Zongwei Cai

Hong Kong Baptist University, Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong

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Publications (244)803.24 Total impact

  • Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.09.009 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urine metabolic phenotyping has been associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, few studies using a comprehensive metabolomics approach have investigated the correlation between changes in the urinary markers and the progression of clinical symptoms in PD. A comprehensive metabolomic study with robust quality control procedures was performed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC - MS) and liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC - MS) to characterize the urinary metabolic phenotypes of idiopathic PD patients at three stages (early, middle and advanced) and normal control subjects, with the aim of discovering potential urinary metabolite markers for the diagnosis of idiopathic PD. Both GC-MS and LC-MS metabolic profiles of idiopathic PD patients differed significantly from those of normal control subjects. 18 differentially expressed metabolites were identified as constituting a unique metabolic marker associated with the progression of idiopathic PD. Related metabolic pathway variations were observed in branched chain amino acid metabolism, glycine derivation, steroid hormone biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and phenylalanine metabolism. Comprehensive, successive metabolomic profiling revealed changes in the urinary markers associated with progression of idiopathic PD. This profiling relies on noninvasive sampling, and is complementary to existing clinical modalities.
    Scientific Reports 09/2015; 5:13888. DOI:10.1038/srep13888 · 5.58 Impact Factor
  • Jianlin Wu · Chuanqin Hu · Charlie Li · Zongwei Cai · Di Hu
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    ABSTRACT: A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the identification and quantification of 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) in toothpaste and mouthwash consumer products. Liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction were used in the sample preparation. The limit of detection was 0.96 ng/g in toothpaste and 0.83 ng/g in mouthwash. The accuracy represented by relative errors was less than 12.5 %. The intra-day and inter-day precision, which are represented by the relative standard deviation values, were within 11.2 and 10.6 %, respectively. The method was successfully applied to analyze 2,8-DCDD in toothpaste and mouthwash products, as well as that from the photo-degradation of triclosan spiked in both sample matrix.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-5015-4 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 6,7-Bismethoxy-2,11-dihydroxytetraphenylene (1), a novel building block of tetraphenylene-derived macrocycles, was synthesized via palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The relevant macrocyclic hosts derived from 1 have well-defined structures with fixed conformations both in solution and solid state. They showed efficient and unique properties toward complexation with fullerenes C60 and C70 in toluene. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Chemistry - An Asian Journal 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/asia.201500689 · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Zongwei Cai · Li Xiang · Shuhai Lin · Waisan Cheang · Li Wang · Yongle Li · Yu Huang
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is caused by a complex set of interactions between genetic modifications and life styles. This complexity faces challenges for a full understanding of altered metabolic pathways contributing to the development of T2DM, awaiting a comprehensive metabolic analysis. Exercise training is a common therapeutic approach known to antagonize the metabolic consequences of T2DM. However, the metabolic phenotypes of exercise effect in T2DM have not been clearly characterized. Here, we present the effect of physical activity on biochemical changes in diabetic db/db mice. Untargeted metabolomics study based on liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry was carried out to delineate plasma metabolic signatures in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis. As a result, a total of 24 differential metabolites were identified, covering amino acids, organic acids and lipids. Three biomarkers, including lysine, creatine and uridine were significantly reversed by exercise training in db/db diabetic mice groups compared to lean db/m+ groups. Of note, pantothenic acid and palmitoylcarnitine which involved in fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) was promoted by exercise training in diabetic mice rather than lean mice. These findings indicated that diabetic mice might be more susceptible to exercise for energy expenditure. Together, the results might demonstrate that exercise could mitigate insulin resistance in T2DM through up regulating of FAO and and uridine in blood might be an important indicator to reflect insulin sensitivity that promoted by exercise training on T2DM mice.
