[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure has also been crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterial envelope is the interface with the surrounding environment and is consequently subjected to a barrage of noxious agents including a range of compounds with antimicrobial activity. The ESR (envelope stress response) pathways of enteric bacteria are critical for maintenance of the envelope against these antimicrobial agents. In the present study, we demonstrate that the periplasmic protein ZraP contributes to envelope homoeostasis and assign both chaperone and regulatory function to ZraP from Salmonella Typhimurium. The ZraP chaperone mechanism is catalytic and independent of ATP; the chaperone activity is dependent on the presence of zinc, which is shown to be responsible for the stabilization of an oligomeric ZraP complex. Furthermore, ZraP can act to repress the two-component regulatory system ZraSR, which itself is responsive to zinc concentrations. Through structural homology, ZraP is a member of the bacterial CpxP family of periplasmic proteins, which also consists of CpxP and Spy. We demonstrate environmental co-expression of the CpxP family and identify an important role for these proteins in Salmonella's defence against the cationic antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular intercytochrome electron exchange along "nanowire" appendages. We present a 3.2-Å crystal structure of one of these decaheme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the 10 hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65-Å octaheme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45-Å tetraheme chain that connects two extended Greek key split β-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g., minerals), soluble substrates (e.g., flavins), and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2011; 108(23):9384-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor