Zongwei Cai

Hong Kong Baptist University, Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong

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Publications (184)601.93 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An improved method for accurate and rapid assessment of the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) redox state using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was described, with particular attention given to the instability of the reduced form of CoQ10 during sample preparation, chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection. As highly lipophilic compounds in complex biological matrices, both reduced and oxidized forms of CoQ10 were extracted simultaneously from the tissue samples by methanol which is superior to ethanol and isopropanol. After centrifugation, the supernatants were immediately separated on a C18 column with isocratic elution using methanol containing 2 mM ammonium acetate as a non-aqueous mobile phase, and detected by positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Ammonium acetate as an additive in methanol provided enhanced mass spectrometric responses for both forms of CoQ10, primarily due to stable formation of adduct ions [M + NH4](+), which served as precursor ions in positive ionization MRM transitions. The assay showed a linear range of 8.6-8585 ng mL(-1) for CoQ10H2 and 8.6-4292 ng mL(-1) for CoQ10. The limits of detection (LODs) were 7.0 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 15.0 and 5.0 ng mL(-1) for CoQ10H2 and CoQ10, respectively. This rapid extractive and analytical method could avoid artificial auto-oxidation of the reduced form of CoQ10, enabling the native redox state assessment. This reliable method was also successfully applied for the measurement of the CoQ10 redox state in liver tissues of mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, revealing the down-regulated mitochondrial electron transport chain.
    The Analyst 08/2014; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A dual quinone tagging strategy is designed for quantitation of cysteine-containing peptide (CCP) with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The quinone compounds can rapidly and specifically bind to the thiol group of cysteine residues by Michael addition reaction, which is used to identify both CCP and the number of cysteine residues in CCP through the direct observation of untagged and tagged products. After reduced with DL-dithiothreitol, the intramolecular disulfide bond can also be identified. Using benzoquinone (BQ) and methyl-p-benzoquinone (MBQ) as dual tags and a peptide with an amino acid sequence of SSDQFRPDDCT (C-pep1) as a model target, respectively, the quantitation strategy is performed through the intensity ratio of MBQ-tagged C-pep1 to BQ-tagged C-pep1 as the internal standard. The logarithm value of the intensity ratio is proportional to C-pep1 concentration in a range from 5.0 to 5000 nM. The limit of detection is as low as 2.0 nM. The proposed methodology provides a novel tool for rapid characterization, identification and quantitation of biomolecules containing thiol reactive sites, and has a promising application in the large-scale detection and analysis of cysteine-containing biomolecules.
    Analytical chemistry. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agriculture soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agriculture soils were low (0.15–0.58 ng I-TEQ/kg), which were compatible with those of the background soils (0.091–0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). However, in the south agriculture soils, there was an abrupt jump in their concentration (0.27–3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg), several times higher. Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agriculture soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the three main PCDD/Fs contamination sources in China, such as ferrous and non-ferrous metal, waste incineration and power generation, but had been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, also slightly contaminated by the biomass open burning, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment and sewage sludge. These results have also been supported by the principal components analysis. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 05/2014; · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathology of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) infection associated with the interaction of virus and its host cells is not clear. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant as well as a premier antitoxin and immune support substance. A high dose of NAC was recently reported for a therapy of H1N1 (2009) influenza pneumonia. NAC was used as a small-molecule organic probe to investigate the protein expression of human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) infected by influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1). Differential proteins were identified from MALDI-TOF MS and Q-TOF MS/MS analyses. The obtained results showed that NAC kept cells away from apoptosis. Virus-infected cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase. The lowest cell population of G0/G1 phase was detected when the cells were treated by 10 mM NAC for one day. Application of MS-based proteomics allowed the identification of the differential proteins. Software analysis showed that four proteins had close relationship. The results indicated that NAC as a small-molecule probe might effect the protein expression of A549 cells infected by the H1N1 virus. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 04/2014; 28(7):741-9. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction – Pogostone possesses potent anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities and has been used for the quality control of essential oil of Pogostemon cablin. Pogostone is easily absorbed after oral administration but its metabolism in mammals remains elusive. Objective – To investigate the metabolic profile of pogostone in vitro and in vivo. Methods – High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) techniques were employed. Orbitrap MS and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were utilised to analyse the metabolism of pogostone by virtue of the high sensitivity and high selectivity in the measurement. In vitro experiment was carried out using rat liver microsomes while the in vivo study was conducted on rats, which were orally administered with pogostone (80 mg/kg). Results – In total, three mono-hydroxylated, one di-hydroxylated, one mono-oxygenated, one di-oxygenated metabolite, one hydrolysis and one hydroxy conjugated metabolites were found. In addition hydroxylation was demonstrated to be a major metabolic pathway of pogostone. Conclusion – LC–MS was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the metabolite identification of pogostone. The tentative identification of metabolites provides an insight for the metabolic clues of pogostone.