    Molecular BioSystems 07/2015; 11(9). DOI:10.1039/C5MB00363F · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Zian Lin · Jiangnan Zheng · Guo Lin · Zhi Tang · Xueqing Yang · Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets served as a novel matrix for the detection of small molecules by negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was described for the first time. In comparison with conventional organic matrices and graphene matrix, the use of g-C3N4 nanosheet matrix showed free matrix background interference and increased signal intensity in the analysis of amino acids, nucleobases, peptides, bisphenols (BPs), and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs). A systematic comparison of g-C3N4 nanosheets with positive and negative ion modes revealed that mass spectra produced by g-C3N4 nanosheets in negative ion mode were featured by singly deprotonated ion without matrix interference, which was rather different from the complicated alkali metal complexes in positive ion mode. Good salt tolerance and reproducibility allowed the determination of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) in sewage, and its corresponding detection limit was lowered to 1 pmol. In addition, the ionization mechanism of the g-C3N4 nanosheets as matrix was also discussed. The work expands its application scope of g-C3N4 nanosheets and provides an alternative approach for small molecules.
    Analytical Chemistry 07/2015; 87(15). DOI:10.1021/acs.analchem.5b02066 · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Weiguang Xu · Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs as well as six indicator PCBs were determined in animal origin foods collected from Hong Kong retail market during 2008-2010. The dietary intake of an average Hong Kong adult resident was estimated to be 0.806-0.833 pg WHO-TEQ kg−1 b.w. d−1 of dioxin-like compounds, lower than the tolerable daily intake introduced by WHO. The 95th percentile consumer were exposed by dietary at the level of 2.72 to 2.81 pg WHO-TEQ kg−1 b.w. d−1 or 81.6-84.3 pg WHO-TEQ kg−1 b.w. month−1, higher than 70 pg WHO-TEQ kg−1 b.w. month−1. DL-PCBs contributed 49.2% of total TEQ intake. The daily intake of indicator PCB was 2.83 ng kg−1 b.w. d−1. Approximately 2/3 of dietary intake of dioxin-like compounds came from sea food products. Ten brands of infant formula products were tested and the potential dietary intake of formula-fed infants of Hong Kong was estimated to be 1.46-1.58 pg WHO-TEQ kg−1 b.w. d−1 during 1st month and decreases afterwards.
    Science China-Chemistry 06/2015; 58(6). DOI:10.1007/s11426-014-5309-2 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Zi An Lin · Jiang-Nan Zheng · Wei Bian · Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: CuFe2O4 magnetic nanocrystal clusters (CuFe2O4 MNCs) was proposed as a new matrix for small molecule analysis by negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the first time. We demonstrated its advantages over conventional organic matrices in the detection of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, nucleobases, fatty acids, and steroid hormones. A systematic comparison of CuFe2O4 MNCs with different ionization modes revealed that MS spectra obtained on CuFe2O4 MNC matrix in negative ion mode was only featured by deprotonated ion peaks with free matrix background, which was different from the complicated alkali metal adducts produced in positive ion mode. The developed method was found relatively tolerant to salt contamination and good reproducibility. Detection limit down to subpicomolar level was achieved when testosterone was analyzed. In addition, by comparison of the MS spectra obtained from bare Fe3O4 and MFe2O4 MNC (M = Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) matrices, two main factors of MFe2O4 MNC matrices were unveiled to play a vital role in assisting negative ion desorption/ionization (D/I) process: doping transition metals into ferrite nanocrystals favoring laser absorption and energy transfer; good match between the UV absorption of MFe2O4 MNCs and the excitation of nitrogen laser source facilitating LDI efficiency. This work creates a new application branch for MFe2O4 MNCs and provides an alternative solution for small molecule analysis.
    The Analyst 06/2015; 140(15). DOI:10.1039/C5AN00625B · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: L-glutathione decorated Mn doped ZnS QDs (GSH-Mn: ZnS QDs) were synthesized in aqueous solution. The characterization of as-prepared QDs was carried out through fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis), TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Pb2+ had obvious quenching effect on the fluorescence intensity of GSH-Mn: ZnS QDs. Under optimal factors, a nice linear relationship between the fluorescence response and the concentration of Pb2+ was established from 0.025µM to 15.5µM range with a correlation coefficient of 0.9981 and the detection limit is 0.018µ. This probe was triumphantly made use of the detecting of Pb2+ in tap and pond water. At the same time, it was preliminary inferred that the fluorescence quenching way of Pb2+ to QDs was dynamic quenching. The present study provides a simple, low-cost route toward production of GSH-Mn: ZnS QDs for chemo/bio sensing and other adhibition.
