Anne Eaton

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (30)129.66 Total impact

  • Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO), 46th Annual Meeting on Women’s Cancer, Chicago, IL; 03/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Patients who do not complete one cycle of therapy on Phase I trials for reasons other than dose limiting toxicity (DLT) are considered inevaluable for toxicity and must be replaced. Methods: Individual records from patients enrolled to NCI-sponsored Phase I trials activated between 2000 and 2010 were used. Early discontinuation was defined as the failure to begin cycle 2 for reasons other than a DLT during cycle 1. A multinomial logistic regression with a 3-level nominal outcome (early discontinuation, DLT during cycle 1, and continuation to cycle 2) was used with continuation to cycle 2 serving as the reference category. The final model was used to create two risk scores. An independent external cohort was used to validate these models. Results: Data from 3079 patients on 127 Phase I trials were analyzed. ECOG performance status (1, ≥ 2, two-sided P = .0315 and P = .0007), creatinine clearance (2.5xULN, P = .0026), AST (>ULN, P = .0076), hemoglobin (<10 g/dL, P < .0001), albumin (<3.5 g/dL, P < .0001), and platelets (<400x109/L, P = .0732) were predictors of early discontinuation. The c-index of the final model was 0.63. Conclusion: Knowledge of risk factors for early treatment discontinuation in conjunction with clinical judgment can help guide Phase I patient selection.
    Oncotarget 01/2015; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background This study was designed to describe patient, disease, and treatment characteristics of women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Breast Examination Center of Harlem (BECH) and to determine whether these characteristics have changed over time. Methods Retrospective chart review of women diagnosed with breast cancer at BECH from 2000 to 2008 was performed. Comparisons were made to data from an earlier study period (1995–2000). Results From 2000 to 2008, 339 women were diagnosed with breast cancer following attendance at BECH—55 % were black, 39 % Hispanic, 5 % of other race/ethnicity; 52 % had no health insurance. Hispanic patients were significantly more likely to have no health insurance compared with black patients (p = 0.0091); 29 % of patients had preinvasive disease and 36.5 % had stage I disease. Almost 40 % of the entire group was followed for Conclusions Women diagnosed with breast cancer at BECH are predominantly Black and Hispanic, and most of these patients do not have health insurance. An increasing proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer are presenting with nonpalpable, early-stage disease. Despite improved access to breast cancer screening, early stage at diagnosis, and access to appropriate management, these ethnic minorities continue to have poor outcomes and are poorly compliant with follow-up.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2014; DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-4240-2 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvasion (DCISM) is a rare diagnosis with a good prognosis. Although nodal metastases are uncommon, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) remains standard care. Volume of disease in invasive breast cancer is associated with SLNB positivity, and, thus we hypothesized that in a large cohort of patients with DCISM, multiple foci of microinvasion might be associated with a higher risk of positive SLNB. Methods. Records from a prospective institutional database were reviewed to identify patients with DCISM who underwent SLNB between June 1997 and December 2010. Pathology reports were reviewed for number of microinvasive foci and categorized as 1 focus or >= 2 foci. Demographic, pathologic, treatment, and outcome data were obtained and analyzed. Results. Of 414 patients, 235 (57 %) had 1 focus of microinvasion and 179 (43 %) had >= 2 foci. SLNB macrometastases were found in 1.4 %, and micrometastases were found in 6.3 %; neither were significantly different between patients with 1 focus versus >= 2 foci (p = 1.0). Patients with positive SLNB or >= 2 foci of microinvasion were more likely to receive chemotherapy. At median 4.9 years (range 0-16.2 years) follow-up, 18 patients, all in the SLNB negative group, had recurred for an overall 5-year recurrence-free proportion of 95.9 %. Conclusions. Even with large numbers, there was no higher risk of nodal involvement with >= 2 foci of microinvasion compared with 1 focus. Number of microinvasive foci and results of SLNB appear to be used in decision making for systemic therapy. Prognosis is excellent.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 08/2014; 21(10). DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-3920-2 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational data suggest that metformin use decreases breast cancer (BC) incidence in women with diabetes; the impact of metformin on BC outcomes in this population is less clear. The purpose of this analysis was to explore whether metformin use influences BC outcomes in women with type 2 diabetes. Prospective institutional databases were reviewed to identify patients with diabetes who received chemotherapy for stages I-III BC from 2000 to 2005. Patients diagnosed with diabetes before or within 6 months of BC diagnosis were included. Males and those with type I, gestational, or steroid-induced diabetes were excluded. Patients were stratified based on metformin use, at baseline, defined as use at time of BC diagnosis or at diabetes diagnosis if within 6 months of BC diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate rates of recurrence-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We identified 313 patients with diabetes who received chemotherapy for BC, 141 (45%) fulfilled inclusion criteria and 76 (54%) used metformin at baseline. There were no differences in clinical presentation or tumor characteristics between metformin users and nonusers. At a median follow-up of 87 months (range, 6.9-140.4 months), there was no difference in RFS (P = 0.61), OS (P = 0.462), or CBC (P = 0.156) based on metformin use. Five-year RFS was 90.4% (95% CI, 84-97) in metformin users and 85.4% (95% CI, 78-94) in nonusers. In this cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving systemic chemotherapy for invasive BC, the use of metformin was not associated with improved outcomes.
    Cancer Medicine 08/2014; 3(4). DOI:10.1002/cam4.259
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    ABSTRACT: Background The reliable prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence patterns potentially allows for the prioritization of patients for liver resection (LR) or transplantation.Objectives The aim of this study was to analyse clinicopathological factors and preoperative Milan criteria (MC) status in predicting patterns of HCC recurrence.Methods During 1992–2012, 320 patients undergoing LR for HCC were categorized preoperatively as being within or beyond the MC, as were recurrences.ResultsAfter a median follow-up of 47 months, 183 patients developed recurrence, giving a 5-year cumulative incidence of recurrence of 62.5%. Patients with preoperative disease within the MC had better survival outcomes than those with preoperative disease beyond the MC (median survival: 102 months versus 45 months; P < 0.001). Overall, 31% of patients had preoperative disease within the MC and 69% had preoperative disease beyond the MC. Estimated rates of recurrence-free survival at 5 years were 61.8% for all patients and 53.8% for patients with initial beyond-MC status. Independent factors for recurrence beyond-MC status included preoperative disease beyond the MC, the presence of microsatellite or multiple tumours and lymphovascular invasion (all: P < 0.001). A clinical risk score was used to predict survival and the likelihood of recurrence beyond the MC; patients with scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3 had 5- year incidence of recurring beyond-MC of 9.0%, 29.5%, 48.8% and 75.4%, respectively (P < 0.0001).Conclusions Regardless of initial MC status, at 5 years the majority of patients remained disease-free or experienced recurrence within the MC after LR, and thus were potentially eligible for salvage transplantation (ST). Incorporating clinicopathological parameters into the MC allows for better risk stratification, which improves the selection of patients for ST and identifies patients in need of closer surveillance.
    HPB 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/hpb.12311 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2014; DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.56.5762 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whether extracapsular extension (ECE) of tumor in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is an indication for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients managed by American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 criteria is controversial. Here we examine the correlation between ECE in the SLN and disease burden in the axilla. Patients meeting Z0011 clinicopathologic criteria (pT1-2, cN0 with <3 positive SLNs) were selected from a prospectively maintained database (2006-2013). Chart review documented the presence and extent of ECE. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients were excluded. Comparisons were made by presence and extent (≤2 vs. >2 mm) of ECE. Of 11,730 patients, 778 were pT1-2, cN0 with <3 positive SLNs without ECE, and 331 (2.8 %) had ECE. Of these, 180 had ≤2 mm and 151 had >2 mm of ECE. Patients with ECE were older (57 vs. 54 years; p = 0.001) and had larger (2.0 vs. 1.7 cm; p < 0.0001), multifocal (p = 0.006), hormone receptor-positive tumors (p = 0.0164) with lymphovascular invasion (p < 0.0001). Presence and extent of ECE were associated with greater axillary disease burden; 20 and 3 % of patients with and without ECE, respectively, had ≥4 additional positive nodes at completion ALND (p < 0.0001), and 33 % of patients with >2 mm ECE had ≥4 additional positive nodes at completion ALND, compared with 9 % in the <2 mm group (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, >2 mm of ECE was the strongest predictor of ≥4 positive nodes at completion ALND (odds ratio 14.2). Presence and extent of ECE were significantly correlated with nodal tumor burden at completion ALND, thus suggesting that >2 mm of ECE may be an indication for ALND or radiotherapy when applying Z0011 criteria to patients with metastases in <3 SLNs. ECE reporting should be standardized to facilitate future studies.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2014; 21(9). DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-3752-0 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Society of Gynecologic Oncology, 46th Annual Meeting on Women’s Cancer, Chicago, IL; 04/2014
