ABSTRACT: SAC9 is a putative phosphoinositide phosphatase in Arabidopsis thaliana involved in phosphoinositide signaling. sac9-1 plants have a constitutively stressed phenotype with shorter roots which notably accumulate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and its hydrolysis product inositol trisphosphate. We investigated the primary roots of sac9-1 seedlings at the cytological and ultrastructural level to determine the structural basis for this altered growth. Despite the normal appearance of organelles and cytoplasmic elements, our studies reveal extreme abnormalities of cell wall and membrane structures in sac9-1 primary root cells, regardless of cell type, position within the meristematic area, and plane of section. Cell wall material was deposited locally and in a range of abnormal shapes, sometimes completely fragmenting the cell. Simple protuberances, broad flanges, diffuse patches, elaborate folds, irregular loops and other complex three-dimensional structures were found to extend randomly from the pre-existing cell wall. Abundant vesicles and excessive membrane material were associated with these irregular wall structures. We argue that a perturbed phosphoinositide metabolism most likely induces these observed abnormalities and hypothesize that a disorganized cytoskeleton and excessive membrane trafficking mediate the cell wall defects.
Planta 06/2011; 234(5):993-1005. · 3.00 Impact Factor