    Current Analytical Chemistry 05/2015; 11(3). · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combining free radical polymerization with click chemistry via copper-mediated azide/alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction in “one-pot” process, a facile approach was developed for preparation of poly (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-co-propargyl methacrylate-co-pentaerythritol triacrylate) (AZT-co-PMA-co-PETA) monolithic column. The resultant poly (AZT-co-PMA-co-PETA) monolith showed a relatively homogeneous monolithic structure, good permeability and mechanical stability. Different ratios of monomers and porogens were used for optimizing the properties of monolithic column. A series of alkylbenzenes, amides, anilines, and benzoic acids were used to evaluate the chromatographic properties of the polymer monolith in terms of hydrophobic, hydrophilic and cation-exchange interactions, and the results showed the poly (AZT-co-PMA-co-PETA) monolith exhibited more flexible adjustment in chromatographic selectivity than that of the parent poly (PMA-co-PETA) and AZT-modified poly (PMA-co-PETA) monoliths. Column efficiencies for toluene, DMF, and formamide with 35,000-48,000 theoretical plates/m could be obtained at a linear velocity of 0.17 mm/s. The run-to-run, column-to-column, and batch-to-batch repeatabilities of the retention factors were less than 4.2%. In addition, the proposed monolith was also applied to efficient separation of sulfonamides, nucleobases and nucleosides, anesthetics and proteins for demonstrating its potential.
    The Analyst 04/2015; 140(13). DOI:10.1039/C5AN00409H · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    Zongwei Cai · Zi An Lin · Jiang-Nan Zheng · Wei Bian
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    ABSTRACT: Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 coated magnetic nanocomposites (Fe3O4@ZIF-8 MNCs) were served as absorbent and matrix for negative-ion MALDI-TOF MS. The host-guest property and interference-free background made it an ideal dual platform for the sensitive analysis of small molecules.
    Chemical Communications 04/2015; 51(42). DOI:10.1039/C5CC02495A · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolomics has the potential to be a powerful and sensitive approach for investigating the low molecular weight metabolite profiles present in maternal fluids and their role in pregnancy. In this Data Note, LC-MS metabolome, lipidome and carnitine profiling data were collected from 180 healthy pregnant women, representing six time points spanning all three trimesters, and providing sufficient coverage to model the progression of normal pregnancy. As a relatively large scale, real-world dataset with robust numbers of quality control samples, the data are expected to prove useful for algorithm optimization and development, with the potential to augment studies into abnormal pregnancy. All data and ISA-TAB format enriched metadata are available for download in the MetaboLights and GigaScience databases.
    04/2015; 4(1):16. DOI:10.1186/s13742-015-0054-9
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we developed a novel quantitative analysis method for detecting nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) in PM2.5 samples with graphene as matrix using MALDI-TOF MS. A good linearity was obtained for the typical four nitro-PAHs, namely 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), 2-nitrofluorene (2-NFL), 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC) and 9-nitroanthracene (9-NA) with the correlation coefficient better than 0.985 by means of 9-nitroanthracene-d9 as internal standard. The average recoveries of this method were from 69.2% to 119.4%, and the inter-day precisions were less 12.3% as well as intra-day precisions less than 20.7%. The limits of detection for 1-NP, 2-NFL, 6-NC and 9-NA were 0.74, 8.04, 2.67 and 2.31 ng/μL, respectively. We have validated the practicality by the analysis of nitro-PAHs in PM2.5 samples collected during haze weather in Taiyuan of China. The mass concentrations of Σ-nitropyrene, Σ-nitrofluorene, Σ-nitrochrysene and Σ-nitroanthracene on the collected PM2.5 samples were detected at levels of 0.38 to 3.04 ng/m3, 0.21 to 0.43 ng/m3, 0.19 to 2.38 ng/m3, and 9.55 to 16.52 ng/m3, respectively. The present method provided a good candidate for simple, fast and eco-friendly determination of nitro-PAHs by using MALDI-TOF MS coupled to internal standard method.
    Analytical methods 03/2015; 7(9). DOI:10.1039/C5AY00341E · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Fatemeh Tohidi · Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based method was developed for simultaneous determination of triclosan (TCS) and its degradation products including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD), and methyl triclosan (MTCS) in wastewater and sludge samples. The method provides satisfactory detection limit, accuracy, precision and recovery especially for samples with complicated matrix such as sewage sludge. Liquid-liquid extraction and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) methods were applied for the extraction, and column chromatography was employed for the sample cleanup. Analysis was performed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was successfully applied to wastewater and sludge samples from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Satisfactory mean recoveries were obtained as 91(±4)-106(±7) %, 82(±3)-87(±4) %, 86(±6)-87(±8) %, and 88(±4)-105(±3) % in wastewater and 88(±5)-96(±8) %, 84(±2)-87(±3) %, 84(±7)-89(±4) %, and 88(±3)-97(±5) % in sludge samples for TCS, 2,4-DCP, 2,8-DCDD, and MTCS, respectively. TCS degradation products were detected based on the type of the wastewater and sludge treatment. 2,8-DCDD was detected in the plant utilizing UV disinfection at the mean level of 20.3(±4.8) ng/L. 2,4-DCP was identified in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) applying chlorine disinfection at the mean level of 16.8(±4.5) ng/L). Besides, methyl triclosan (MTCS) was detected in the wastewater collected after biological treatment (10.7 ± 3.3 ng/L) as well as in sludge samples that have undergone aerobic digestion at the mean level of 129.3(±17.2) ng/g dry weight (dw).
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 03/2015; 22(15). DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-4289-x · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM2.5-induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM2.5 with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM2.5 exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM2.5-induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 02/2015; 287C:392-401. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.02.006 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    Zi An Lin · Yu Qing Yin · Yun Xiao · Guo Lin · Qi Xiao · Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: A facile approach for the synthesis of enzyme-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers and its application as an immobilized α-chymotrypsin (ChT) reactor (IMER) for highly efficient protein digestion was described. The hybrid nanoflowers were room-temperature synthesized in aqueous solution using calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) as the inorganic component and ChT as the organic component. The effects of reaction parameters on the formation of the enzyme-embedded hybrid nanoflowers and its growth mechanism were investigated systematically. By monitoring the reaction of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester (BTEE), the enzymatic activity of the immobilized ChT was calculated and the results showed 266% enhancement in enzymatic activity. The performance of such a nanoreactor was further demonstrated by digesting bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA), with a stringent threshold for unambiguous identification of these digests, the yielding sequence coverage for nanoflower-based digestion were 48% and 34%, higher than those obtained with the free enzyme. Whereas the digestion time of BSA and HSA in the former case was less than 2 min, about 1/360 of that performed in the latter case (12 h). Furthermore, the residual activity of the nanoflowers decreased slightly even after eight repeated use, demonstrating promising stability. In addition, the hybrid nanoflower-based IMER was applicable to the digestion of complex human sample, showing great promise for proteome analysis.
    02/2015; 3(11). DOI:10.1039/C4TB01697A
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    Shuhai Lin · Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: It is hard to begin to discuss tumor metabolism without mentioning Warburg effect. Tumor metabolism has been received intensive attention in recent years for understanding Warburg effect which is also known as aerobic glycolysis. Even Warburg did not anticipate, other nutrients, such as glutamine, serine and glycine could serve as alternative source for energy demands and block building in cancer cells. To delineate altered metabolic pathways in cancer cells, isotopic tracing technique provides a novel and holistic insight in metabolic switch under control of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. An array of chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is the powerful tool to detect the isotope-labeled metabolites for unlocking the underlying biochemical reactions in cancer cells. In this review article, we focus on carbon-13 and deuterium-labeling for quantitative analysis of intermediate metabolites including reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). NADPH is mainly derived from pentose phosphate pathway in previous biochemical textbook. However, deuterium-isotope labeling metabolic flux analysis can reveal other important pathways for NADPH production, such as one-carbon metabolism, which is also discussed in this review.
    Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography / Zhongguo hua xue hui 02/2015; 33(2):112-5.
  • Lihua Huang · Charlie Li · Yongquan Lai · Bin Qiu · Zongwei Cai
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    ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may be metabolized to form hydroxylated and quinone products. Study on the formation of DNA adducts altered by PBDEs quinones was conducted. Various types of DNA adducts generated from in vitro reaction of deoxyguanosine (dG), 2′-deoxyadenosine (dA), 2′-deoxycytidine (dC), thymidine (T) and DNA with a PBDE–quinone metabolite, namely 2-(2′,4′-bromophenoxyl)-benzoquinone (2′4′BrPhO-BQ) were characterized. The results suggest that the quinone compound could form various DNA adducts with dG, dA and dC via Michael Addition, which was confirmed from analyses by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Two adducts were respectively generated from the reactions of 2′4′BrPhO-BQ with dC and dG, while three adducts were produced with dA. The formation of adducts of 2′4′BrPhO-BQ-deoxynucleoside changed with different pH of reaction solution. The obtained results demonstrated that 2′4′BrPhO-BQ could covalently bind to DNA mediated by quinone group. The in vitro data of the formation of DNA adducts might be valuable to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between PBDEs and DNA in vivo.
    Chemosphere 01/2015; 118(1):29–34. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.108 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biologically active peptides play a role in plant signaling and defense. Elderberry juice is known to contain a variety of anthocyanin compounds, a sub-set of polyphenols, which are responsible for the deep purple color of the juice. In this paper, we describe a method utilizing solid phase extraction (SPE) to remove anthocyanins from peptides. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify the peptides. The results showed that the use of SPE was an effective method to separate peptides from anthocyanins and other background compounds including high polyphenol content in the juice samples. More than 1000 peptides present in elderberry juice were successfully identified.
    Talanta 01/2015; 131C:640-644. DOI:10.1016/j.talanta.2014.08.022 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ribonucleosides are the end products of RNA metabolism. These metabolites, especially the modified ribonucleosides, have been extensively evaluated as cancer-related biomarkers. However, the determination of urinary ribonucleosides is still a challenge due to their low abundance, high polarity and serious matrix interferences in urine samples. In this study, a derivatization method based on a chemical reaction between ribonucleosides and acetone to form acetonides was developed for the determination of urinary ribonucleosides. The derivative products, acetonides, were detected by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The methodological evaluation was performed by quantifying four nucleosides for linear range, average recovery, precision, accuracy and stability. The validated procedures were applied to screen modified ribonucleosides in urine samples. Improvement of separation and enhancement of sensitivity were obtained in the analysis. To identify ribonucleosides, inexpensive isotope labeling acetone (acetone-d6) and label-free acetone were applied to form ordinary and deuterated acetonides, respectively. The two groups of samples were separated with orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS). The ordinary and deuterated pairs of acetonides were symmetrically distributed in the S-plot for easy and visual signal identification. After structural confirmation, a total of 56 ribonucleosides were detected, 52 of which were modified ribonucleosides. The application of derivatization, deuterium-labeling and multivariate statistical analysis offers a new option for selective detection of ribonucleosides in biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Analytica Chimica Acta 01/2015; 864. DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2015.01.044 · 4.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
803.24 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2015
    • Hong Kong Baptist University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Chiu-lung, Kowloon City, Hong Kong
  • 2013–2014
    • Shanxi University
      • School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      Yangkü, Shanxi Sheng, China
  • 2009–2013
    • Fuzhou University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Min-hou, Fujian, China
  • 2012
    • Tsinghua University
      • Graduate School at Shenzhen
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2011
    • China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2010
    • Victoria University of Wellington
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
  • 2006–2008
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology
      • • Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Peking Union Medical College Hospital
      Peping, Beijing, China
    • Xiamen University
      • Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology
      Amoy, Fujian, China