    Phytochemical Analysis 03/2014; 25(2):97-105. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-index facets exposed octahedral tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and applied to selectively enrich phosphopeptides for mass spectrometric analysis. The high selectivity and capacity of the octahedral SnO2 nanoparticles were demonstrated by effectively enriching phosphopeptides from digests of phosphoprotein (α- or β-casein), protein mixtures of β-casein and bovine serum albumin, milk, and human serum samples. The unique octahedral SnO2 with abundant unsaturated coordination Sn atoms exhibited enhanced affinity and selective coordination ability with phosphopeptides due to their high chemical activity. The strong affinity led to highly selective capture and enrichment of phosphopeptides for sensitive detection through the bidentate bonds formed between surface atoms and phosphate. The phosphopeptides could be detected in β-casein down to 4×10(-9)M or in the mixture of β-casein and BSA with a molar ratio of even 1:100. The performance in selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from drinking milk and human serum showed powerful evidence of high selectivity and efficiency in identifying the low-abundant phosphopeptides from complicated biological samples. This work provided a way to improve the physical and chemical properties of materials by tailoring their exposed facets for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.
    Talanta 02/2014; 119C:452-457. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe(3+) loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) via an amide reaction. The introduction of PASE could bridge the MCNT and APBA, suppress the nonspecific adsorption and reduce the steric hindrance among the bound molecules. Due to the excellent structure of the MCNTs, the functionalization of PASE and then APBA on MCNTs was quite simple, specific and effective. The glycopeptides enrichment and separation with a magnetic field could be achieved by their reversible covalent binding with the boronic group of APBA-MCNTs. The exceptionally large specific surface area and the high density of boronic acid groups of APBA-MCNTs resulted in rapid and highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides, even in the presence of large amounts of interfering nonglycopeptides. The functional MCNTs possessed high selectivity for enrichment of 21 glycopeptides from the digest of horseradish peroxidase demonstrated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis showing more glycopeptides detected than the usual 9 glycopeptides with commercially available APBA-agarose. The proposed system showed better specificity for glycopeptides even in the presence of non-glycopeptides with 50 times higher concentration. The boronic acid functionalized MCNTs provide a promising selective enrichment platform for precise glycoproteomic analysis.
    Nanoscale 02/2014; · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic variations occur during normal pregnancy to provide the growing fetus with a supply of nutrients required for its development and to ensure the health of the woman during gestation. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was employed to study the metabolic phenotype variations in the maternal plasma that are induced by pregnancy in each of its three trimesters. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis showed that pregnancy significantly altered the profile of metabolites in maternal plasma. The levels of 6 metabolites were found to change significantly throughout pregnancy, with related metabolic pathway variations observed in biopterin metabolism, phospholipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation. In particular, there was a pronounced elevation of dihydrobiopterin (BH2), a compound produced in the synthesis of dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, in the second trimester whereas it was markedly decreased in the third trimester. The turnover of BH2 and tryptophan catabolites indicated that the fluctuations of neurotransmitters throughout pregnancy might reveal the metabolic adaption in the maternal body for the growth of the fetus. Furthermore, 11 lipid classes and 41 carnitine species were also determined and this showed variations in the presence of long-chain acylcarnitines and lysophospholipids in later pregnancy, suggesting changes of acylcarnitines and lysophospholipids to meet the energy demands in pregnant women. To our knowledge, this work is the first report of dynamic metabolic signatures and proposed related metabolic pathways in the maternal plasma for normal pregnancies, and provided the basis for time-dependent metabolic trajectory against which disease-related disorders may be contrasted.
