[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in older HIV-infected patients are poorly described. Here, the steady-state PK of two common ARV regimens [tenofovir (TFV)/emtricitabine (FTC)/efavirenz (EFV) and TFV/FTC/atazanavir (ATV)/ritonavir (RTV)] in older nonfrail HIV-infected patients are presented.
HIV-infected subjects ≥ 55 years old not demonstrating the frailty phenotype were enrolled in an unblinded, intensive-sampling PK study. Blood plasma (for TFV, FTC, EFV, ATV and RTV concentrations) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs; for tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) and emtricitabine triphosphate (FTC-TP) concentrations] were collected at 11 time-points over a 24-hour dosing interval. Drug concentrations were analysed using validated liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was used to estimate PK parameters [area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h (AUC0-24h ) and maximal concentration (Cmax )]. These parameters were compared with historical values from the general HIV-infected population.
Six subjects on each regimen completed the study. Compared with the general population, these elderly subjects had 8-13% decreased TFV AUC0-24h and Cmax , and 19-78% increased FTC and RTV AUC0-24h and Cmax . Decreased ATV AUC0-24h (12%) and increased Cmax (9%) were noted, while EFV exposure was unchanged (5%) with a 16% decrease in Cmax . Intracellular nucleoside/tide metabolite concentrations and AUC are also reported for these subjects.
This study demonstrates that the PK of these ARVs are altered by 5-78% in an older HIV-infected population. Implications of PK differences for clinical outcomes, particularly with the active nucleoside metabolites, remain to be explored. This study forms the basis for further study of ARV PK, efficacy, and toxicity in older HIV-infected patients.
HIV Medicine 02/2013; 14(7). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12017 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the intraindividual pharmacokinetics of total (protein bound + unbound) and unbound lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) and to assess whether the pediatric formulation (100mg/25mg) can overcome any pregnancy-associated changes. Design: Prospective longitudinal pharmacokinetic (PK) study METHODS:: HIV-infected pregnant antiretroviral therapy-naïve and experienced women receiving LPV/RTV 400mg/100mg tablets twice daily. Intensive PK evaluations were performed at 20-24 weeks (PK1), 30 weeks (PK2) followed by empiric dose increase using the pediatric formulation (100mg/25mg twice daily), 32 weeks (PK3), and 8 weeks postpartum (PK4). RESULTS:: Twelve women completed pre-specified PK evaluations. Median (range) age was 28 (18-35) years and baseline BMI was 32 (19-41) kg/m. During pregnancy, total area under the time concentration (AUC0-12hr) for LPV was significantly lower than postpartum [PK1, PK2 or PK3 vs. PK4, p= 0.005]. Protein unbound LPV AUC0-12hr remained unchanged during pregnancy [PK1: 1.6 (1.3-1.9) vs. PK2: 1.6 (1.3-1.9) μg*hr/mL, p=0.4] despite a 25% dose increase [PK2 vs. PK3: 1.8 (1.3-2.1) μg*hr/mL, p=0.5]. Protein unbound LPV predose concentrations (C12h) did not significantly change despite dose increase [PK2: 0.10 (0.08-0.15) vs. PK3: 0.12 (0.10-0.15) μg/mL, p=0.09]. Albumin and LPV AUC0-12h fraction unbound were correlated (rs=0.3, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS:: Total LPV exposure was significantly decreased throughout pregnancy despite the increased dose. However, the exposure of unbound LPV did not change significantly regardless of trimester or dose. Predose concentrations of unbound LPV were not affected by the additional dose and were 70-fold greater than the minimum efficacy concentration. These findings suggest dose adjustments may not be necessary in all HIV-infected pregnant women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Antiretroviral therapy has become a central component of combination in HIV prevention efforts. Defining the individual exposure of commercially available antiretroviral therapy in genital secretions and vulnerable mucosal tissues is paramount to designing future prevention interventions.
: A pharmacokinetic (PK) study was performed in 12 HIV-negative men receiving 600 mg of darunavir, 100 mg of ritonavir, and 200 mg of etravirine orally, twice daily for 8 days. Seven blood plasma (BP) samples were collected over 12 hours on day 1 (PK1) and days 7 and 8 (PK2). One rectal tissue (RT) sample from each subject was collected during PK1 and PK2. During PK1, 2 seminal plasma (SP) samples were collected from each subject. During PK2, 6 SP samples were collected from each subject over 2 days.
: Antiretrovirals were detected in SP and RT within 1 hour after a single dose. Over PK1 and PK2, SP exposures were lower than BP by 80%-92% (DRV), 89-95% (RTV), and 83-88% (ETR). However, protein binding in SP (14% for darunavir, 70% for ritonavir, and 97% for etravirine) was lower than in BP. Rectal tissue exposures were higher than BP by 39- to 155-fold for darunavir, 12- to 61-fold for ritonavir, and 20- to 40-fold for etravirine.
: Lower SP protein binding resulted in higher pharmacologically active darunavir and etravirine concentrations compared with BP. High RT concentrations may also be favorable for suppressing viral replication in the gastrointestinal mucosa. The high protein-unbound exposures in SP and total exposures in RT support further investigations of darunavir plus ritonavir and etravirine in secondary prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral pharmacology in seminal plasma (SP) and rectal tissue (RT) may provide insight into antiretroviral resistance and the prevention of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Saliva may be of utility for noninvasively measuring adherence.
A pharmacokinetic study was performed in 12 HIV-negative men receiving maraviroc 300 mg twice daily for 8 days. Seven time-matched pairs of blood plasma (BP) and saliva samples were collected over 12 h on day 1 (PK1) and days 7 and 8 (PK2). One RT sample from each subject was collected during PK1 and PK2. Two SP samples were collected from each subject during PK1, and 6 SP samples were collected from each subject during PK2.
SP AUCs were ∼50% lower than BP. However, protein binding in SP ranged from 4% to 25%, resulting in protein-free concentrations >2-fold higher than BP. RT AUCs were 7.5- to 26-fold higher than BP. Maraviroc saliva AUCs were ∼70% lower than BP, but saliva concentrations correlated with BP (r(2) = 0.58).
More pharmacologically available maraviroc was found in SP than BP. High RT concentrations are promising for preventing rectal HIV acquisition. Saliva correlation with BP suggests that this may be useful for monitoring adherence.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2011; 203(10):1484-90. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jir059 · 6.00 Impact Factor