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    ABSTRACT: To determine a relationship between sexual functioning and health state among survivors of stage I endometrial cancer, and to examine whether adjuvant intravaginal radiotherapy (IVRT) affects these measures compared to hysterectomy alone. Two hundred five survivors (>1 year from surgery) completed questionnaires containing the EuroQol (EQ5D) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). A total of 136 (66.3 %) underwent surgery alone, and 69 (33.7 %) received IVRT. Pearson correlation was used to correlate FSFI and EQ5D-Health State scores. Multivariable regression was performed to measure the impact of IVRT on sexual functioning and health state. A majority of patients (80 %) met criteria for sexual dysfunction by FSFI < 26.5. A significant correlation was detected between FSFI and EQ5D scores (Pearson correlation = 0.21, p = 0.003). Compared to the IVRT group, the surgery group was younger (p = 0.001) and trended toward more frequent use of minimally invasive surgery versus laparotomy (p = 0.08). Otherwise, the two groups were well balanced with respect to demographics, comorbidities, and baseline sexual activity. Controlling for age and surgery type, IVRT was not associated with poorer health state or sexual function. Receipt of laparotomy was associated with both poorer health state and sexual function (p = 0.0156 and p = 0.0247, respectively). Sexual functioning was generally poor among endometrial cancer survivors; however, those with improved FSFI scores tended to have superior health states. IVRT was not a significant risk factor; however, receipt of laparotomy appeared to be associated with poorer sexual functioning and health state.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2014; DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-3562-4 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All patients in phase I trials do not have equivalent susceptibility to serious drug-related toxicity (SDRT). Our goal was to develop a nomogram to predict the risk of cycle-one SDRT to better select appropriate patients for phase I trials. The prospectively maintained database of patients with solid tumor enrolled onto Cancer Therapeutics Evaluation Program-sponsored phase I trials activated between 2000 and 2010 was used. SDRT was defined as a grade ≥ 4 hematologic or grade ≥ 3 nonhematologic toxicity attributed, at least possibly, to study drug(s). Logistic regression was used to test the association of candidate factors to cycle-one SDRT. A final model, or nomogram, was chosen based on both clinical and statistical significance and validated internally using a bootstrapping technique and externally in an independent data set. Data from 3,104 patients enrolled onto 127 trials were analyzed to build the nomogram. In a model with multiple covariates, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, WBC count, creatinine clearance, albumin, AST, number of study drugs, biologic study drug (yes v no), and dose (relative to maximum administered) were significant predictors of cycle-one SDRT. All significant factors except dose were included in the final nomogram. The model was validated both internally (bootstrap-adjusted concordance index, 0.60) and externally (concordance index, 0.64). This nomogram can be used to accurately predict a patient's risk for SDRT at the time of enrollment. Excluding patients at high risk for SDRT should improve the safety and efficiency of phase I trials.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2013.49.8808 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS), the benefit of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains unknown. Here we examine the relationship of MRI and locoregional recurrence (LRR) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) for DCIS treated with BCS, with and without radiotherapy (RT). A total of 2,321 women underwent BCS for DCIS from 1997 to 2010. All underwent mammography, and 596 (26 %) also underwent perioperative MRI; 904 women (39 %) did not receive RT, and 1,391 (61 %) did. Median follow-up was 59 months, and 548 women were followed for ≥8 years. The relationship between MRI and LRR was examined using multivariable analysis. There were 184 LRR events; 5- and 8-year LRR rates were 8.5 and 14.6 % (MRI), respectively, and 7.2 and 10.2 % (no-MRI), respectively (p = 0.52). LRR was significantly associated with age, menopausal status, margin status, RT, and endocrine therapy. After controlling for these variables and family history, presentation, number of excisions, and time period of surgery, there remained no trend toward association of MRI and lower LRR [hazard ratio (HR) 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.78, p = 0.42]. Restriction of analysis to the no-RT subgroup showed no association of MRI with lower LRR rates (HR 1.36, 95 % CI 0.78-2.39, p = 0.28). No difference in 5- or 8-year rates of CBC was seen between the MRI (3.5 and 3.5 %) and no-MRI (3.5 and 5.1 %) groups (p = 0.86). We observed no association between perioperative MRI and lower LRR or CBC rates in patients with DCIS, with or without RT. In the absence of evidence that MRI improves outcomes, the routine perioperative use of MRI for DCIS should be questioned.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2014; 21(5). DOI:10.1245/s10434-013-3424-5 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of increasing negative margin width after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) on local recurrence (LR) is controversial. LR rates vary by subtype, with the highest rates seen in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study examined LR rates in relationship to margin width in TNBC treated with BCT. Women with TNBC who underwent BCT between 1999 and 2009 were identified. Margins were defined as positive (ink on tumor), 0.1-2.0, and 2 mm. Patients with positive margins were excluded. Statistical comparisons were by t test, Fisher's exact test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Cumulative incidence of LR was compared by competing-risks methodology. Of 535 cancers, 71 had margins ≤2 mm and 464 had margins >2 mm. At a median follow-up of 84 months (range 8-165 months), there were 37 local, 18 regional, and 77 distant recurrences or deaths as first events. Ten patients had a locoregional recurrence before planned radiotherapy and were excluded from cumulative incidence analyses. The cumulative incidence of LR at 60 months for margins ≤2 mm was 4.7 % (95 % confidence interval 0-10.0) and for >2 mm was 3.7 % (1.8, 5.5) (p = 0.11). After controlling for chemotherapy and tumor size, there was no difference in LR between the two margin groups (p = 0.06). A difference in the risk of distant recurrence or death was not observed (p = 0.53). Margin width of >2 mm was not associated with reduced LR rates. These data support a negative margin definition of no ink on tumor, even in this high-risk TNBC cohort.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2013; 21(4). DOI:10.1245/s10434-013-3416-5 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measurements (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax ], metabolic tumor volume [MTV], and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer (MBC). An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) from 1/02 to 12/08 within 60 days of diagnosis MBC. Patients with FDG-avid lesions without receiving chemotherapy in the prior 30 days were included. Target lesions in bone, lymph node (LN), liver, and lung were analyzed for SUVmax , MTV, and TLG. Medical records were reviewed for patient characteristics and overall survival (OS). Cox regression was used to test associations between quantitative FDG measurements and OS. A total of 253 patients were identified with disease in bone (n = 150), LN (n = 162), liver (n = 48), and lung (n = 66) at the time of metastatic diagnosis. Higher SUVmax tertile was associated with worse OS in bone metastases (highest vs. lowest tertile hazard ratio [HR] = 3.1, P < 0.01), but not in LN, liver or lung (all P > 0.1). Higher MTV tertile was associated with worse OS in LN (HR = 2.4, P < 0.01) and liver (HR = 3.0, P = 0.02) metastases, but not in bone (P = 0.22) or lung (P = 0.14). Higher TLG tertile was associated with worse OS in bone (HR = 2.2, P = 0.02), LN (HR = 2.3, P < 0.01), and liver (HR = 4.9, P < 0.01) metastases, but not in lung (P = 0.19). We conclude measures of FDG avidity are prognostic biomarkers in newly diagnosed MBC. SUVmax and TLG were both predictors of survival in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. TLG may be a more informative biomarker of OS than SUVmax for patients with LN and liver metastases.