    Journal of Proteome Research 01/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the previous reports about cognitive dysfunction, cerebellum was thought to be a less affected tissue by genetic or environmental alterations in comparison to other tissues in the brain including hippocampus under the same conditions. In this work, we investigated two types of metabolomic alterations inside the cerebellum tissue. The first one addressed the differences in the metabolomics profiles between Transgenic (Tg) CRND8 of Alzheimer's disease mice and non-transgenic (non-Tg) littermates. The second one addressed the metabolic differences between wild type mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and wild type mice which are not exposed to this toxic compound. For these two investigations, ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) was implemented. As a result, the significant changes of each comparison were tentatively annotated by the high mass accuracy generated from the measurements in the negative ion mode. The biosynthesis of amino acids was also enhanced pronouncedly, and perturbation of purine metabolism was also observed in Tg mice compared to non-Tg littermates. In another animal model, the reduced levels of amino acids were found whereas the intermediate levels in purine metabolism and fatty acids including fatty acid conjugated metabolites were elevated in cerebellar tissues of mice exposed to TCDD compared to control group. Collectively, it was demonstrated that FT-ICR/MS was a powerful tool for interpretation of the elemental compositions of the peaks, revealing that the metabolic perturbations in cerebellar tissues of mice were induced by either genetic manipulation or environmental factor. Therefore, the non-targeted approach, alternatively, provides various metabolic phenotypes for the systems-level mirror of the complex etiology of neurotoxicity in the cerebellum.
    Talanta 01/2014; 118:45-53. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A HPLC-MS/MS was applied to identify in vitro and in vivo metabolites of VOG for investigating their relationship with the neurotoxicity. O-Demethylation reaction was likely to be associated with the DNA damage in mouse brain.
    Chinese Chemical Letters. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A versatile, ultrasensitive immunosensor for detection of influenza virus was designed by combining silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) labeled antibodies with indirect fluorescence. A new technology using Ag-S covalent binding was applied for antibody labeling. Influenza A (H1N1) virus, as a subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu), was acted as the target antigen using sandwich type-immunoreactions on the high binding ELISA plates. The antibody-labeled Ag NPs were then released by acid solution to produce Ag(+) which can catalyze o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) oxidation to produce fluorescence for highly sensitive detection. Under the optimal conditions, it shows good linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and the logarithm of the concentration of H1N1 over the range of 1.0×10(-12)-1.0×10(-8)gmL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD, 3σ) of 1.0×10(-13)gmL(-1). Results indicated that the proposed method give a good sensitivity and simple operation for detecting the influenza virus. This work also provided a promising potential for antigen detection by Ag NPs labeled, and the steps were easy to handle.
    Biosensors & bioelectronics 11/2013; 54C:358-364. · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pogostone possesses potent anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities and has been used for the quality control of essential oil of Pogostemon cablin. Pogostone is easily absorbed after oral administration but its metabolism in mammals remains elusive. To investigate the metabolic profile of pogostone in vitro and in vivo. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) techniques were employed. Orbitrap MS and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were utilised to analyse the metabolism of pogostone by virtue of the high sensitivity and high selectivity in the measurement. In vitro experiment was carried out using rat liver microsomes while the in vivo study was conducted on rats, which were orally administered with pogostone (80 mg/kg). In total, three mono-hydroxylated, one di-hydroxylated, one mono-oxygenated, one di-oxygenated metabolite, one hydrolysis and one hydroxy conjugated metabolites were found. In addition hydroxylation was demonstrated to be a major metabolic pathway of pogostone. LC–MS was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the metabolite identification of pogostone. The tentative identification of metabolites provides an insight for the metabolic clues of pogostone.
    Phytochemical Analysis 11/2013; 25(2):97-105. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A versatile, ultrasensitive chemiluminescent metalloimmunoassay method for detection of H1N1 influenza virus was designed by using silver nanoparticles as an anti-H1N1 labeling tag to strongly amplify the CL signal of luminol.
    Chemical Communications 09/2013; · 6.38 Impact Factor
  • Weiguang Xu, Xian Wang, Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs.
    Analytica chimica acta 08/2013; 790:1-13. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is known as a highly toxic environmental contaminant and poses potential risks to human and animal health. As a persistent organic pollutant, 2,3,7,8-TCDD is hard to metabolize and thus gets accumulated in the human and animal body. Literature reports on the metabolism study of 2,3,7,8-TCDD are rare. The traditional method of GC-MS for 2,3,7,8-TCDD analysis might not be amenable for the direct analysis of its polar metabolites. In this study, in vitro metabolism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD with rat liver microsomes by using LC-MS and MS/MS was investigated and two hydroxylated metabolites of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and four trichloro-dihydroxydibenzo-p-dioxins were identified from the direct LC-MS and MS/MS analyses of the incubated samples.
    Analytical methods 05/2013; 5(11):2757-2760. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triclosan that is widely used as antimicrobial agent has been detected as contaminant in various aquatic environments. In this work, removal and biodegradation of triclosan in water by using a ubiquitous green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was investigated. When C. pyrenoidosa was exposed to a series concentration of triclosan from 100 to 800ngmL(-1), more than 50% of triclosan was eliminated by algal uptake from the culture medium during the first 1h exposure and reached equilibrium after the 6h treatment. In the biodegradation experiments, a removal percentage of 77.2% was obtained after C. pyrenoidosa was cultivated with 800ngmL(-1) triclosan for 96h. A major metabolite from the reductive dechlorination of triclosan was identified by using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The ultrastructural morphology of algal cells grown in the presence of triclosan was observed by using transmission electron microscopy and the growth of algal cells was detected. It was found that the trilcosan treatment resulted in the disruption of the chloroplast and the release of organic material into aquatic environment, which indicated that triclosan may affect membrane metabolism.
    Chemosphere 05/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the wake of genomics, metabolomics characterizes the small molecular metabolites revealing the phenotypes induced by gene mutants. To address the metabolic signatures in the hippocampus of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides produced in transgenic (Tg) CRND8 mice, high-field ion cyclotron resonance-Fourier transform mass spectrometry supported by LC-LTQ-Orbitrap was introduced to profile the extracted metabolites. More than 10,000 ions were detected in the mass profile for each sample. Subsequently, peak alignment and the 80 % rule followed by feature selection based on T score computation were performed. The putative identification was also conducted using the highly accurate masses with isotopic distribution by interfacing the MassTRIX database as well as MS/MS fragmentation generated in the LTQ-Orbitrap after chromatographic separation. Consequently, 58 differentiating masses were tentatively identified while up to 44 differentiating elemental compositions could not be biologically annotated in the databases. Nonetheless, of the putatively annotated masses, eicosanoids in arachidonic acid metabolism, fatty acid beta-oxidation disorders as well as disturbed glucose metabolism were highlighted as metabolic traits of Aβ toxicity in Tg CRND8 mice. Furthermore, a web-based bioinformatic tool was used for simulation of the metabolic pathways. As a result of the obtained metabolic signatures, the arachidonic acid metabolism dominates the metabolic perturbation in hippocampal tissues of Tg CRND8 mice compared to non-Tg littermates, indicating that Aβ toxicity functions neuroinflammation in hippocampal tissue and new theranostic opportunities might be offered by characterization of altered arachidonic acid metabolism for Alzheimer's disease.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-phosphorylation labeling was utilized to analyze the low molecular weight compounds by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A wide range of natural amino acids and short peptides was successfully analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS without matrix background interferences. The N-phosphorylation labeling reaction was carried out easily within 30 min in a one-pot reaction under mild reaction conditions. The phosphoryl derivatization reaction is a global labeling approach with high selectivity and high specificity with targeting only on the N-terminal and ε-amino group of Lys. The incorporation of a neutral phosphoryl group with high gas-phase affinity of protons not only improves the ionization efficiency of target molecules and simultaneously decreases the ion suppression effects in MALDI-TOF MS analysis, but also greatly reduces or eliminates the matrix background interferences by suppressing the matrix signals and increasing the molecular weight of the targeted compounds. By applying the N-phosphorylation labeling approach, many amino acids could be detected in serum samples by using MALDI-TOF MS.
    The Analyst 03/2013; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is commonly included in the newborn screening panel of most countries, with various techniques being used for quantification of L-phenylalanine (Phe). To diagnose PKU as early as possible in newborn screening, a rapid and simple method of analysis was developed. Using direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (TQ-MS/MS) and with use of a 12 DIP-it tip scanner autosampler in positive ion mode, we analyzed dried blood spot (DBS) samples from PKU newborns. The concentration of Phe was determined using multiple reaction monitoring mode with the nondeuterated internal standard N,N-dimethylphenylalanine. The results of the analysis of DBS samples from newborns indicated that the DART-TQ-MS/MS method is fast, accurate, and reproducible. The results prove that this assay as a newborn screen for PKU can be performed in 18 s per sample for the quantification of Phe in DBS samples. DART-TQ-MS/MS analysis of the Phe concentration in DBS samples allowed us to screen newborns for PKU. This innovative protocol is rapid and can be effectively applied on a routine basis to analyze a large number of samples in PKU newborn screening and PKU patient monitoring.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel molecular imprinting sensor based on TiO2 sol–gel layers embedding Cu(OH)2 was developed for protein recognition. Protein-imprinted TiO2 layers were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) using lysozyme (Lys) as a template protein. The synthetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MIPs) can catalyze o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) oxidation to produce fluorescence and color. Cu(OH)2 played a catalytic role in this reaction. The fluorescence intensity was related to the amount of MIPs, but has nothing to do with the imprinted protein. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, the imprinted protein can be detected using ELISA plates to fixed MIPs by OPDA oxidation. The fluorescence intensity at 568 nm (ex: 350 nm) was found to increase with increasing concentration of Lys. It was found that the limit of detection was 0.001 mg mL−1 with the fluorescent sensor and 0.04 mg mL−1 with the colorimetric sensor under optimized conditions. The results show that the MIPs reached saturated adsorption at 0.2 mg mL−1. Furthermore, the MIPs showed high selectivity compared to other tested proteins. In contrast, the fluorescence change of the non-imprinted TiO2@Cu(OH)2 was only small. The proposed method will be a useful platform for recognition of protein with high sensitivity and specificity.
    J. Mater. Chem. B. 02/2013; 1(9):1256-1262.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
601.93 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • Hong Kong Baptist University
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • School of Chinese Medicine
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2013
    • Minjiang University
      Min-hou, Fujian, China
  • 2012–2013
    • United International College
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Nanjing University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
    • China Criminal Police University
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
  • 2009–2013
    • Fuzhou University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Fuzhou, Fujian, China
    • Peking University
      • Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2004–2013
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • • Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry
      • • Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science
      • • Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2006–2012
    • Tsinghua University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Chemistry
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2011
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      Min-hou, Fujian, China
    • Chinese Center For Disease Control And Prevention
      • Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2010
    • Shanghai Research Institute of Chemical Industry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005–2008
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007
    • Xiamen University
      • College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      Xiamen, Fujian, China
    • Sichuan University
      • West China School of Pharmacy
      Chengdu, Sichuan Sheng, China
  • 2005–2006
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Guangzhou, Guangdong Sheng, China