Zongwei Cai

Hong Kong Baptist University, Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong

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Publications (190)643.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may be metabolized to form hydroxylated and quinone products. Study on the formation of DNA adducts altered by PBDEs quinones was conducted. Various types of DNA adducts generated from in vitro reaction of deoxyguanosine (dG), 2′-deoxyadenosine (dA), 2′-deoxycytidine (dC), thymidine (T) and DNA with a PBDE–quinone metabolite, namely 2-(2′,4′-bromophenoxyl)-benzoquinone (2′4′BrPhO-BQ) were characterized. The results suggest that the quinone compound could form various DNA adducts with dG, dA and dC via Michael Addition, which was confirmed from analyses by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Two adducts were respectively generated from the reactions of 2′4′BrPhO-BQ with dC and dG, while three adducts were produced with dA. The formation of adducts of 2′4′BrPhO-BQ-deoxynucleoside changed with different pH of reaction solution. The obtained results demonstrated that 2′4′BrPhO-BQ could covalently bind to DNA mediated by quinone group. The in vitro data of the formation of DNA adducts might be valuable to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between PBDEs and DNA in vivo.
    Chemosphere 01/2015; 118:29–34. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biologically active peptides play a role in plant signaling and defense. Elderberry juice is known to contain a variety of anthocyanin compounds, a sub-set of polyphenols, which are responsible for the deep purple color of the juice. In this paper, we describe a method utilizing solid phase extraction (SPE) to remove anthocyanins from peptides. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify the peptides. The results showed that the use of SPE was an effective method to separate peptides from anthocyanins and other background compounds including high polyphenol content in the juice samples. More than 1000 peptides present in elderberry juice were successfully identified.
    Talanta 01/2015; 131C:640-644. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence has shown that abnormal metabolic phenotypes in body fluids reflect the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease (PD). These body fluids include urine; however, the relationship between, specifically, urinary metabolic phenotypes and PD is not fully understood. In this study, urinary metabolites from a total of 401 clinical urine samples collected from 106 idiopathic PD patients and 104 normal control subjects were profiled by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. Our study revealed significant correlation between clinical phenotype and urinary metabolite profile. Metabolic profiles of idiopathic PD patients differed significantly and consistently from normal controls, with related metabolic pathway variations observed in steroidogenesis, fatty acid beta-oxidation, histidine metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and tyrosine metabolism. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the alteration of the kynurenine pathway in tryptophan metabolism corresponded with pathogenic changes in the alpha-synuclein over-expressed Drosophila model of PD. The results suggest that LC-MS-based urinary metabolomic profiling can reveal the metabolite signatures and related variations in metabolic pathways that characterize PD. Consistent PD-related changes across species may provide the basis for understanding metabolic regulation of PD at the molecular level.
    Journal of Proteome Research 10/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A selective and sensitive method to study the interaction between hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was established in this assay. In this report, 3,3′,5-triiodo-thyronine (T3) was conjugated with fluorescein (FITC) as a fluorescence probe (F-T3) to study the competitive binding interaction of OH-PBDEs to PDI, which was observed to exhibit T3 binding activity. The findings suggest that some OH-PBDEs have the potential of binding to PDI, and they share the same binding site as T3 to PDI; moreover, OH-PBDEs were able to act as a competitive inhibitor in PDI binding to T3.
    Analytical methods 09/2014; 6(20). · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this communication, one kind of surface protein imprinting on core-shell magnetic Au coating on magnetic core Fe3O4@Au func-tional nanofibers (NFs) was synthesized. Magnetic Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles (NPs) modified with p-aminothiophenol (PATP) were copolymerized with aniline to generate a magnetic poly-aniline NFs, and then functionalized with acryloyl chloride to introduce polymerizable double bonds. With lysozyme (Lys) as imprinted template, MIP layers were fabricated with acrylamide polymerization. The imprinted NFs reached saturated adsorption at 0.5 mg mL1 within 90 min and exhibited specific recognition toward the template protein. Moreover, the obtained imprinted materials show a high stability and can be reusable. This synthetic strategy exhibits the potential applications in the molecular imprinting techniques and separation science by a more convenient, simpler and cheaper approach based on vinyl-functionalized magnetic nanofibers.
    Chemical Communications 09/2014; · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reactions of glutathione (GSH) with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) quinones with different degrees of bromination on the PBDEs ring were studied. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric (LC-MS) analysis showed that four types of adducts were formed from the reaction of each PBDEs quinone (PBDE-Q) with GSH. The proposed reaction pathway was confirmed using ion trap-MS/MS technique. Our results demonstrate that adduct-1 was formed following the Michael Addition, a reaction of the sulfhydryl group from GSH with electron deficient carbon from PBDEs-Q ring. Compared with other carbons on the quinone ring, carbon in position 6 has a smaller steric hindrance, thus the addition reaction is likely to occur in that position. Hydrated quinone-GSH adduct-1 is easily oxidized to generate an adduct-2 in an aqueous solution. Substitution reaction from bromine atom on adduct-2 quinone ring with sulfhydryl group from GSH further generates adduct-3 that is unstable and can be readily hydrolyzed to adduct-4 in aqueous solution. Both adduct-1 and adduct-4 were unstable as well, immediately oxidized to adduct-2 and adduct-3 in the air, respectively. The results reveal that brominated quinones undergo a rapid non-enzymatic debromination upon reaction with GSH, and open a new view for our understanding on mechanism of metabolism and the toxicity of this class of compounds.
    Chemosphere 09/2014; 120C:365-370. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An improved method for accurate and rapid assessment of the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) redox state using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was described, with particular attention given to the instability of the reduced form of CoQ10 during sample preparation, chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection. As highly lipophilic compounds in complex biological matrices, both reduced and oxidized forms of CoQ10 were extracted simultaneously from the tissue samples by methanol which is superior to ethanol and isopropanol. After centrifugation, the supernatants were immediately separated on a C18 column with isocratic elution using methanol containing 2 mM ammonium acetate as a non-aqueous mobile phase, and detected by positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Ammonium acetate as an additive in methanol provided enhanced mass spectrometric responses for both forms of CoQ10, primarily due to stable formation of adduct ions [M + NH4](+), which served as precursor ions in positive ionization MRM transitions. The assay showed a linear range of 8.6-8585 ng mL(-1) for CoQ10H2 and 8.6-4292 ng mL(-1) for CoQ10. The limits of detection (LODs) were 7.0 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 15.0 and 5.0 ng mL(-1) for CoQ10H2 and CoQ10, respectively. This rapid extractive and analytical method could avoid artificial auto-oxidation of the reduced form of CoQ10, enabling the native redox state assessment. This reliable method was also successfully applied for the measurement of the CoQ10 redox state in liver tissues of mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, revealing the down-regulated mitochondrial electron transport chain.
    The Analyst 08/2014; · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    Chuanqin Hu, Shuhai Lin, Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Dioxin exposure tends to accumulate in adipose tissue and alters metabolism in mammals. In this study, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis was applied to profile small molecular metabolites in adipose tissue of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-high affinity wild-type C57BL/6J mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Partial least squares discriminant analysis model was also constructed to map the discrimination between TCDD dosages and control group. As a result, a total of 16 differential metabolites were identified in high-dose TCDD group compared to control group, and 12 free fatty acids (FFAs) were highlighted among them. Both saturated and unsaturated FFA levels were significantly elevated in adipose tissues of TCDD-exposed mice. This promising tool for global characterization highlights FFAs which could be served as indicators for understanding the toxic responses to TCDD exposure in a dose-dependent manner. The data indicated that the use of GC-MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis could provide new insight for fatty acid biosynthesis on AhR activation with TCDD exposure in wild-type mice.
    Analytical methods 08/2014; · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A HPLC-MS/MS was applied to identify in vitro and in vivo metabolites of VOG for investigating their relationship with the neurotoxicity. O-Demethylation reaction was likely to be associated with the DNA damage in mouse brain.
    Chinese Chemical Letters 08/2014; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A dual quinone tagging strategy is designed for quantitation of cysteine-containing peptide (CCP) with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The quinone compounds can rapidly and specifically bind to the thiol group of cysteine residues by Michael addition reaction, which is used to identify both CCP and the number of cysteine residues in CCP through the direct observation of untagged and tagged products. After reduced with DL-dithiothreitol, the intramolecular disulfide bond can also be identified. Using benzoquinone (BQ) and methyl-p-benzoquinone (MBQ) as dual tags and a peptide with an amino acid sequence of SSDQFRPDDCT (C-pep1) as a model target, respectively, the quantitation strategy is performed through the intensity ratio of MBQ-tagged C-pep1 to BQ-tagged C-pep1 as the internal standard. The logarithm value of the intensity ratio is proportional to C-pep1 concentration in a range from 5.0 to 5000 nM. The limit of detection is as low as 2.0 nM. The proposed methodology provides a novel tool for rapid characterization, identification and quantitation of biomolecules containing thiol reactive sites, and has a promising application in the large-scale detection and analysis of cysteine-containing biomolecules.
    Analytical chemistry. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agriculture soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agriculture soils were low (0.15–0.58 ng I-TEQ/kg), which were compatible with those of the background soils (0.091–0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). However, in the south agriculture soils, there was an abrupt jump in their concentration (0.27–3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg), several times higher. Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agriculture soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the three main PCDD/Fs contamination sources in China, such as ferrous and non-ferrous metal, waste incineration and power generation, but had been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, also slightly contaminated by the biomass open burning, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment and sewage sludge. These results have also been supported by the principal components analysis. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 05/2014; · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathology of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) infection associated with the interaction of virus and its host cells is not clear. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant as well as a premier antitoxin and immune support substance. A high dose of NAC was recently reported for a therapy of H1N1 (2009) influenza pneumonia. NAC was used as a small-molecule organic probe to investigate the protein expression of human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) infected by influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1). Differential proteins were identified from MALDI-TOF MS and Q-TOF MS/MS analyses. The obtained results showed that NAC kept cells away from apoptosis. Virus-infected cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase. The lowest cell population of G0/G1 phase was detected when the cells were treated by 10 mM NAC for one day. Application of MS-based proteomics allowed the identification of the differential proteins. Software analysis showed that four proteins had close relationship. The results indicated that NAC as a small-molecule probe might effect the protein expression of A549 cells infected by the H1N1 virus. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 04/2014; 28(7):741-9. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-index facets exposed octahedral tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and applied to selectively enrich phosphopeptides for mass spectrometric analysis. The high selectivity and capacity of the octahedral SnO2 nanoparticles were demonstrated by effectively enriching phosphopeptides from digests of phosphoprotein (α- or β-casein), protein mixtures of β-casein and bovine serum albumin, milk, and human serum samples. The unique octahedral SnO2 with abundant unsaturated coordination Sn atoms exhibited enhanced affinity and selective coordination ability with phosphopeptides due to their high chemical activity. The strong affinity led to highly selective capture and enrichment of phosphopeptides for sensitive detection through the bidentate bonds formed between surface atoms and phosphate. The phosphopeptides could be detected in β-casein down to 4×10(-9)M or in the mixture of β-casein and BSA with a molar ratio of even 1:100. The performance in selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from drinking milk and human serum showed powerful evidence of high selectivity and efficiency in identifying the low-abundant phosphopeptides from complicated biological samples. This work provided a way to improve the physical and chemical properties of materials by tailoring their exposed facets for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.
