[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe.Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Japan and fungal infection results in high mortality rates.Parasitic nematodes: Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser have potential for use as biopesticides as an alternative to chemical treatments.Parasitoids: A parasitoid of Anoplophora chinensis Forster, Aprostocetus anoplophorae Delvare (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was discovered in Italy in 2002 and has been shown to be capable of parasitizing up to 72% of A. chinensis eggs. Some native European parasitoid species (e.g. Spathius erythrocephalus) also have potential to be used as biological control agents.Predators: Two woodpecker (Piciformis: Picidae) species that are native to Europe, Dendrocopos major Beicki and Picus canus Gmelin have been shown to be effective at controlling Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky in Chinese forests.The removal and destruction of infested and potentially infested trees is the main eradication strategy for Anoplophora sp. in Europe, but biological control agents could be used in the future to complement other management strategies, especially in locations where eradication is no longer possible.
Pest Management Science 10/2014; 71(1). DOI:10.1002/ps.3907 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citation: Baker RHA, Eyre D, Brunel S (2013) Matching methods to produce maps for pest risk analysis to resources. In: Kriticos DJ, Venette RC (Eds) Advancing risk assessment models to address climate change, economics and uncertainty. Abstract Decision support systems (DSSs) for pest risk mapping are invaluable for guiding pest risk analysts seek-ing to add maps to pest risk analyses (PRAs). Maps can help identify the area of potential establishment, the area at highest risk and the endangered area for alien plant pests. However, the production of detailed pest risk maps may require considerable time and resources and it is important to match the methods em-ployed to the priority, time and detail required. In this paper, we apply PRATIQUE DSSs to Phytophthora austrocedrae, a pathogen of the Cupressaceae, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, the pine processionary moth, Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing Drosophila, and Thaumatotibia leucotreta, the false codling moth. We demonstrate that complex pest risk maps are not always a high priority and suggest that simple methods may be used to determine the geographic variation in relative risks posed by invasive alien species within an area of concern. Keywords Pest risk mapping, area of potential establishment, area at highest risk, endangered area, Phytophthora austrocedrae, Drosophila suzukii, Thaumatotibia leucotreta, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Copyright Richard H.A. Baker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. A peer-reviewed open-access journal NeoBiota
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relentless expansion of trade and the movement of people around the world are leading to more numerous and diverse pathways for the introduction and spread of non-native pests. The potential spread of three pests of trees is described. Thaumetopoea pityocampa is native to parts of southern Europe, but has spread northwards, this spread has been linked to climate change. In 2008, an outbreak of Saperda candida, a North American pest of apples was detected on the German island of Fehmarn in the Baltic. S. candida could have been introduced in plants for planting or wood. Agrilus planipennis is an Asian species that has been introduced to North America and European Russia and has a fast rate of natural spread. The movement of plants for planting could introduce these pests into new regions of Europe. Reforming the EU legislation governing the movement of plants for planting could help to reduce the rate of introduction and spread of these and other tree pests.
Outlooks on Pest Management 08/2013; 24(4). DOI:10.1564/v24_aug_08
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epitrix tuberis and E. cucumeris are major pests of potatoes in North America. E. tuberis causes the most serious damage because the larval feeding can cause superficial serpentine tunnelling on the surface of tubers as well as deeper pits. This damage can make crops unmarketable. By contrast, E. cucumeris mainly damages the foliage, and yield losses can occur when the adults reach high densities. In 2004, potato tuber damage characteristic of E. tuberis was seen in Portugal. In 2008, damage was more widespread and severe. E. cucumeris and a lesser known species, E. similaris, were recorded in affected fields. E. similaris has since been found across Galicia, Spain. E. similaris is thought to be the most likely cause of the tuber damage in Portugal, but it is possible that E. cucumeris or an as yet undetected Epitrix species is causing the damage. In 2010, a pest risk assessment for the Euro-Mediterranean area identified the movement of adults and pupae with seed or ware potatoes and associated soil as being the highest-risk pathways for the spread of Epitrix. In 2012, EU emergency measures were agreed to reduce the risk of further introductions and the rate of spread of these pests.
Pest Management Science 01/2013; 69(1). DOI:10.1002/ps.3423 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice.
PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e43366. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043366 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A CLIMEX model for Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (western corn rootworm), was initially fitted to the known range of this pest in the USA and Mexico under rain-fed agricultural situations.When this model was projected into Europe, it became clear that soil moisture thresholds for irrigation differed markedly between Central Europe and the USA. A second model was fitted using soil moisture parameters derived from theoretical expectations, and was found to fit the known distribution of all North American locations well, and all the European distribution records perfectly. Globally, the modelled potential range of D. v. virgifera covers approximately 64% of the global area of maize production. The highest nascent biosecurity risks to maize-producing areas posed by the western
corn rootworm are China, Japan, Argentina, South Africa and Australia. Biosecurity agencies concerned with managing D. v. virgifera invasion risks to Asia should adopt a regional approach to the problem, attempting to slow its spread through Eurasia. The sensitivity of D. v. virgifera’s modelled potential distribution to the inclusion of irrigated sites in the model training dataset highlighted the importance of carefully exploring the implications of land-use factors that might be practised in different ways in the model training area and the area of concern.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The decision‐support scheme (DSS) for action at outbreaks developed under PRATIQUE (Enhancements of Pest Risk Analysis Techniques) brings together a set of guidance and tools, using the CAPRA application. The DSS is initiated by the collation of key information on the current outbreak situation, and then compares candidate measures in order to derive a strategy for action and/or contingency. It is hoped that this deliverable will assist national plant protection organizations (NPPOs) to address and justify eradication campaigns effectively. The rationale behind the DSS and its key features are presented and discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The assessment of the suitability of the climate for pest establishment is an important part of pest risk analysis (PRA). This paper describes the work undertaken by the EU 7th Framework project PRA-TIQUE (Enhancements of Pest Risk Analysis Techniques) to develop guidance for this component of PRA. Firstly, there is a guide to rating the suitability of the climate in the PRA area using qualita-tive methods. Secondly, a Decision-support scheme (DSS) has been created to assist analysts in deciding whether to map climatic suitability, and to guide the selection of the most appropriate method from the large number available. The process of selecting a climatic mapping method is based on a review of the pest's climatic responses and distribution. A spreadsheet provides a compar-ison of the potential problems that can arise, depending on the mapping method and on the amount and quality of available data. Diagrams are provided to help choose the location data category that best represents the possible biases in the known distribution of the pest. A second spreadsheet pro-vides general information on the differences and similarities of each method in terms of categories such as functionality, ease of use and quality assurance. A variety of data, tools and supporting docu-ments are available as appendices to the DSS. All of the tools and guides are freely available online.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a decision-support scheme (DSS) for mapping the area where economically important loss is likely to occur (the endangered area). It has been designed by the PRATIQUE project to help pest risk analysts address the numerous risk mapping challenges and decide on the most suitable methods to follow. The introduction to the DSS indicates the time and expertise that is needed, the data requirements and the situations when mapping the endangered areas is most useful. The DSS itself has four stages. In stage 1, the key factors that influence the endangered area are iden-tified, the data are assembled and, where appropriate, maps of the key factors are produced listing any significant assumptions. In stage 2, methods for combining these maps to identify the area of potential establishment and the area at highest risk from pest impacts are described, documenting any assumptions and combination rules utilised. When possible and appropriate, Stage 3 can then be followed to show whether economic loss will occur in the area at highest risk and to identify the endangered area. As required, Stage 4, described elsewhere, provides techniques for producing a dynamic picture of the invasion process using a suite of spread models. To illustrate how the DSS functions, a maize pest, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and a freshwater invasive alien plant, Eich-hornia crassipes, have been used as examples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Host area, potential pest impact and probability of pest presence are frequently displayed on maps by pest risk assessors. These variables can be mapped separately, but it is also important to map combinations of these variables in order to define the area of potential establishment and the endan-gered area to assist decision-making processes. This paper presents different methods for combining maps, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. Different methods are shown that can be used to combine maps depending on whether the individual maps were derived from continuous quantitative variables or from discrete variables. The authors suggest combining maps derived from continuous variables using simple mathematical equations in order to compute expected invaded areas and expected potential impacts. Maps derived from discrete variables (e.g. scores) can be com-bined using a risk matrix, but the results may be highly dependent on the chosen matrix. The practi-cal interest of these methods is illustrated in a case study on Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. The authors recommend combining the original continuous variables when such variables are available. The combination of categories defined from continuous variables led to a loss of information and may decrease the values of the maps. Risk matrices should be used only if the individual variables are discrete and if the underlying continuous variables are not available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PROJECT OVERVIEW: PRATIQUE is an EC-funded 7th Framework research project designed to address the major challenges for pest risk analysis (PRA) in Europe. It has three principal objectives: (i) to assemble the datasets required to construct PRAs valid for the whole of the EU, (ii) to conduct multi-disciplinary research that enhances the techniques used in PRA and (iii) to provide a decision support scheme for PRA that is efficient and user-friendly. For further information please visit the project website or e-mail the project office using the details provided below:
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many distribution models developed to predict the presence/absence of invasive alien species need to be fitted to a training dataset before practical use. The training dataset is characterized by the number of recorded presences/absences and by their geographical locations. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of the training dataset characteristics on model performance and to compare the relative importance of three factors influencing model predictive capability; size of training dataset, stage of the biological invasion, and choice of input variables. Nine models were assessed for their ability to predict the distribution of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a major pest of corn in North America that has recently invaded Europe. Twenty-six training datasets of various sizes (from 10 to 428 presence records) corresponding to two different stages of invasion (1955 and 1980) and three sets of input bioclimatic variables (19 variables, six variables selected using information on insect biology, and three linear combinations of 19 variables derived from Principal Component Analysis) were considered. The models were fitted to each training dataset in turn and their performance was assessed using independent data from North America and Europe. The models were ranked according to the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and the likelihood ratio. Model performance was highly sensitive to the geographical area used for calibration; most of the models performed poorly when fitted to a restricted area corresponding to an early stage of the invasion. Our results also showed that Principal Component Analysis was useful in reducing the number of model input variables for the models that performed poorly with 19 input variables. DOMAIN, Environmental Distance, MAXENT, and Envelope Score were the most accurate models but all the models tested in this study led to a substantial rate of mis-classification.
PLoS ONE 06/2011; 6(6):e20957. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0020957 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) remains a serious threat to crops worldwide. The damaging B-biotype is of specific economic concern because it is an effective vector of over 111 viruses from several families, particularly geminiviruses. Bemisia tabaci is regularly intercepted on plants coming into the UK where it is subjected to a policy of eradication. The UK maintains Protective Zone status against this pest. A main pathway of entry of B. tabaci into the Protected Zone involves propagating material, especially Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima). With increased insecticide resistance continuously being recorded, B. tabaci is becoming more difficult to control/eradicate. Recent research involving both entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi is showing much potential for the development of control programs for this pest. Both the nematode Steinernema feltiae and the fungus Lecanicillium muscarium have been shown to be most effective against second instar B. tabaci. Fine-tuning of the environmental conditions required has also increased their efficacy. The entomopathogens have also shown a high level of compatibility with chemical insecticides, all increasing their potential to be incorporated into control strategies against B. tabaci.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Globally, GM mammals and birds are being developed for a range of purposes, including use
as food, pets or for production of pharmaceuticals. There is a requirement, therefore, for an
analysis of the type of expertise and data required to conduct an environmental risk
assessment (ERA) of GM mammals and birds to be commercially released into the EU
A searchable database of expertise relevant to an ERA was established – information was
collated against scientific disciplines, fields
expertise, research institutes, and
academics/experts. A database of GM species and traits where substantial progress has been
made towards commercial use was compiled; theoretical case studies were also used to allow
the development of a comprehensive list of criteria to be considered in an ERA.
The potential adverse effects of GM mammals and birds on the environment, their
consequences and likelihood were identified. Crucial mammal and bird characteristics,
baseline information about receiving environments and approaches using modelling and
surrogate non-GM species were evaluated for their utility in an ERA.
The identification of the characteristics of GM mammals and birds that influence their
potential risk to the environment has a corollary in the evaluation of risk posed by non-native
species. It was concluded, therefore, that criteria should be considered at each stage of an
invasion process (introduction, establishment and spread) and consider the inherent risk posed
by the non-GM parent species and the effect that the genetic modification may have on that
inherent risk. Consideration should also be given to any infectious diseases, or agents, that
may be carried by the species and how these may be influenced by the genetic modification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrus longhorn beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis, is an invasive pest that is extremely damaging to a wide range of broadleaved trees and shrubs. The larvae feed within trees on the pith and vascular systems of both the lower trunks and roots. Larval development can take one to two years in the native range of the beetle, but in the UK, the lifecycle is likely to be at least two years, and more likely three to four years as has been recorded in the Netherlands. This lifecycle makes citrus longhorn beetle very difficult to detect during phytosanitary inspections and their position within the tree trunk gives the larvae protection from foliar insecticide treatments and most predators. The large and often numerous feeding tunnels created by the larvae render the trees susceptible to diseases and wind damage. If pest populations are allowed to build up, the structurally damaged trees pose a threat to people and property. Adults cause more limited damage by feeding on foliage and bark. Citrus longhorn beetle is a quarantine pest for the European Union which means that it is listed in the EU Plant Health Directive (2000/29/EC) as a harmful organism whose introduction into all Member States is banned. The natural range of CLB includes China, Japan and countries in South East Asia, but beetles have been moved around the world via traded plants, mainly in ornamental trees from Asia. Citrus longhorn beetles have been intercepted in the UK at plant nurseries, bonsai importers and in private gardens on trees and bonsais imported from China, Japan and South Korea. This pest has most commonly been found on or associated with imported maples, especially Acer palmatum (Japanese maple) from China.
Outlooks on Pest Management 08/2010; 21(4). DOI:10.1564/21aug13
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sale of plants for planting on the Internet and by other direct marketing methods (e.g. newspaper offers) has increased dramatically in recent years. Some companies are specialist suppliers in this area and typically with this trade small quantities of plants are sent by mail to a very large number of amateur growers scattered throughout the UK. It is often difficult for the NPPO to keep track of this activity especially when the supplier is located outside its jurisdiction. Also if problems arise with plants sold in this way, taking effective official eradicatory action can be problematic. To demonstrate the issues and problems involved, two examples that occurred in the UK in 2008 are described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary 1. Western corn rootworm (WCR), one of the most important maize pests in North America, and increasingly important in central Europe, has been found in the south east of England. The pathway by which WCR arrived in the UK has not been identified although there appears to be a link with international air transport. 2. WCR is primarily a pest of continuous maize. Approximately 120,000 ha of maize are grown each year for silage, of which an estimated 20% is continuous. A much smaller area of maize is also grown for grain production, sweetcorn, and as game cover. A small proportion of larvae can develop to adults when fed on cereals such as wheat and barley but more research is required to determine how fecund (fertile) females developing from these alternative hosts would be. 3. As the UK climate warms conditions are becoming increasingly suitable for WCR to establish in a larger portion of the UK maize crop. By 2050, all of the UK maize crop is likely to be vulnerable. 4. Although WCR can establish in southern England under current climatic conditions, population densities are likely to remain low unless the area of continuous maize increases from its current level. 5. Experiences in central Europe, where the summers are significantly warmer and WCR has been present for over ten years, suggest that significant economic impacts, due to larvae feeding on roots causing yield losses and crop lodging, only occur after several years of continuous maize cropping. Crop rotation is the most effective means of controlling WCR and in regions where WCR has caused significant damage some European farmers are now switching to growing maize in rotation. 6. A range of alternative management options for control or eradication of WCR have been used in areas where the pest occurs. Of the three insecticides approved for use in the UK only chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate) has been shown to be effective against WCR. However, the use of this chemical is under review in the UK and its future availability cannot be assured. January 2007
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three New World species of agromyzid flies, Liriomyza huidobrensis, L. sativae and L. trifolii, have been spread around the world through the trade of plant produce and material, and have become major pests of ornamental plants (flowers) and vegetables in many countries. They are all highly polyphagous (i.e. feed on a wide range of species) and invasive. The UK was invaded by L. trifolii in 1977 and by L. huidobrensis in 1989; L. sativae remains absent from the EU but is a significant threat as it has spread to the borders of the EU. A fourth species, Liriomyza bryoniae, has spread from southern Europe into glasshouses in northern Europe, establishing in the UK in the 1930s except in Northern Ireland, which along with Ireland maintains a PZ for this species. Outbreaks of L. huidobrensis and L. trifolii followed a similar pattern in the UK, with a large numbers occurring in the years following the invasions. Both species are however, now at or near the point where they rarely occur in UK glasshouses, even though Liriomyza spp. are regularly intercepted in trade, mainly fruit and vegetables from Third countries, so the probability of re-entry remains high. Invasions by New World Liriomyza spp. occurred somewhat later in the Far East, compared to Europe, but they have become important and wide-spread pests throughout Asia. The situation has been exacerbated, to some extent, by the over-application of insecticides in some (but not all) countries. Interceptions from Third countries have been rising in recent years, presenting a potential risk of invasion by more new species (or biotypes), or more resistant strains. Many of the insecticides used in Third countries are unavailable (revoked or not adopted) in the UK, which relies more on IPM and biological control. Thus, achieving eradication is more difficult than in the past, and may become even more challenging in the future. These pests are assumed to have the potential to result in a moderate level of economic impact on glasshouse production in the UK, and a Protected Zone (PZ) could lower the likelihood of outbreaks occurring. A PZ would also allow for the present regulatory controls on propagating material to be extended to all plants, including finished plants, which would also decrease the likelihood of introductions.