    Cancer Medicine 09/2013; 2(5):725-733. DOI:10.1002/cam4.119
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    ABSTRACT: Wire localization (WL) of nonpalpable breast cancers on the day of surgery is uncomfortable for patients and impacts operating room efficiency. Radioactive seed localization (RSL) before the day of surgery avoids these disadvantages. In this study we compare outcomes of our initial 6-month experience with RSL to those with WL in the preceding 6 months. Lumpectomies for invasive or intraductal cancers localized with a single (125)iodine seed (January-June 2012) were compared with those using 1 wire (July-December 2011). Surgeons and radiologists did not change. Positive and close margins were defined as tumor on ink and tumor ≤1 mm from ink, respectively. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between RSL and WL patients. There were 431 RSL and 256 WL lumpectomies performed. Clinicopathologic characteristics did not differ between groups. Most seeds (90 %) were placed before the day of surgery. Positive margins were present in 7.7 % of RSL versus 5.5 % of WL patients, and 16.9 % of RSL versus 19.9 % of WL had close margins (p = 0.38). The median operative time was longer for lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the RSL group (55 vs. 48 min, p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the volume of tissue excised between groups. In the first 6 months of RSL, operative scheduling was simplified, while rates of positive and close margins were similar to those seen after many years of experience with WL. Operative time was slightly longer for RSL lumpectomy and SLNB; we anticipate this will decrease with experience.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 08/2013; 20(13). DOI:10.1245/s10434-013-3166-4 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intrahepatic pedicle ligation (IPL) is an alternative to extrahepatic portal dissection (EPD). Although IPL has been well described, concern has arisen over a possible association with increased complication rates. Patients who underwent hemi-hepatectomy during January 1995 to December 2010 were reviewed and the inflow control technique (IPL versus EPD) documented. Patient, tumour, treatment and outcome variables were compared. A total of 798 patients underwent hemi-hepatectomy, 568 (71.2%) of the right and 230 (28.8%) of the left liver. In univariate analysis, factors associated with the choice of IPL included surgeon, right hepatectomy, preoperative portal vein embolization, diagnosis of colorectal cancer liver metastasis, and smaller tumour size (P < 0.011). In multivariate analysis, right hepatectomy [versus left: hazard ratio (HR) 3.878, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-13.14; P = 0.029] and smaller tumour size (median of 4.5 cm versus 5.5 cm: HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.88; P = 0.002) were associated with IPL. Pringle manoeuvre time was longer in IPL procedures (40 min versus 29 min; P < 0.001). Complication rates (49.8% in IPL versus 48.4% in EPD; P = 0.706) were similar in both groups, as was the severity of complications; 17.6% of EPD and 22.3% of IPL patients experienced complications of grade ≥3 (P = 0.225). Patients with small tumours undergoing right hepatectomy were more likely to undergo IPL. In selected patients, IPL was not associated with an increased complication rate and thus it should be considered a safe approach.
    HPB 06/2013; 15(6):449-56. DOI:10.1111/j.1477-2574.2012.00618.x · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Controversy exists regarding whether to place a plastic or a metal endobiliary stent in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer who require biliary drainage. Although self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) provide better drainage compared with plastic stents, concerns remain that SEMS may compromise resection and increase postoperative complications. Our objective was to compare surgical outcomes of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with SEMS in place vs. plastic endoscopic stents (PES) and no stents (NS).METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis from a prospective database of all patients undergoing either attempted or successful PD with SEMS, PES, or NS in place at the time of operation. Patients were compared with regard to perioperative complications, margin status, and the rate of intraoperative determination of unresectability.RESULTS:A total of 593 patients underwent attempted PD. Of these, 84 patients were locally unresectable intraoperatively and 509 underwent successful PD, of which 71 had SEMS, 149 had PES, and 289 had NS. Among patients who had a preoperative stent, SEMS did not increase overall or serious postoperative complications, 30-day mortality, length of stay, biliary anastomotic leak, or positive margin, but was associated with more wound infections and longer operative times. In those with adenocarcinoma, intraoperative determination of local unresectability was similar in the SEMS group compared with other groups, with 16 (19.3%) in SEMS compared with 29 (17.7%) in PES (P=0.862), and 31 (17.5%) in NS (P=0.732).CONCLUSIONS:Placement of SEMS is not contraindicated in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer who require preoperative biliary drainage.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 2 April 2013; doi:10.1038/ajg.2013.93.
