ABSTRACT: Plasma profiling of patients treated with antiangiogenic agents may identify markers that correlate with toxicity. Objectives were to correlate changes in cytokine and angiogenic factors as potential markers of toxicity to aflibercept. Circulating cytokine and angiogenic factors were measured in 28 patients with recurrent glioblastoma in a single-arm phase II study of aflibercept. Plasma samples were analyzed at baseline, 24 h, and 28 days using multiplex assays or ELISA. We evaluated log-transformed baseline biomarker expressions with Cox proportional hazard regression models to assess the effect of markers on any grade II-IV (Gr II-IV) toxicity, on-target toxicity (hypertension, proteinuria, thromboembolism), and fatigue. All tests were two sided with a statistical significance level of p = 0.05. Among 28 pts, there were 116 Gr II-IV events. Changes in IL-13 from baseline to 24 h predicted on-target toxicities. Increases in IL-1b, IL-6, and IL-10 at 24 h were significantly associated with fatigue. Progression-free survival was 14.9 months for patients in the all-toxicity group and 9.0 months for patients in the on-target toxicity group compared to 4.3 months for those who did not develop any Gr II-IV toxicity (p = 0.002 and p = 0.045, respectively). Toxicity from antiangiogenic therapy remains an important cause of antiangiogenic treatment discontinuation and patient morbidity. Changes in IL6, IL10, and IL13 were repeatedly correlated with toxicity. Profiling of IL-13 as a surrogate for endothelial dysfunction could individualize patients at risk during antiangiogenic therapy, as could identifying those at higher risk for fatigue using IL-6 and IL-10.
Targeted Oncology 01/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: VEGF and infiltrating myeloid cells are known regulators of tumor angiogenesis and vascular permeability in glioblastoma. We investigated potential blood-based markers associated with radiographic changes to aflibercept, which binds VEGF and placental growth factor (PlGF) in patients with recurrent glioblastoma.
In this single-arm phase II trial, aflibercept was given intravenously every two weeks until disease progression. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected at baseline and 24 hours, 14 days, and 28 days posttreatment. Plasma cytokines and angiogenic factors were quantified by using ELISA and multiplex bead assays, and myeloid cells were assessed by flow cytometry in a subset of patients.
Circulating levels of VEGF significantly decreased 24 hours after treatment with aflibercept, coincident with radiographic response observed by MRI. PlGF initially decreased 24 hours posttreatment but increased significantly by days 14 and 28. Lower baseline levels of PlGF, elevated baseline levels of CTACK/CCL27, MCP3/CCL7, MIF, and IP-10/CXCL10, and a decrease in VEGFR1(+) monocytes from baseline to 24 hours were all associated with improved response. Tumor progression was associated with increases in circulating matrix metalloproteinase 9.
These data suggest that decreases in VEGF posttreatment are associated with radiographic response to aflibercept. Elevated baseline chemokines of monocyte lineage in responding patients supports a role for myeloid cells and chemokines as potential biomarkers and regulators of glioma angiogenesis.
Clinical Cancer Research 06/2011; 17(14):4872-81. · 7.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is a promising treatment approach for patients with recurrent glioblastoma. This single-arm phase II study evaluated the efficacy of aflibercept (VEGF Trap), a recombinantly produced fusion protein that scavenges both VEGF and placental growth factor in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
Forty-two patients with glioblastoma and 16 patients with anaplastic glioma who had received concurrent radiation and temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide were enrolled at first relapse. Aflibercept 4 mg/kg was administered intravenously on day 1 of every 2-week cycle.
The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 7.7% for the glioblastoma cohort and 25% for patients with anaplastic glioma. Overall radiographic response rate was 24% (18% for glioblastoma and 44% for anaplastic glioma). The median progression-free survival was 24 weeks for patients with anaplastic glioma (95% CI, 5 to 31 weeks) and 12 weeks for patients with glioblastoma (95% CI, 8 to 16 weeks). A total of 14 patients (25%) were removed from the study for toxicity, on average less than 2 months from treatment initiation. The main treatment-related National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria grades 3 and 4 adverse events (38 total) included fatigue, hypertension, and lymphopenia. Two grade 4 CNS ischemias and one grade 4 systemic hemorrhage were reported. Aflibercept rapidly decreases permeability on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular analysis of baseline tumor tissue identified tumor-associated markers of response and resistance.
Aflibercept monotherapy has moderate toxicity and minimal evidence of single-agent activity in unselected patients with recurrent malignant glioma.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2011; 29(19):2689-95. · 18.37 Impact Factor