    Talanta 02/2014; 119C:452-457. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A stepwise strategy was developed to synthesize boronic acid functionalized magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides. The MCNTs were synthesized by a solvothermal reaction of Fe(3+) loaded on the acid-treated CNTs and modified with 1-pyrenebutanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (PASE) to bind aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) via an amide reaction. The introduction of PASE could bridge the MCNT and APBA, suppress the nonspecific adsorption and reduce the steric hindrance among the bound molecules. Due to the excellent structure of the MCNTs, the functionalization of PASE and then APBA on MCNTs was quite simple, specific and effective. The glycopeptides enrichment and separation with a magnetic field could be achieved by their reversible covalent binding with the boronic group of APBA-MCNTs. The exceptionally large specific surface area and the high density of boronic acid groups of APBA-MCNTs resulted in rapid and highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides, even in the presence of large amounts of interfering nonglycopeptides. The functional MCNTs possessed high selectivity for enrichment of 21 glycopeptides from the digest of horseradish peroxidase demonstrated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis showing more glycopeptides detected than the usual 9 glycopeptides with commercially available APBA-agarose. The proposed system showed better specificity for glycopeptides even in the presence of non-glycopeptides with 50 times higher concentration. The boronic acid functionalized MCNTs provide a promising selective enrichment platform for precise glycoproteomic analysis.
    Nanoscale 02/2014; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic variations occur during normal pregnancy to provide the growing fetus with a supply of nutrients required for its development and to ensure the health of the woman during gestation. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was employed to study the metabolic phenotype variations in the maternal plasma that are induced by pregnancy in each of its three trimesters. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis showed that pregnancy significantly altered the profile of metabolites in maternal plasma. The levels of 6 metabolites were found to change significantly throughout pregnancy, with related metabolic pathway variations observed in biopterin metabolism, phospholipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation. In particular, there was a pronounced elevation of dihydrobiopterin (BH2), a compound produced in the synthesis of dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine, in the second trimester whereas it was markedly decreased in the third trimester. The turnover of BH2 and tryptophan catabolites indicated that the fluctuations of neurotransmitters throughout pregnancy might reveal the metabolic adaption in the maternal body for the growth of the fetus. Furthermore, 11 lipid classes and 41 carnitine species were also determined and this showed variations in the presence of long-chain acylcarnitines and lysophospholipids in later pregnancy, suggesting changes of acylcarnitines and lysophospholipids to meet the energy demands in pregnant women. To our knowledge, this work is the first report of dynamic metabolic signatures and proposed related metabolic pathways in the maternal plasma for normal pregnancies, and provided the basis for time-dependent metabolic trajectory against which disease-related disorders may be contrasted.
    Journal of Proteome Research 01/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the previous reports about cognitive dysfunction, cerebellum was thought to be a less affected tissue by genetic or environmental alterations in comparison to other tissues in the brain including hippocampus under the same conditions. In this work, we investigated two types of metabolomic alterations inside the cerebellum tissue. The first one addressed the differences in the metabolomics profiles between Transgenic (Tg) CRND8 of Alzheimer's disease mice and non-transgenic (non-Tg) littermates. The second one addressed the metabolic differences between wild type mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and wild type mice which are not exposed to this toxic compound. For these two investigations, ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) was implemented. As a result, the significant changes of each comparison were tentatively annotated by the high mass accuracy generated from the measurements in the negative ion mode. The biosynthesis of amino acids was also enhanced pronouncedly, and perturbation of purine metabolism was also observed in Tg mice compared to non-Tg littermates. In another animal model, the reduced levels of amino acids were found whereas the intermediate levels in purine metabolism and fatty acids including fatty acid conjugated metabolites were elevated in cerebellar tissues of mice exposed to TCDD compared to control group. Collectively, it was demonstrated that FT-ICR/MS was a powerful tool for interpretation of the elemental compositions of the peaks, revealing that the metabolic perturbations in cerebellar tissues of mice were induced by either genetic manipulation or environmental factor. Therefore, the non-targeted approach, alternatively, provides various metabolic phenotypes for the systems-level mirror of the complex etiology of neurotoxicity in the cerebellum.
    Talanta 01/2014; 118:45-53. · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Xian Wang, Shujuan Wang, Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: This review introduces fundamental principles and applications of different types of mass detector and highlights the novel advances of newly developed mass-spectrometry (MS) methods, including MALDI-TOF-MS imaging and ambient ionization MS for direct food analysis. We also discuss and compare the advantages and the limitations of different MS techniques in their applications to food safety and quality, and comment on the future outlook.
    TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 12/2013; 52:170–185. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A versatile, ultrasensitive immunosensor for detection of influenza virus was designed by combining silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) labeled antibodies with indirect fluorescence. A new technology using Ag-S covalent binding was applied for antibody labeling. Influenza A (H1N1) virus, as a subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu), was acted as the target antigen using sandwich type-immunoreactions on the high binding ELISA plates. The antibody-labeled Ag NPs were then released by acid solution to produce Ag(+) which can catalyze o-phenylenediamine (OPDA) oxidation to produce fluorescence for highly sensitive detection. Under the optimal conditions, it shows good linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and the logarithm of the concentration of H1N1 over the range of 1.0×10(-12)-1.0×10(-8)gmL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD, 3σ) of 1.0×10(-13)gmL(-1). Results indicated that the proposed method give a good sensitivity and simple operation for detecting the influenza virus. This work also provided a promising potential for antigen detection by Ag NPs labeled, and the steps were easy to handle.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 11/2013; 54C:358-364. · 6.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pogostone possesses potent anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities and has been used for the quality control of essential oil of Pogostemon cablin. Pogostone is easily absorbed after oral administration but its metabolism in mammals remains elusive. To investigate the metabolic profile of pogostone in vitro and in vivo. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) techniques were employed. Orbitrap MS and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were utilised to analyse the metabolism of pogostone by virtue of the high sensitivity and high selectivity in the measurement. In vitro experiment was carried out using rat liver microsomes while the in vivo study was conducted on rats, which were orally administered with pogostone (80 mg/kg). In total, three mono-hydroxylated, one di-hydroxylated, one mono-oxygenated, one di-oxygenated metabolite, one hydrolysis and one hydroxy conjugated metabolites were found. In addition hydroxylation was demonstrated to be a major metabolic pathway of pogostone. LC–MS was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the metabolite identification of pogostone. The tentative identification of metabolites provides an insight for the metabolic clues of pogostone.
    Phytochemical Analysis 11/2013; 25(2):97-105. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BDE-209 is the most commonly used commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether, and is of particular concern due to its accumulation and debromination to more toxic congeners in aquatic organisms. In this study, Japanese medaka were continuously exposed to BDE-209 with the exposure concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 ng/L for 15, 30 and 60 days in a flowing-through exposure device. The results showed that BDE-209 could be accumulated in fish muscle at environmental relevant concentrations and its concentration in the muscle increased with the increase of exposure time and reached to a steady state. Toxicokinetic data showed that the dose-dependent half-life of BDE-209 in the muscle of medaka ranged from 16.5 to 19.4 days. Low brominated congeners could be detected, where tri- to hexa-BDEs were predominant congeners with up to 46% to 93% of total PBDEs and lower brominated BDEs may have slower elimination rates. Concentration level of BDE-155 ranged from several ng/g wet weight (ww) to a maximum of 178 ng/g ww. BDE-154 and BDE-153 as intermediates in fish under continuous exposure were negligible. By comparing with previous work, fish may have a different bioaccumulation capacity and metabolic pattern from other species, either because of species difference or the manner of exposures.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 09/2013; 48(11):1349-1355.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
643.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Hong Kong Baptist University
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • School of Chinese Medicine
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2013
    • Minjiang University
      Min-hou, Fujian, China
  • 2012–2013
    • United International College
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    • Nanjing University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
    • China Criminal Police University
      Feng-t’ien, Liaoning, China
  • 2009–2013
    • Fuzhou University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Fuzhou, Fujian, China
    • Peking University
      • Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2004–2013
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • • Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry
      • • Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science
      • • Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2006–2012
    • Tsinghua University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Chemistry
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2011
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      Min-hou, Fujian, China
    • Chinese Center For Disease Control And Prevention
      • Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2010
    • Shanghai Research Institute of Chemical Industry
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2005–2008
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2007
    • Xiamen University
      • College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      Xiamen, Fujian, China
    • Sichuan University
      • West China School of Pharmacy
      Chengdu, Sichuan Sheng, China
  • 2005–2006
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Guangzhou, Guangdong Sheng, China