[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD/SOD2) is a mitochondria-resident enzyme that governs the types of reactive oxygen species egressing from the organelle to affect cellular signalling. Here we demonstrate that MnSOD upregulation in cancer cells establishes a steady flow of H 2 O 2 originating from mitochondria that sustains AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activation and the metabolic shift to glycolysis. Restricting MnSOD expression or inhibiting AMPK suppresses the metabolic switch and dampens the viability of transformed cells indicating that the MnSOD/AMPK axis is critical to support cancer cell bioenergetics. Recapitulating in vitro findings, clinical and epidemiologic analyses of MnSOD expression and AMPK activation indicated that the MnSOD/AMPK pathway is most active in advanced stage and aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that MnSOD serves as a biomarker of cancer progression and acts as critical regulator of tumour cell metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astaxanthin (ASTA) is a pinkish-orange carotenoid commonly found in marine organisms, especially salmon. ASTA is a powerful antioxidant and suggested to provide benefits for human health, including the inhibition of LDL oxidation, UV-photoprotection, and prophylaxis of bacterial stomach ulcers. Exercise is associated to overproduction of free radicals in muscles and plasma, with pivotal participation of iron ions and glutathione (GSH). Thus, ASTA was studied here as an auxiliary supplement to improve antioxidant defenses in soleus muscles and plasma against oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise. Long-term 1 mg ASTA/kg body weight (BW) supplementation in Wistar rats (for 45 days) significantly delayed time to exhaustion by 29% in a swimming test. ASTA supplementation increased scavenging/iron-chelating capacities (TEAC/FRAP) and limited exercise-induced iron overload and its related pro-oxidant effects in plasma of exercising animals. On the other hand, ASTA induced significant mitochondrial Mn-dependent superoxide dismutase and cytosolic glutathione peroxidase antioxidant responses in soleus muscles that, in turn, increased GSH content during exercise, limited oxidative stress, and delayed exhaustion. We also provided significant discussion about a putative "mitochondrial-targeted" action of ASTA based on previous publications and on the positive results found in the highly mitochondrial populated (oxidative-type) soleus muscles here.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5-60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis.
Biology of Sport 12/2014; 31(4):271-276. DOI:10.5604/20831862.1120934 · 0.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LDL oxidation is the primary event in atherosclerosis, where LDL lipoperoxidation leads to modifications in the apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) and lipids. Intermediate species of lipoperoxidation are known to be able to generate amino acid-centered radicals. Thus, we hypothesized that lipoperoxidation intermediates induce protein-derived free radical formation during LDL oxidation. Using DMPO and immuno spin-trapping, we detected the formation of protein free radicals on LDL incubated with Cu(2+) or the soybean lipoxidase (LPOx)/phospholipase A2 (PLA2). With low concentrations of DMPO (1mM), Cu(2+) dose-dependently induced oxidation of LDL and easily detected apo B-100 radicals. Protein radical formation in LDL incubated with Cu(2+) showed maximum yields after 30 minutes. In contrast, the yields of apo B-100-radicals formed by LPOx/PLA2 followed a typical enzyme-catalyzed kinetics that was unaffected by DMPO concentrations of up to 50mM. Furthermore, when we analyzed the effect of antioxidants on protein radical formation during LDL oxidation, we found that ascorbate, urate and Trolox dose-dependently reduced apo B-100-free radical formation in LDL exposed to Cu(2+). In contrast, Trolox was the only antioxidant that even partially protected LDL from LPOx/PLA2. We also examined the kinetics of lipid radical formation and protein radical formation induced by Cu(2+) or LPOx/PLA2 for LDL supplemented with α-tocopherol. In contrast to the potent antioxidant effect of α-tocopherol on the delay of LDL oxidation induced by Cu(2+), when we used the oxidizing system LPOx/PLA2, no significant protection was detected. The lack of protection of α-tocopherol on the apo B-100 and lipid free radical formation by LPOx may explain the failure of vitamin E as a cardiovascular protective agent for humans.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 08/2014; 76. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.07.031 · 5.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molybdenum is a transition metal used primarily (90% or more) as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys in metallurgical industries and its release into the environment is a growing problem. As a catalytic center of some redox enzymes, molybdenum is an essential element for inorganic nitrogen assimilation/fixation, phytohormone synthesis, and free radical metabolism in photosynthesizing species. In oceanic and estuarine waters, microalgae absorb molybdenum as the water-soluble molybdate anion (MoO4(2-)), although MoO4(2-) uptake is thought to compete with uptake of the much more abundant sulfate anion (SO4(2-), approximately 25mM in seawater). Thus, those aspects of microalgal biology impacted by molybdenum would be better explained by considering both MoO4(2-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in the aquatic milieu. This work examines toxicological, physiological and redox imbalances in the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum that have been induced by changes in the molybdate:sulfate ratios. We prepared cultures of Lingulodinium polyedrum grown in artificial seawater containing eight different MoO4(2-) concentrations (from 0 to 200μM) and three different SO4(2-) concentrations (3.5mM, 9.6mM and 25mM). We measured sulfur content in cells, the activities of the three major antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase), indexes of oxidative modifications in proteins (carbonyl content) and lipids (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS), the activities of the molybdenum-dependent enzymes xanthine oxidase and nitrate reductase, expression of key protein components of dinoflagellate photosynthesis (peridinin-chlorophyll a protein and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxidase) and growth curves. We find evidence for Mo toxicity at relatively high [MoO4(2-)]:[SO4(2-)] ratios. We also find evidence for extensive redox adaptations at Mo levels well below lethal levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum is a toxin producer that shows the ability of turning to resting cysts as a survival strategy when exposed to environmental unfavorable conditions, such as nitrogen and phosphorus depletion, abrupt changes in temperature or light, and chemical or mechanical stress. Algal adaptation to all these conditions involves hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) as key redox signals for housekeeping cellular processes. Thus, we aim here to shed light on the role of H2O2 and NO (from aqueous decomposition of sodium nitroprusside, SNP) as prooxidant agents and putative redox signals for encystment of the dinoflagellate L. polyedrum. Harsh oxidative stress imposed by 500 μM H2O2 treatment forced L. polyedrum cells to rapidly encyst, in less than 30 min, whereas slower cyst formation was observed upon lower H2O2 doses. L. polyedrum encystment was marked by a significant increase in the antioxidant carotenoid peridinin, although other photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and β-carotene) and light-harvesting complexes (peridinin complex protein, PCP) were all diminished in cyst forms. Although SOD activity (a frontline antioxidant enzyme) was severely inhibited by increasing doses of H2O2, a theoretical compensatory effect was provided by the dose-dependent increase of ascorbate peroxidase activity (APX), which resulted in significant lower levels of lipid peroxidation during cyst formation. Although SNP data cannot be fully compared to those found with H2O2 treatments, changes in APX activity and in biomarkers of lipid and protein oxidation matched the dose-responses found in H2O2 experiments, revealing similar biochemical and morphological responses against increasing oxidative conditions during cyst formation. Our data significantly contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between encystment, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses triggered by H2O2 and NO in L. polyedrum, a harmful diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin (DSPs) producer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Amplex Red assay, a fluorescent assay for the detection of H2O2, relies on the reaction of H2O2, which, in the presence of horseradish peroxidase, oxidizes the colorless, nonfluorescent, Amplex Red with a 1:1 stoichiometry to form the colored, fluorescent resorufin. We have found that resorufin is artifactually formed when Amplex Red is exposed to light. This photochemistry is initiated by trace amounts of resorufin present in Amplex Red stock solutions. ESR spin-trapping studies have demonstrated that superoxide radical is an intermediate in this process. Oxygen consumption measurements further confirmed that superoxide and H2O2 were artifactually produced by the photooxidation of Amplex Red. The artifactual formation of resorufin was also significantly increased by the presence of superoxide dismutase or HRP. This photooxidation process leads to a less sensitive assay for H2O2 under ambient light exposure and potentially invalid measurements under high energy exposure such as UVA irradiation. In general, precautions should be taken to minimize exposure to light, including that from instrumental light, during measurement of oxidative stress with Amplex Red.
Methods in enzymology 06/2013; 526:1-17. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-405883-5.00001-6 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heme, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, can act as a peroxidase. Intravascular hemolysis results in a massive release of heme into the plasma in several pathophysiological conditions such as hemolytic anemia, malaria and sickle cell disease. Heme is known to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, and the extent of induction depends on the ratio of albumin to heme in plasma. HO-1 degrades heme and ultimately generates the antioxidant bilirubin. Heme also causes oxidative stress in cells, but whether it causes protein radical formation has not yet been studied. In the literature, two purposes for the degradation of heme by HO-1 are discussed. One is the production of the antioxidant bilirubin and the other is the prevention of heme-dependent adverse effects. Here we have investigated heme-induced protein radical formation, which might have pathophysiological consequences, and have used immuno-spin trapping to establish the formation of heme-induced protein radicals in two systems: human serum albumin (HSA)/H2O2 and human plasma/H2O2. We found that excess heme catalyzed the formation of HSA radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. When heme and hydrogen peroxide were added to human plasma, heme was found to oxidize proteins, primarily and predominantly HSA; however, when HSA-depleted plasma was used, heme triggered the oxidation of several other proteins, including transferrin. Thus, HSA in plasma protected other proteins from heme/H2O2-induced oxidation. The antioxidants ascorbate and uric acid significantly attenuated protein radical formation induced by heme/H2O2; however, bilirubin did not confer significant protection. Based on these findings, we conclude that heme is degraded by HO-1 because it is a catalyst of protein radical formation and not merely to produce the relatively inefficient antioxidant bilirubin.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 04/2013; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.04.026 · 5.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aims:
Progression from steatosis to steatohepatitic lesions is hypothesized to require a second hit. These lesions have been associated with increased oxidative stress, often ascribed to high levels of leptin and other proinflammatory mediators. Here we have examined the role of leptin in inducing oxidative stress and Kupffer cell activation in CCl4-mediated steatohepatitic lesions of obese mice.
Male C57BL/6 mice fed with a high-fat diet (60%kcal) at 16 weeks were administered CCl₄ to induce steatohepatitic lesions. Approaches included use of immuno-spin trapping for measuring free radical stress, gene-deficient mice for leptin, p47 phox, iNOS and adoptive transfer of leptin primed macrophages in vivo.
Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, treated with CCl4 increased serum leptin levels. Oxidative stress was significantly elevated in the DIO mouse liver, but not in ob/ob mice, or in DIO mice treated with leptin antibody. In ob/ob mice, leptin supplementation restored markers of free radical generation. Markers of free radical formation were significantly decreased by the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst FeTPPS, the iNOS inhibitor 1400W, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, or in iNOS or p47 phox-deficient mice. These results correlated with the decreased expression of TNF-alpha and MCP-1. Kupffer cell depletion eliminated oxidative stress and inflammation, whereas in macrophage-depleted mice, the adoptive transfer of leptin-primed macrophages significantly restored inflammation.
These results, for the first time, suggest that leptin action in macrophages of the steatotic liver, through induction of iNOS and NADPH oxidase, causes peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative stress thus activating Kupffer cells.
Journal of Hepatology 11/2012; 58(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2012.11.035 · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an integral mitochondrial protein known as a first-line antioxidant defense against superoxide radical anions produced as by-products of the electron transport chain. Recent studies have shaped the idea that by regulating the mitochondrial redox status and H(2)O(2) outflow, MnSOD acts as a fundamental regulator of cellular proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis, thereby assuming roles that extend far beyond its proposed antioxidant functions. Accordingly, allelic variations of MnSOD that have been shown to augment levels of MnSOD in mitochondria result in a 10-fold increase in prostate cancer risk. In addition, epidemiologic studies indicate that reduced glutathione peroxidase activity along with increases in H(2)O(2) further increase cancer risk in the face of MnSOD overexpression. These facts led us to hypothesize that, like its Cu,ZnSOD counterpart, MnSOD may work as a peroxidase, utilizing H(2)O(2) to promote mitochondrial damage, a known cancer risk factor. Here we report that MnSOD indeed possesses peroxidase activity that manifests in mitochondria when the enzyme is overexpressed.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 08/2012; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.08.573 · 5.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) is a copper-binding protein known to promote Fe(2+) oxidation in plasma of mammals. In addition to its classical ferroxidase activity, ceruloplasmin is known to catalyze the oxidation of various substrates, such as amines and catechols. Assays based on cyclic hydroxylamine oxidation are used to quantify and detect free radicals in biological samples ex vivo and in vitro. We show here that human ceruloplasmin promotes the oxidation of the cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride (CPH) and related probes in Chelex-treated phosphate buffer and rat serum. The reaction is suppressed by the metal chelators DTPA, EDTA, and desferal, whereas heparin and bathocuproine have no effect. Catalase or superoxide dismutase additions do not interfere with the CPH-oxidation yield, demonstrating that oxygen-derived free radicals are not involved in the CPH oxidation mediated by ceruloplasmin. Plasma samples immunodepleted of ceruloplasmin have lower levels of CPH oxidation, which confirms the role of ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase) as a biological oxidizing agent of cyclic hydroxylamines. In conclusion, we show that the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin is a possible biological source of artifacts in the cyclic hydroxylamine-oxidation assay used for reactive oxygen species detection and quantification.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2012; 53(7):1514-21. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.07.013 · 5.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old) immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test.
Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects.
Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 06/2012; 9(1):25. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-9-25 · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kinetic evidence is reported for the role of the peroxymonocarbonate, HOOCO(2)(-), as an oxidant for reduced Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-Cu(I) (SOD1) during the peroxidase activity of the enzyme. The formation of this reactive oxygen species results from the equilibrium between hydrogen peroxide and bicarbonate. Recently, peroxymonocarbonate has been proposed to be a key substrate for reduced SOD1 and has been shown to oxidize SOD1-Cu(I) to SOD1-Cu(II) much faster than H(2)O(2). We have reinvestigated the kinetics of the reaction between SOD1-Cu(I) and HOOCO(2)(-) by using conventional stopped-flow spectrophotometry and obtained a second-order rate constant of k=1600±100M(-1)s(-1) for SOD1-Cu(I) oxidation by HOOCO(2)(-). Our results demonstrate that peroxymonocarbonate oxidizes SOD1-Cu(I) to SOD1-Cu(II) and is in turn reduced to the carbonate anion radical. It is proposed that the dissociation of His61 from the active site Cu(I) in SOD-Cu(I) contributes to this chemistry by facilitating the binding of larger anions, such as peroxymonocarbonate.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 05/2012; 53(3):589-94. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.04.029 · 5.74 Impact Factor