ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Myxoma virus (MYXV) gained importance throughout the twentieth century because of the use of the highly virulent Standard Laboratory Strain (SLS) by the Australian government in the attempt to control the feral Australian population of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) and the subsequent illegal release of MYXV in Europe. In the European rabbit, MYXV causes a disease with an exceedingly high mortality rate, named myxomatosis, which is passively transmitted by biting arthropod vectors. MYXV still has a great impact on European rabbit populations around the world. In contrast, only a single cutaneous lesion, restricted to the point of inoculation, is seen in its natural long-term host, the South-American Sylvilagus brasiliensis and the North-American S. Bachmani. Apart from being detrimental for European rabbits, however, MYXV has also become of interest in human medicine in the last two decades for two reasons. Firstly, due to the strong immune suppressing effects of certain MYXV proteins, several secreted virus-encoded immunomodulators (e.g. Serp-1) are being developed to treat systemic inflammatory syndromes such as cardiovascular disease in humans. Secondly, due to the inherent ability of MYXV to infect a broad spectrum of human cancer cells, the live virus is also being developed as an oncolytic virotherapeutic to treat human cancer. In this review, an update will be given on the current status of MYXV in rabbits as well as its potential in human medicine in the twenty-first century.Table of contentsAbstract1. The virus2. History3. Pathogenesis and disease symptoms4. Immunomodulatory proteins of MYXV4.1. MYXV proteins with anti-apoptotic functions4.1.1. Inhibition of pro-apoptotic molecules4.1.2. Inhibition by protein-protein interactions by ankyrin repeat viral proteins4.1.3. Inhibition of apoptosis by enhancing the degradation of cellular proteins4.1.4. Inhibition of apoptosis by blocking host Protein Kinase R (PKR)4.2. MYXV proteins interfering with leukocyte chemotaxis4.3. MYXV serpins that inhibit cellular pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic proteases4.4. MYXV proteins that interfere with leukocyte activation4.5. MYXV proteins with sequence similarity to HIV proteins4.6. MYXV proteins with unknown immune function5. Vaccination strategies against myxomatosis5.1. Current MYXV vaccines5.2. Vaccination campaigns to protect European rabbits in the wild6. Applications of myxoma virus for human medicine6.1. MYXV proteins as therapeutics for allograft vasculopathy and atherosclerosis6.2. Applications for MYXV as a live oncolytic virus to treat cancer7. Discussion and Conclusions8. List of AbbreviationsReferencesAuthor DetailsAuthors' contributionsCompeting interestsFigure LegendsAcknowledgements.
Veterinary Research 06/2011; 42(1):76. · 4.06 Impact Factor