[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among themophilic consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) candidate organisms, environmental isolates of Clostridium clariflavum have demonstrated the ability to grow on xylan, and the genome of C. clariflavum DSM 19732 has revealed a number of mechanisms that foster solubilization of hemicellulose that are distinctive relative to the model cellulolytic thermophile Clostridium thermocellum.
Growth experiments on xylan, xylooligosaccharides, and xylose reveal that C. clariflavum strains are able to completely break down xylan to xylose and that the environmental strain C. clariflavum sp. 4-2a is able to grow on monomeric xylose. C. clariflavum strains were able to utilize a larger proportion of unpretreated switchgrass, and solubilize a higher proportion of glucan, xylan, and arabinan, with strain 4-2a reaching the highest extent of solubilization of these components (64.7 to 69.4%) compared to C. thermocellum (29.5 to 42.5%). In addition, glycome immunoanalyses of residual plant biomass reveal differences in the extent of degradation of easily accessible xylans, with C. clariflavum strains having increased solubilization of this fraction of xylans relative to C. thermocellum.
C. clariflavum strains exhibit higher activity than C. thermocellum in the breakdown of hemicellulose and are capable of degrading xylan to xylooligomers and xylose. This capability seems to also play a role in the higher levels of utilization of unpretreated plant material.
Biotechnology for Biofuels 12/2014; 7(1):136. DOI:10.1186/s13068-014-0136-4 · 6.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thermophilic anaerobe Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum JW/SL-YS485 was investigated as a host for n-butanol production. A systematic approach was taken to demonstrate functionality of heterologous components of the clostridial n-butanol pathway via gene expression and enzymatic activity assays in this organism. Subsequently, integration of the entire pathway in the wild-type strain resulted in n-butanol production of 0.85g/L from 10g/L xylose, corresponding to 21% of the theoretical maximum yield. We were unable to integrate the n-butanol pathway in strainslacking the ability to produce acetate, despite the theoretical overall redox neutrality of n-butanol formation. However, integration of the n-butanol pathway in lactate deficient strains resulted in n-butanol production of 1.05g/L from 10g/L xylose, corresponding to 26% of the theoretical maximum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, efforts were taken to compare solubilization of Avicel and AFEX pretreated corn stover (AFEX CS) by SSF and Clostridium thermocellum fermentation, with an aim to gain insights into microbial conversion of pretreated cellulosic biomass. Solubilization rates for AFEX CS are comparable for the two systems while solubilization of Avicel is much faster by C. thermocellum. Initial catalyst loading impacts final cellulose conversion for SSF but not for C. thermocellum. Hydrolysis of the two substrates using cell-free C. thermocellum fermentation broth revealed much smaller difference in cellulose conversion than the difference observed for growing cultures. Tests on hemicellulose removal and particle size reduction for AFEX CS indicated that substrate accessibility is very important for enhanced solubilization by C. thermocellum.