    The American Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2013; 108(7). DOI:10.1038/ajg.2013.93 · 9.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The histology of epithelial "borderline lesions" of the breast, which have features in between atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is well described, but the clinical behavior is not. This study reports subsequent ipsilateral breast events (IBE) in patients with borderline lesions compared with those with DCIS. METHODS: Patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery for borderline lesions or DCIS from 1997 to 2010 were identified from a prospective database. IBE was defined as the diagnosis of subsequent ipsilateral DCIS or invasive ductal carcinoma. RESULTS: A total of 143 borderline-lesion patients and 2,328 DCIS patients were identified. Median follow-up was 2.9 and 4.4 years, respectively. 7 borderline-lesion and 172 DCIS patients experienced an IBE. 5 year IBE rates were 7.7 % for borderline lesions and 7.2 % for DCIS (p = .80). 5 year invasive IBE rates were 6.5 and 2.8 %, respectively (p = .25). Similarly, when analyses were restricted to patients who did not receive radiotherapy, or endocrine therapy, or both, borderline-lesion and DCIS patients did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in rates of IBE or invasive IBE. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with DCIS, borderline lesions do not demonstrate lower rates of IBE or invasive IBE. Despite "borderline" histology, a 5 year IBE rate of 7.7 % and an invasive IBE rate of 6.5 % suggest that the risk of future carcinoma is significant and similar to that of DCIS.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 11/2012; DOI:10.1245/s10434-012-2719-2 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In this retrospective, single-institution study, the authors examine the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images as a prognostic variable in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer (MBC). METHODS: Patients with ≥1 metastatic lesion on PET/CT images that were obtained within 60 days of their MBC diagnosis between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2008 were included. Patients were excluded if they had received chemotherapy ≤30 days before the PET/CT images were obtained. Electronic medical reports were reviewed to determine the SUVmax and overall survival. Because of intraindividual variation in the SUV by body site, separate analyses were conducted by metastatic site. Relationships between site-specific PET/CT variable tertiles and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression; hazard ratios for the highest tertile versus the lowest tertile were reported. RESULTS: In total, 253 patients were identified, and their median age was 57 years (range, 27-90 years). Of these, 152 patients (60%) died, and the median follow-up was 40 months. On univariate analysis, SUVmax tertile was strongly associated with overall survival in patients who had bone metastases (N = 141; hazard ratio, 3.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-5.48; P < .001). This effect was maintained on multivariate analysis (HR = 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-6.20, P = .002) after correcting for known prognostic variables. A greater risk of death was associated with SUVmax tertile in patients who had metastases to the liver (N = 46; hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-4.76), lymph nodes (N = 149; hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-1.88), and lung (N = 62; hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-4.95), although these results were not significant (P = .18, P = .31, and P = .095, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicate that PET/CT has value as a prognostic tool in patients with newly diagnosed MBC to bone. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 11/2012; 118(22). DOI:10.1002/cncr.27579 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Small studies have demonstrated that patients who have both colorectal and renal cell carcinoma may be at increased risk for the development of additional malignancies. A possible genetic basis has been suggested. Our study describes the clinicopathologic features of these patients and clarifies the relationship of this cohort with Lynch syndrome (LS). METHODS: Patients with primary CRC and RCC treated at our institution were identified. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical information. Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins was performed on tumor tissue when possible. RESULTS: During the study period, 24,642 patients were treated for CRC and 7,366 were treated for RCC at our institution. One hundred seventy-nine patients had both diagnoses, with 101 patients eligible for inclusion in our cohort. Tumors were typically early stage. The 2 cancers presented as synchronous lesions in 42% of patients. Thirty-two patients had 1 additional primary malignancy, 7 patients had 2 additional primary malignancies, and 3 patients had 3 additional primary malignancies. No patient had a family history that met the Amsterdam II criteria (AC) for LS, but 50% had family members with 1 malignancy. One of 10 colorectal tumors analyzed for the absence of MMR protein expression demonstrated the absence of MSH6, but the corresponding RCC demonstrated intact expression of all 4 MMR proteins. CONCLUSION: It is rare for patients to be diagnosed with both CRC and RCC. The clinicopathologic features of this cohort and the results of immunohistochemical analysis performed on a sample of these patients do not suggest LS. However, the high rate of additional carcinomas suggests a need for careful follow-up. Multicenter longitudinal studies are warranted to further understand the natural history and possible genetic basis for this entity.
    Clinical Colorectal Cancer 09/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.clcc.2012.07.004 · 2.91 Impact Factor