Douglas Ganini

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, NC, United States

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Publications (12)48.33 Total impact

  • Douglas Ganini, Ronald P Mason
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    ABSTRACT: LDL oxidation is the primary event in atherosclerosis, where LDL lipoperoxidation leads to modifications in the apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) and lipids. Intermediate species of lipoperoxidation are known to be able to generate amino acid-centered radicals. Thus, we hypothesized that lipoperoxidation intermediates induce protein-derived free radical formation during LDL oxidation. Using DMPO and immuno spin-trapping, we detected the formation of protein free radicals on LDL incubated with Cu(2+) or the soybean lipoxidase (LPOx)/phospholipase A2 (PLA2). With low concentrations of DMPO (1mM), Cu(2+) dose-dependently induced oxidation of LDL and easily detected apo B-100 radicals. Protein radical formation in LDL incubated with Cu(2+) showed maximum yields after 30 minutes. In contrast, the yields of apo B-100-radicals formed by LPOx/PLA2 followed a typical enzyme-catalyzed kinetics that was unaffected by DMPO concentrations of up to 50mM. Furthermore, when we analyzed the effect of antioxidants on protein radical formation during LDL oxidation, we found that ascorbate, urate and Trolox dose-dependently reduced apo B-100-free radical formation in LDL exposed to Cu(2+). In contrast, Trolox was the only antioxidant that even partially protected LDL from LPOx/PLA2. We also examined the kinetics of lipid radical formation and protein radical formation induced by Cu(2+) or LPOx/PLA2 for LDL supplemented with α-tocopherol. In contrast to the potent antioxidant effect of α-tocopherol on the delay of LDL oxidation induced by Cu(2+), when we used the oxidizing system LPOx/PLA2, no significant protection was detected. The lack of protection of α-tocopherol on the apo B-100 and lipid free radical formation by LPOx may explain the failure of vitamin E as a cardiovascular protective agent for humans.
    Free radical biology & medicine. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Molybdenum is a transition metal used primarily (90% or more) as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys in metallurgical industries and its release into the environment is a growing problem. As a catalytic center of some redox enzymes, molybdenum is an essential element for inorganic nitrogen assimilation/fixation, phytohormone synthesis, and free radical metabolism in photosynthesizing species. In oceanic and estuarine waters, microalgae absorb molybdenum as the water-soluble molybdate anion (MoO4(2-)), although MoO4(2-) uptake is thought to compete with uptake of the much more abundant sulfate anion (SO4(2-), approximately 25mM in seawater). Thus, those aspects of microalgal biology impacted by molybdenum would be better explained by considering both MoO4(2-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in the aquatic milieu. This work examines toxicological, physiological and redox imbalances in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum that have been induced by changes in the molybdate:sulfate ratios. We prepared cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum grown in artificial seawater containing eight different MoO4(2-) concentrations (from 0 to 200μM) and three different SO4(2-) concentrations (3.5mM, 9.6mM and 25mM). We measured sulfur content in cells, the activities of the three major antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase), indexes of oxidative modifications in proteins (carbonyl content) and lipids (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), the activities of the molybdenum-dependent enzymes xanthine oxidase and nitrate reductase, expression of key protein components of dinoflagellate photosynthesis (peridinin-chlorophyll a protein and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxidase) and growth curves. We find evidence for Mo toxicity at relatively high [MoO4(2-)]:[SO4(2-)] ratios. We also find evidence for extensive redox adaptations at Mo levels well below lethal levels.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 08/2013; 142-143C:195-202. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, can act as a peroxidase. Intravascular hemolysis results in a massive release of heme into the plasma in several pathophysiological conditions such as hemolytic anemia, malaria and sickle cell disease. Heme is known to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, and the extent of induction depends on the ratio of albumin to heme in plasma. HO-1 degrades heme and ultimately generates the antioxidant bilirubin. Heme also causes oxidative stress in cells, but whether it causes protein radical formation has not yet been studied. In the literature, two purposes for the degradation of heme by HO-1 are discussed. One is the production of the antioxidant bilirubin and the other is the prevention of heme-dependent adverse effects. Here we have investigated heme-induced protein radical formation, which might have pathophysiological consequences, and have used immuno-spin trapping to establish the formation of heme-induced protein radicals in two systems: human serum albumin (HSA)/H2O2 and human plasma/H2O2. We found that excess heme catalyzed the formation of HSA radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. When heme and hydrogen peroxide were added to human plasma, heme was found to oxidize proteins, primarily and predominantly HSA; however, when HSA-depleted plasma was used, heme triggered the oxidation of several other proteins, including transferrin. Thus, HSA in plasma protected other proteins from heme/H2O2-induced oxidation. The antioxidants ascorbate and uric acid significantly attenuated protein radical formation induced by heme/H2O2; however, bilirubin did not confer significant protection. Based on these findings, we conclude that heme is degraded by HO-1 because it is a catalyst of protein radical formation and not merely to produce the relatively inefficient antioxidant bilirubin.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 04/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Amplex Red assay, a fluorescent assay for the detection of H2O2, relies on the reaction of H2O2, which, in the presence of horseradish peroxidase, oxidizes the colorless, nonfluorescent, Amplex Red with a 1:1 stoichiometry to form the colored, fluorescent resorufin. We have found that resorufin is artifactually formed when Amplex Red is exposed to light. This photochemistry is initiated by trace amounts of resorufin present in Amplex Red stock solutions. ESR spin-trapping studies have demonstrated that superoxide radical is an intermediate in this process. Oxygen consumption measurements further confirmed that superoxide and H2O2 were artifactually produced by the photooxidation of Amplex Red. The artifactual formation of resorufin was also significantly increased by the presence of superoxide dismutase or HRP. This photooxidation process leads to a less sensitive assay for H2O2 under ambient light exposure and potentially invalid measurements under high energy exposure such as UVA irradiation. In general, precautions should be taken to minimize exposure to light, including that from instrumental light, during measurement of oxidative stress with Amplex Red.
    Methods in enzymology 01/2013; 526:1-17. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 12/2012; 53(11):2196.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Progression from steatosis to steatohepatitic lesions is hypothesized to require a second hit. These lesions have been associated with increased oxidative stress, often ascribed to high levels of leptin and other proinflammatory mediators. Here we have examined the role of leptin in inducing oxidative stress and Kupffer cell activation in CCl(4)-mediated steatohepatitic lesions of obese mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice fed with a high fat diet (60%kcal) at 16 weeks were administered CCl(4) to induce steatohepatitic lesions. Approaches included use of immuno-spin trapping for measuring free radical stress, gene-deficient mice for leptin, p47 phox, iNOS and adoptive transfer of leptin primed macrophages in vivo. RESULTS: Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, treated with CCl(4) increased serum leptin levels. Oxidative stress was significantly elevated in DIO mice liver but not in OB/OB mice, or in DIO mice treated with leptin antibody. In OB/OB mice, leptin supplementation restored markers of free radical generation. Markers of free radical formation were significantly decreased by the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTPPS, the iNOS inhibitor 1400W, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, or in iNOS or p47 phox-deficient mice. These results correlated with the decreased expression of TNF-alpha and MCP-1. Kupffer cell depletion eliminated oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas in macrophage-depleted mice, the adoptive transfer of leptin-primed macrophages significantly restored inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: These results, for the first time, suggest that leptin action in macrophages of steatotic liver through induction of iNOS and NADPH oxidase caused peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative stress thus activating Kupffer cells.
    Journal of Hepatology 11/2012; · 9.86 Impact Factor
  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2012; 53(10):1991-2. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an integral mitochondrial protein known as a first-line antioxidant defense against superoxide radical anions produced as by-products of the electron transport chain. Recent studies have shaped the idea that by regulating the mitochondrial redox status and H(2)O(2) outflow, MnSOD acts as a fundamental regulator of cellular proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis, thereby assuming roles that extend far beyond its proposed antioxidant functions. Accordingly, allelic variations of MnSOD that have been shown to augment levels of MnSOD in mitochondria result in a 10-fold increase in prostate cancer risk. In addition, epidemiologic studies indicate that reduced glutathione peroxidase activity along with increases in H(2)O(2) further increase cancer risk in the face of MnSOD overexpression. These facts led us to hypothesize that, like its Cu,ZnSOD counterpart, MnSOD may work as a peroxidase, utilizing H(2)O(2) to promote mitochondrial damage, a known cancer risk factor. Here we report that MnSOD indeed possesses peroxidase activity that manifests in mitochondria when the enzyme is overexpressed.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 08/2012; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) is a copper-binding protein known to promote Fe(2+) oxidation in plasma of mammals. In addition to its classical ferroxidase activity, ceruloplasmin is known to catalyze the oxidation of various substrates, such as amines and catechols. Assays based on cyclic hydroxylamine oxidation are used to quantify and detect free radicals in biological samples ex vivo and in vitro. We show here that human ceruloplasmin promotes the oxidation of the cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (CPH) and related probes in Chelex-treated phosphate buffer and rat serum. The reaction is suppressed by the metal chelators DTPA, EDTA, and desferal, whereas heparin and bathocuproine have no effect. Catalase or superoxide dismutase additions do not interfere with the CPH-oxidation yield, demonstrating that oxygen-derived free radicals are not involved in the CPH oxidation mediated by ceruloplasmin. Plasma samples immunodepleted of ceruloplasmin have lower levels of CPH oxidation, which confirms the role of ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) as a biological oxidizing agent of cyclic hydroxylamines. In conclusion, we show that the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin is a possible biological source of artifacts in the cyclic hydroxylamine-oxidation assay used for reactive oxygen species detection and quantification.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2012; 53(7):1514-21. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old) immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 06/2012; 9(1):25. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kinetic evidence is reported for the role of the peroxymonocarbonate, HOOCO(2)(-), as an oxidant for reduced Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-Cu(I) (SOD1) during the peroxidase activity of the enzyme. The formation of this reactive oxygen species results from the equilibrium between hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate. Recently, peroxymonocarbonate has been proposed to be a key substrate for reduced SOD1 and has been shown to oxidize SOD1-Cu(I) to SOD1-Cu(II) much faster than H(2)O(2). We have reinvestigated the kinetics of the reaction between SOD1-Cu(I) and HOOCO(2)(-) by using conventional stopped-flow spectrophotometry and obtained a second-order rate constant of k=1600±100M(-1)s(-1) for SOD1-Cu(I) oxidation by HOOCO(2)(-). Our results demonstrate that peroxymonocarbonate oxidizes SOD1-Cu(I) to SOD1-Cu(II) and is in turn reduced to the carbonate anion radical. It is proposed that the dissociation of His61 from the active site Cu(I) in SOD-Cu(I) contributes to this chemistry by facilitating the binding of larger anions, such as peroxymonocarbonate.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2012; 53(3):589-94. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acetoacetate (AA) and 2-methylacetoacetate (MAA) are accumulated in metabolic disorders such as diabetes and isoleucinemia. Here we examine the mechanism of AA and MAA aerobic oxidation initiated by myoglobin (Mb)/H(2)O(2). We propose a chemiluminescent route involving a dioxetanone intermediate whose thermolysis yields triplet α-dicarbonyl species (methylglyoxal and diacetyl). The observed ultraweak chemiluminescence increased linearly on raising the concentration of either Mb (10-500 μM) or AA (10-100 mM). Oxygen uptake studies revealed that MAA is almost a 100-fold more reactive than AA. EPR spin-trapping studies with MNP/MAA revealed the intermediacy of an α-carbon-centered radical and acetyl radical. The latter radical, probably derived from triplet diacetyl, is totally suppressed by sorbate, a well-known quencher of triplet carbonyls. Furthermore, an EPR signal assignable to MNP-AA(•) adduct was observed and confirmed by isotope effects. Oxygen consumption and α-dicarbonyl yield were shown to be dependent on AA or MAA concentrations (1-50 mM) and on H(2)O(2) or tert-butOOH added to the Mb-containing reaction mixtures. That ferrylMb is involved in a peroxidase cycle acting on the substrates is suggested by the reaction pH profiles and immunospin-trapping experiments. The generation of radicals and triplet dicarbonyl products by Mb/H(2)O(2)/β-ketoacids may contribute to the adverse health effects of ketogenic unbalance.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2011; 51(3):733-43. · 5.27 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

21 Citations
48.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      • Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology (LTP)
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2012
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2011
    • University of São Paulo
      • Department of Biochemistry (IQ)
      São Paulo, Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil