Genome Medicine 03/2012; 4(3):19.
ABSTRACT: The meta-analytic approach to evaluating surrogate end points assesses the predictiveness of treatment effect on the surrogate toward treatment effect on the clinical end point based on multiple clinical trials. Definition and estimation of the correlation of treatment effects were developed in linear mixed models and later extended to binary or failure time outcomes on a case-by-case basis. In a general regression setting that covers nonnormal outcomes, we discuss in this paper several metrics that are useful in the meta-analytic evaluation of surrogacy. We propose a unified 3-step procedure to assess these metrics in settings with binary end points, time-to-event outcomes, or repeated measures. First, the joint distribution of estimated treatment effects is ascertained by an estimating equation approach; second, the restricted maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the means and the variance components of the random treatment effects; finally, confidence intervals are constructed by a parametric bootstrap procedure. The proposed method is evaluated by simulations and applications to 2 clinical trials.
Biostatistics 03/2012; 13(4):609-24. · 2.14 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified several genomic regions that are associated with breast cancer risk, but these provide an explanation for only a small fraction of familial breast cancer aggregation. Genotype by environment interactions may contribute further to such explanation, and may help to refine the genomic regions of interest.
We examined genotypes for 4,988 SNPs, selected from recent genome-wide studies, and four randomized hormonal and dietary interventions among 2,166 women who developed invasive breast cancer during the intervention phase of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial (1993 to 2005), and one-to-one matched controls. These SNPs derive from 3,224 genomic regions having pairwise squared correlation (r2) between adjacent regions less than 0.2. Breast cancer and SNP associations were identified using a test statistic that combined evidence of overall association with evidence for SNPs by intervention interaction.
The combined 'main effect' and interaction test led to a focus on two genomic regions, the fibroblast growth factor receptor two (FGFR2) and the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30 (MRPS30) regions. The ranking of SNPs by significance level, based on this combined test, was rather different from that based on the main effect alone, and drew attention to the vicinities of rs3750817 in FGFR2 and rs7705343 in MRPS30. Specifically, rs7705343 was included with several FGFR2 SNPs in a group of SNPs having an estimated false discovery rate < 0.05. In further analyses, there were suggestions (nominal P < 0.05) that hormonal and dietary intervention hazard ratios varied with the number of minor alleles of rs7705343.
Genotype by environment interaction information may help to define genomic regions relevant to disease risk. Combined main effect and intervention interaction analyses raise novel hypotheses concerning the MRPS30 genomic region and the effects of hormonal and dietary exposures on postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
Genome Medicine 06/2011; 3(6):42.