Arnaud Gauthier

Institut Curie, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (7)36.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: The majority of adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCCs), regardless of anatomical site, harbour the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. The aim of this study was to characterize the repertoire of somatic genetic events affecting known cancer genes in AdCCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: DNA was extracted from 13 microdissected breast AdCCs, and subjected to a mutation survey using the Sequenom OncoCarta Panel v1.0. Genes found to be mutated in any of the breast AdCCs and genes related to the same canonical molecular pathways, as well as KIT, a proto-oncogene whose protein product is expressed in AdCCs, were sequenced in an additional 68 AdCCs from various anatomical sites by Sanger sequencing. Using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform and Sanger sequencing, mutations in BRAF and HRAS were identified in three and one cases, respectively (breast, and head and neck). KIT, which has previously been reported to be mutated in AdCCs, was also investigated, but no mutations were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that mutations in genes pertaining to the canonical RAS pathway are found in a minority of AdCCs, and that activating KIT mutations are either absent or remarkably rare in these cancers, and unlikely to constitute a driver and therapeutic target for patients with AdCC.
    Histopathology 12/2012; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several authors have demonstrated an increased number of mitotic figures in breast cancer resection specimen when compared with biopsy material. This has been ascribed to a sampling artifact where biopsies are (i) either too small to allow formal mitotic figure counting or (ii) not necessarily taken form the proliferating tumor periphery. Herein, we propose a different explanation for this phenomenon. Biopsy and resection material of 52 invasive ductal carcinomas was studied. We counted mitotic figures in 10 representative high power fields and quantified MIB-1 immunohistochemistry by visual estimation, counting and image analysis. We found that mitotic figures were elevated by more than three-fold on average in resection specimen over biopsy material from the same tumors (20±6 vs 6±2 mitoses per 10 high power fields, P=0.008), and that this resulted in a relative diminution of post-metaphase figures (anaphase/telophase), which made up 7% of all mitotic figures in biopsies but only 3% in resection specimen (P<0.005). At the same time, the percentages of MIB-1 immunostained tumor cells among total tumor cells were comparable in biopsy and resection material, irrespective of the mode of MIB-1 quantification. Finally, we found no association between the size of the biopsy material and the relative increase of mitotic figures in resection specimen. We propose that the increase in mitotic figures in resection specimen and the significant shift towards metaphase figures is not due to a sampling artifact, but reflects ongoing cell cycle activity in the resected tumor tissue due to fixation delay. The dwindling energy supply will eventually arrest tumor cells in metaphase, where they are readily identified by the diagnostic pathologist. Taken together, we suggest that the rapidly fixed biopsy material better represents true tumor biology and should be privileged as predictive marker of putative response to cytotoxic chemotherapy.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 5 October 2012; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.140.
    Modern Pathology 10/2012; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT:   Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a proliferative breast lesion, which has been proposed to be a potential precursor of triple-negative breast cancers. The aims of this study were to determine whether MGAs harbour genetic alterations and if any such genetic aberrations found in MGAs are similar to those found in matched invasive carcinomas.   Twelve cases of MGA and/or atypical MGA (AMGA), 10 of which were associated with invasive carcinoma, were evaluated. Immunohistochemical profiling revealed that all invasive carcinomas were of triple-negative phenotype and expressed S100, cytokeratins 8/18 and 'basal' markers. The morphologically distinct components of each case (MGA, AMGA and/or invasive carcinoma) were microdissected and subjected to microarray comparative genomic hybridization. Apart from three typical MGAs, all samples harboured genetic alterations. The percentage of the genome affected by copy number aberrations in MGA/AMGA ranged from 0.5 to 61.9%, indicating varying levels of genetic instability. In three cases, MGA/AMGA displayed copy number aberrations similar to those found in matched invasive components, providing strong circumstantial evidence that MGA may constitute the substrate for the invasive carcinoma development.   Our results support the contention that MGA can be a clonal lesion and non-obligate precursor of triple-negative breast cancer.
    Histopathology 04/2012; 60(6B):E115-30. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Papillary carcinomas are a special histological type of breast cancer and have a relatively good outcome. We characterized the genomic and phenotypic characteristics of papillary carcinomas to determine whether they would constitute an entity distinct from grade- and oestrogen receptor (ER)-matched invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). The phenotype of 63 papillary carcinomas of the breast and grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs was determined by immunohistochemistry. DNA of sufficient quality was extracted from 49 microdissected papillary carcinomas and 49 microdissected grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs. These samples were subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Sequenom MassARRAY sequencing analysis of 19 known oncogenes. Papillary carcinomas were predominantly of low histological grade, expressed immunohistochemical markers consistent with a luminal phenotype, and a lower rate of lymph node metastasis and p53 expression than grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs. Papillary carcinomas displayed less genomic aberrations than grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs; however, the patterns of gene copy number aberrations found in papillary carcinomas were similar to those of ER- and grade-matched IDC-NSTs, including 16q losses. Furthermore, PIK3CA mutations were found in 43% and 29% of papillary carcinomas and grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs, respectively. The genomic profiles of encapsulated, solid and invasive papillary carcinomas, the three morphological subtypes, were remarkably similar. Our results demonstrate that papillary carcinomas are a homogeneous special histological type of breast cancer. The similarities in the genomic profiles of papillary carcinomas and grade- and ER-matched IDC-NSTs suggest that papillary carcinomas may be best positioned as part of the spectrum of ER-positive breast cancers, rather than as a distinct entity. Furthermore, the good prognosis of papillary carcinomas may stem from the low rates of lymph node metastasis and p53 expression, low number of gene copy number aberrations and high prevalence of PIK3CA mutations.
