[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been linked to several adverse cardiopulmonary effects, probably via biological mechanisms involving inflammation. The pro-inflammatory potential of PM depends on the particles' physical and chemical characteristics, which again depend on the emitting source. Wood combustion is a major source of ambient air pollution in northern countries during the winter season. The overall aim of this study was therefore to investigate the cellular responses to wood smoke particles (WSPs) collected from different phases of the combustion cycle, and from combustion at different temperatures. RESULTS: WSPs from different phases of the combustion cycle induced very similar effects on pro-inflammatory mediator release, cytotoxicity and cell number, whereas WSPs from medium-temperature combustion were more cytotoxic than WSPs from high-temperature incomplete combustion. Furthermore, comparisons of effects induced by native WSPs with the corresponding organic extracts and washed particles revealed that the organic fraction was the most important determinant for the WSP-induced effects. However, the responses induced by the organic fraction could generally not be linked to the content of the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suggesting that also other organic compounds were involved. CONCLUSION: The toxicity of WSPs seems to a large extent to be determined by stove type and combustion conditions, rather than the phase of the combustion cycle. Notably, this toxicity seems to strongly depend on the organic fraction, and it is probably associated with organic components other than the commonly measured unsubstituted PAHs.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology 11/2012; 9(1):45. · 9.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have characterized cell death in THP-1 cells after exposure to heat-treated spores from satratoxin G-producing Stachybotrys chartarum isolate IBT 9631, atranone-producing S. chartarum isolate IBT 9634, and sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergillus versicolor isolate IBT 3781, as well as the trichothecenes T-2 and satratoxin G. Spores induced cell death within 3-6 h, with Stachybotrys appearing most potent. IBT 9631 induced both apoptosis and necrosis, while IBT 9634 and IBT 3781 induced mostly necrosis. T-2 toxin and satratoxin G caused mainly apoptosis. Comet assay +/- formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase showed that only the spore exposures induced early (3h) oxidative DNA damage. Likewise, only the spores increased the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), suggesting that spores as particles may induce ROS formation and oxidative DNA damage. Increased Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) phosphorylation, indicating DNA damage, was observed after all exposures. The DNA damage response induced by IBT 9631 as well as satratoxin G was characterized by rapid (15 min) activation of p38 and H2AX. The p38 inhibitor SB 202190 reduced IBT 9631-induced H2AX activation. Both IBT 9631 and T-2 induced activation of Chk2 and H2AX after 3 h. The ATM inhibitor KU 55933, as well as transfection of cells with ATM siRNA, reduced this activation, suggesting a partial role for ATM as upstream activator for Chk2 and H2AX. In conclusion, activation of Chk2 and H2AX correlated with spore- and toxin-induced apoptosis. For IBT 9631 and satratoxin G, additional factors may be involved in triggering apoptosis, most notably p38 activation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the potential of two complex mineral particles (feldspar and mylonite), quartz (Min-U-Sil), and suspended particulate matter (SRM-1648) (SPM) from urban air to induce inflammatory cytokine responses in primary rat alveolar type 2 cells and alveolar macrophages, and the involvement of cellular formation of free radicals in these responses. All particle types induced an increased release of interleukin (IL)-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 from type 2 cells. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), a selective inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase, reduced the IL-6 and MIP-2 responses to quartz, SPM and mylonite. N-(3-[Aminomethyl] benzyl) acetamidine (1400W), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), significantly reduced the Il-6 response to SPM and feldspar in the type 2 cells. The macrophages displayed significantly increased TNF-alpha and MIP-2 release upon exposure to quartz or SPM. Here, DPI significantly reduced the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and MIP-2 responses to quartz, and the MIP-2 response to SPM. No significant effect of 1400 W was detected in the alveolar macrophages. The role of particle-induced cellular generation of free radicals in lung cytokine responses was further elucidated in mice that lacked either NADPH-oxidase or iNOS as well as in wild-type (wt) mice. All particles were able to elicit increased cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of the mice, although the levels depended on particle type. The NADPH-oxidase knockout (KO) mice demonstrated a significantly lower IL-6 and MIP-2 responses to SPM compared to their respective wt mice. The iNOS KO mice displayed significantly reduced IL-6, TNF-alpha, and MIP-2 responses to SPM. The overall results indicate the involvement of cellular free-radical formation in the pulmonary cytokine responses to particles of varying composition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rat lung alveolar macrophages and type 2 cells were exposed for 20 h in vitro to various stone particles with differing contents of metals and minerals (a type of mylonite, gabbro, feldspar, and quartz). The capability to induce the release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) was investigated. We found marked differences in potency between the various particles, with mylonite being most potent overall, followed by gabbro, and with feldspar and quartz having an approximately similar order of lower potency. The results also demonstrated differences in cytokine release pattern between the two cell types. For all particle types including quartz, type 2 cells showed the most marked increase in MIP-2 and IL-6 secretion, whereas the largest increase in TNF-alpha release was observed in macrophages. To investigate possible correlations between in vitro and in vivo inflammatory responses, rats were instilled with the same types of particles and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected after 20 h. The results demonstrated a correlation between the in vitro cytokine responses and the number of neutrophilic cells in the BAL fluid. The BAL fluid also showed a strong MIP-2 response to mylonite. However, this was the only particle type to give a significant cytokine response in the BAL fluid. We further examined whether a similar graded inflammatory response would be continued in type 2 cells and alveolar macrophages isolated from the exposed animals. Again a differential cytokine release pattern was observed between type 2 cells and macrophages, although the order of potency between particle types was altered. In conclusion, various stone particles caused differential inflammatory responses after both in vitro and in vivo exposure, with mylonite being the most potent stone particle. The results suggest the alveolar type 2 cell to be an important participant in the inflammatory response following exposure to particles.