ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that physical exercise in postmenopausal women could interfere with the molecular interrelationship of the immune-endocrine system and be effective even in women in whom training determined a reduction of spontaneous physical activity (SPA). For this reason, we investigated the effects of an aerobic program on plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cytokine levels in relationship to SPA modification. METHODS: Thirty-two postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 56.38 [4.33] y) were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age younger than 65 years, body mass index higher than 18.5 and lower than 35 kg/m, no pharmacological treatments, and no history of chronic, cardiovascular, or orthopedic diseases. Before and after 3 months of walking training at moderate intensity (40-50 min, 4 d/wk), they were evaluated for SPA, body composition, energy intake, and levels of plasma cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8, and IL-10), C-reactive protein, DHEA-S, cortisol, and estrogen. RESULTS: At baseline, SPA did not correlate with either DHEA-S level or cytokine levels. There was negative correlation between DHEA-S and both TNF-α and IL-2. After the intervention program, 16 women showed increased SPA, and 16 women showed decreased SPA. Independent of these changes in SPA, both TNF-α levels and cortisol-to-DHEA-S ratio decreased, whereas DHEA-S levels increased. CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women, walking training, rather than SPA, influences DHEA-S and cytokine concentrations and their correlations, thus interfering with adrenal steroids and the inflammatory markers network. Physical exercise acts in parallel on menopausal neuroendocrine alterations and on the systemic inflammatory profile independent of SPA changes.
Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 12/2012; · 3.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Because physical exercise has been widely used for primary and secondary preventions of cardiometabolic diseases arising with menopause, the aim of our study was to determine whether participation in aerobic physical exercise is linked to the modification of spontaneous physical activity and whether this compensation affects aerobic training-related body adaptations.
Both before and after a 13-week walking training program, 34 postmenopausal women (mean ± SD age, 55.89 ± 3.57 y) were analyzed for lipids, adipokines, glucose, and insulin plasma levels, as well as for body measures, heart rate and blood pressure at rest, maximal aerobic capacity, total daily energy expenditure, mean intensity of daily physical activities, and time and energy spent on physical activities with an intensity of more than three metabolic equivalents.
Aerobic training induced significant reductions in body mass, body mass index, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, basal cardiac double product, plasma glucose, leptin, and resistin. Aerobic fitness, the reserve of the cardiac double product, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity index were significantly improved. Cluster analysis of the variations in the total daily energy expenditure, the mean intensity of daily physical activities, and the time and energy spent on physical activities with an intensity of more than three metabolic equivalents identified two subgroups: one showed reduced spontaneous physical activity (GROUP-), whereas the other did not (GROUP+). The subgroups differed significantly only for plasma lipid variation. GROUP+ showed significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, whereas GROUP- did not show significantly modified plasma lipids.
In postmenopause, participation in a program of aerobic physical exercise can result in a reduction of spontaneous physical activity, which inhibits the positive effects of the aerobic exercise on plasma lipids and lipoproteins.
Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 01/2012; 19(1):23-32. · 3.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in the increased secretion of α-amylase (sAA), an enzyme produced by salivary glands. Recently, chromogranin A (CgA), a soluble protein costored and coreleased with catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerve endings, has been proposed as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of salivary chromogranin A (sCgA) and sAA during high-intensity exercise and to analyse their possible correlation with cardiovascular and psychological parameters.
Before and during a standardized treadmill stress test, and at 5, 15 and 30 min during the recovery phase, sCgA and sAA were monitored in 21 healthy men. The double product (DP) of blood pressure and heart rate responses, and the product of the subjective ratings of perceived exertion recorded at the final step (RPE) and the exercise duration were used as indices of cardiovascular and exercise intensity, respectively.
With respect to baseline, significant (P < 0·001) increases in peak sCgA (median 64%) and sAA (median 86%) were observed at the end of exercise. During the recovery phase, sAA levels fell abruptly, whereas sCgA remained elevated (P < 0·001). Significant correlations emerged only for sCgA with respect to %DP (r = 0·84; P < 0·001) and last step-RPE (r = 0·82; P = 0·024).
These data suggest sCgA as a reliable marker of SAM activation. Furthermore, the relationship between sCgA and exercise intensity highlights the potential use of this noninvasive parameter in monitoring the adrenergic response during intense physical stress.
Clinical Endocrinology 06/2011; 75(6):747-52. · 3.17 Impact Factor