonists. Here, we further discussed technical details of using HPICM to study platelet biology and compared results from HPICM to those from conventional atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This method offers several advantages over current technologies. First, it monitors morphological changes of platelets in response to agonists in real time. Second, platelets can be repeatedly scanned over time without damages brought by heat and prolong light exposure. Third, there is no direct contact with platelet surface so that there will no or minimal mechanical damages brought by a cantilever of a conventional atomic force microscopy. Finally, it offers the potential to study platelet membrane ion channels, which have been technically challenging up-to-date. Our data show that HPICM has high-resolution in delineating changes of platelet morphology in response to stimulations and could help to unravel the complex role of platelet in thrombus formation.
    Platelets 08/2014; DOI:10.3109/09537104.2014.940888 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies show that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis, which is a process associated with improved recovery in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and that recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) plays a protective role following stroke. Thus, it was hypothesized that rhEPO would enhance recovery following brain injury in a rat model of TBI via an increase in the mobilization of EPCs and, subsequently, in angiogenesis. Flow cytometry assays using CD34- and CD133-specific antibodies were utilized to identify alterations in EPC levels, CD31 and CD34 antibody-stained brain tissue sections were used to quantify angiogenesis, and the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) test were used to evaluate behavioral recovery. Compared with saline treatment, treatment with rhEPO significantly increased the number of circulating EPCs on days 1, 4, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05), improved spatial learning ability on days 24 and 25 (P < 0.05), and enhanced memory recovery on day 26 (P < 0.05). Moreover, rhEPO treatment decreased mNSS assessment scores on days 14, 21, and 25 (P < 0.05). There was a strong correlation between levels of circulating EPCs and CD34- and CD31-positive cells within the injured boundary zone (CD34(+) r = 0.910, P < 0.01; CD31(+) r = 0.894, P < 0.01) and the ipsilateral hippocampus (CD34(+) r = 0.841, P < 0.01; CD31(+) r = 0.835, P < 0.01). The present data demonstrate that rhEPO treatment improved functional outcomes in rats following TBI via an increase in the mobilization of EPCs and in subsequent angiogenesis.
    Translational Stroke Research 08/2014; 6(1). DOI:10.1007/s12975-014-0362-x · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1), a downstream target of Notch signaling, has long been recognized as crucial in inhibiting neuronal differentiation. However, the role of Hes1 following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus (DG) remains partially understood. Here, we investigate the role of Hes1 in regulating neurogenesis in the DG of the adult hippocampus after TBI by up- or down-regulating Hes1 expression. First, adenovirus-mediated gene transfection was employed to up-regulate Hes1 in vivo. The mice were then subjected to TBI, and the hippocampal tissue was collected for western blot analysis at designated times, pre- and post-injury. Moreover, the brain slices were stained for BrdU and doublecortin (DCX). We show that enhancing Hes1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the DG of the hippocampus soon after TBI. Second, down-regulation of Hes1 via RNA interference (RNAi) results in a significant increase in neuronal production and promotes the differentiation of NPCs into mature neurons in the DG, as assessed by BrdU and NeuN double staining. Furthermore, a Morris water maze (MWM) test clearly confirmed that the knockdown of Hes1 improves the spatial learning and memory capacity of adult mice following injury. Taken together, these observations suggest that Hes1 represents a negative regulator of adult neurogenesis post-TBI and that the precise space-time regulation of Hes1 expression in the DG may promote the recovery of neural function following TBI.
    Brain Research 07/2014; 1583. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.07.037 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), or CD147, has been known to play a key regulatory role in vascular permeability and leukocyte activation by inducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The effects of traumatic brain injury on the expression of EMMPRIN remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated changes in EMMPRIN expression in a rat model of fluid percussion injury (FPI) and examined the potential association between EMMPRIN and MMP-9 expression. Adult male rats were subjected to FPI. EMMPRIN expression was markedly up-regulated in the brain tissue surrounding the injured region 6-48h after TBI, as measured by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. EMMPRIN expression was localized to inflammatory cells. The increase in EMMPRIN expression was temporally correlated with an increase in MMP-9 levels. These data demonstrate, for the first time, changes in CD147 and MMP-9 expression following TBI. These data also suggest that CD147 and MMP-9 may play a role in vascular injuries after TBI.
    Brain Research 06/2014; 1585. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2014.06.018 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose It is well known that inflammation influence chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) formation to a large extent. Atorvastatin has pleiotropic effects on restraining inflammation and promoting angiogenesis besides its cholesterol-lowering function. Hence, atorvastatin may induce anti-inflammation effects and facilitate therapeutic effects for subdural hematoma (SDH). Methods Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to SDH and successful establishment of SDH was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The treatment was initiated 6 hours after SDH induction. For the treatment, rats suffering SDH were randomly divided into saline group (the control group, rats were treated by saline, n = 29) and atorvastatin group (rats were treated by atorvastatin, 3 mg/kg/day, n = 30). The volume of lesion before treatment as well as on day 2 and day 7 after initial treatment was measured by MRI, respectively. The behaviors before SDH induction and on the days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after the initial treatment were dynamically evaluated. Gene expression, cytokine secretion and the number of neutrophilic granulocyte and vascular density were measured in both neomembrane and SDH lesion on the day 2 and day 7 after the initial treatment. Results It was found that the SDH rats treated by atorvastatin had a better behavior recovery compared to the ones treated by saline (p < 0.05). By virtue of MRI scanning, it was revealed that SDH volumes were eliminated at a high speed by administration of atorvastatin than that of saline. With the help of the microscopic examination in the neomembrane, it was detected that the density of CD31 + neovasculars in the atorvastatin group was significantly higher than that in the saline group and the number of neutrophilic granulocyte in the atorvastatin group is less than that in the saline group. In comparison with saline treatment, the atorvastatin treatment did not change IL-10 expression and secretion, but it significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-6 level as well as VEGF gene expression. Conclusions Atorvastatin treatment may eliminate SDH and improve the neural function of the rats through its anti-inflammatory effects. Hence, it indicated that statin induced inflammatory modulation might play a significant role in rats’ SDH elimination and the functional recovery.