[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The GnRH neurons exhibit long dendrites and project to the median eminence. The aim of the present study was to generate an acute brain slice preparation that enabled recordings to be undertaken from GnRH neurons maintaining the full extent of their dendrites or axons. A thick, horizontal brain slice was developed, in which it was possible to record from the horizontally oriented GnRH neurons located in the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA). In vivo studies showed that the majority of AHA GnRH neurons projected outside the blood-brain barrier and expressed c-Fos at the time of the GnRH surge. On-cell recordings compared AHA GnRH neurons in the horizontal slice (AHAh) with AHA and preoptic area (POA) GnRH neurons in coronal slices [POA coronal (POAc) and AHA coronal (AHAc), respectively]. AHAh GnRH neurons exhibited tighter burst firing compared with other slice orientations. Although α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) excited GnRH neurons in all preparations, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was excitatory in AHAc and POAc but inhibitory in AHAh slices. GABA(A) receptor postsynaptic currents were the same in AHAh and AHAc slices. Intriguingly, direct activation of GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors respectively stimulated and inhibited GnRH neurons regardless of slice orientation. Subsequent experiments indicated that net GABA effects were determined by differences in the ratio of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor-mediated effects in "long" and "short" dendrites of GnRH neurons in the different slice orientations. These studies document a new brain slice preparation for recording from GnRH neurons with their extensive dendrites/axons and highlight the importance of GnRH neuron orientation relative to the angle of brain slicing in studying these neurons in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is now well established that the kisspeptin neurons of the hypothalamus play a key role in regulating the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. The population of kisspeptin neurons residing in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V), encompassing the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and periventricular preoptic nuclei (PVpo), are implicated in the generation of the preovulatory GnRH surge mechanism and puberty onset in female rodents. The present study examined whether these kisspeptin neurons may express other neuropeptides in the adult female mouse. Initially, the distribution of galanin, neurotensin, met-enkephalin (mENK), and cholecystokinin (CCK)-immunoreactive cells was determined within the RP3V of colchicine-treated mice. Subsequent experiments, using a new kisspeptin-10 antibody raised in sheep, examined the relationship of these neuropeptides to kisspeptin neurons. No evidence was found for expression of neurotensin or CCK by RP3V kisspeptin neurons, but subpopulations of kisspeptin neurons were observed to express galanin and mENK. Dual-labeled RP3V kisspeptin/galanin cells represented 7% of all kisspeptin and 21% of all galanin neurons whereas dual-labeled kisspeptin/mENK cells represented 28-38% of kisspeptin neurons and 58-68% of the mENK population, depending on location within the AVPV or PVpo. Kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus were also found to express galanin but not mENK. These observations indicate that, like the kisspeptin population of the arcuate nucleus, kisspeptin neurons in the RP3V also co-express a range of neuropeptides. This pattern of co-expression should greatly increase the dynamic range with which kisspeptin neurons can modulate the activity of their afferent neurons.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology 07/2011; 519(17):3456-69. · 3.51 Impact Factor