    The Journal of Pathology 02/2012; 226(3):427-41. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the progression from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast are yet to be fully elucidated. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the progression from DCIS to IDC, including the selection of a subpopulation of cancer cells with specific genetic aberrations, and the acquisition of new genetic aberrations or non-genetic mechanisms mediated by the tumour microenvironment. To determine whether synchronously diagnosed ipsilateral DCI and IDCs have modal populations with distinct repertoires of gene copy number aberrations and mutations in common oncogenes, matched frozen samples of DCIS and IDC were retrieved from 13 patients and subjected to microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Sequenom MassARRAY (Oncocarta v 1.0 panel). Fluorescence in situ hybridization and Sanger sequencing were employed to validate the aCGH and Sequenom findings, respectively. Although the genomic profiles of matched DCI and IDCs were similar, in three of 13 matched pairs amplification of distinct loci (ie 1q41, 2q24.2, 6q22.31, 7q11.21, 8q21.2 and 9p13.3) was either restricted to, or more prevalent in, the modal population of cancer cells of one of the components. Sequenom MassARRAY identified PIK3CA mutations restricted to the DCIS component in two cases, and in a third case the frequency of the PIK3CA mutant allele reduced from 49% in the DCIS to 25% in the IDC component. Despite the genomic similarities between synchronous DCIS and IDC, our data provide strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that in some cases the progression from DCIS to IDC is driven by the selection of non-modal clones that harbour a specific repertoire of genetic aberrations.
    The Journal of Pathology 01/2012; 227(1):42-52. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare form of triple-negative and basal-like breast cancer that has an indolent clinical behaviour. Four breast AdCCs were recently shown to harbour the recurrent chromosomal translocation t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-24), which leads to the formation of the MYB-NFIB fusion gene. Our aims were (i) to determine the prevalence of the MYB-NFIB fusion gene in AdCCs of the breast; (ii) to characterize the gene copy number aberrations found in AdCCs; and (iii) to determine whether AdCCs are genomically distinct from histological grade-matched or triple-negative and basal-like invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). The presence of the MYB-NFIB fusion gene was investigated in 13 AdCCs of the breast by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and MYB and BRCA1 RNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Fourteen AdCCs, 14 histological grade-matched IDC-NSTs, and 14 IDC-NSTs of triple-negative and basal-like phenotype were microdissected and subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The MYB-NFIB fusion gene was detected in all but one AdCC. aCGH analysis demonstrated a relatively low number of copy number aberrations and a lack of recurrent amplifications in breast AdCCs. Contrary to grade-matched IDC-NSTs, AdCCs lacked 1q gains and 16q losses, and in contrast with basal-like IDC-NSTs, AdCCs displayed fewer gene copy number aberrations and expressed MYB and BRCA1 at significantly higher levels. Breast AdCCs constitute an entity distinct from grade-matched and triple-negative and basal-like IDC-NSTs, emphasizing the importance of histological subtyping of triple-negative and basal-like breast carcinomas.
    The Journal of Pathology 01/2012; 226(1):84-96. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancers account for 12-17% of all invasive breast carcinomas and comprise a heterogeneous group of tumours, with varying histological features and clinical behaviours. Focal apocrine differentiation can be associated with a subset of these lesions. To establish whether morphological diversity is associated with divergent genetic aberrations the genomic profiles of microdissected, morphologically distinct components from an invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type with triple-negative phenotype and a region of apocrine differentiation were determined by high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridisation and validated by fluorescence in-situ hybridisation. Morphologically distinct components were found to harbour differing genetic aberrations, with the region of apocrine differentiation demonstrating genomic gains and losses on chromosome arms 9p and 9q, respectively, not present in non-apocrine areas. The results provide additional direct evidence of intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity in breast cancer and demonstrate that morphologically distinct regions can be associated with distinct genetic aberrations.
    Journal of clinical pathology 06/2011; 64(9):822-8. · 2.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

55 Citations
36.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • Institut Curie
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Breakthrough Breast Cancer
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      • Division of Breast Cancer Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom