Qing Cai

Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Peping, Beijing, China

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Publications (58)145.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Core-shell polymer spheres of submicron diameter are a promising vehicle for sequential delivery of angiogenic and osteogenic growth factors to bone defect sites, to simulate the orchestrated temporal sequence of angiogenesis and osteogenesis. To achieve a homogeneous distribution pattern in the scaffold matrix and avoid fast biological clearance in vivo, attention should be paid to the particle size of the spheres, using a modified coaxial electrospraying technique, we prepared core-shell spheres about 1 μm in diameter using the polymers poly-(d,l-lactide) in the shell and poly(l-lactide-co-glycolic acid) in the core, and loaded them with VEGF and BMP-2, growth factors that stimulate angiogenesis and osteogenesis, respectively. PLGA/PDLLA controlled sequential delivery profiles, including an initial burst release of VEGF and a sustained release behavior of BMP-2 from the VEGF//BMP-2 spheres, were obtained. The VEGF and BMP-2 released from the spheres maintained their bioactivity; VEGF could enhance the proliferation of endothelial cells and BMP-2 could promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Micro-computed tomography analysis showed that, among all the experimental groups, implantation of VEGF//BMP-2 spheres into rat cranial critical-sized bone defects enhanced new bone formation to the greatest extent, resulting in the largest amount of new bone volume and the largest isolated bone islands. Histological examination showed that VEGF//BMP-2 spheres also significantly increased in-growth of blood vessels with positive CD31 staining. All these findings suggest that the submicron-scale core-shell VEGF//BMP-2 spheres developed in this study are capable of yielding sequentially coupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis, implying their extensive application in bone tissue regeneration.
    Chemical Engineering Journal 08/2015; 273:490-501. DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2015.03.068 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) activated montmorillonites (BGE-MMTs) on moisture-resistant characteristics of epoxy-based composites were evaluated. The activated MMTs were prepared by intercalating BGE into the inter-layer surfaces of octadecyl ammonium modified MMTs (O-MMTs) under ultrasonication, and in a form of liquid nano-reinforcement. It showed advantages of low viscosity, excellent dispersibility and high chemical reactivity in epoxy matrix. The enhancements in tensile and flexural properties of BGE-MMTs/epoxy composites confirmed the well dispersion of BGE-MMTs in epoxy matrix and the strong interfacial adhesion between the two components. More importantly, the well-dispersed BGE-MMTs in epoxy matrix led to significant enhancement in the moisture-barrier properties of epoxy composites. In comparison with that of neat epoxy, the moisture diffusion coefficient of BGE-MMTs/epoxy composites significantly decreased from 10.1×10-6 to 0.3×10-6 cm2/s. The enhancement in moisture-barrier properties was ascribed to the exfoliated two-dimensional lamellar structure of MMTs extending the effective penetration paths of water molecules into tortuous forms. A model concerning moisture diffusion in BGE-MMTs/epoxy composites was suggested.
    RSC Advances 05/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5RA06397C · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon nanomaterials (CNM), such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene, are highlighted in bone regeneration because of their osteo-inductive properties. Their combinations with nanofibrous polymeric scaffolds, which mimic the morphology of natural extracellular matrix of bone, arouse keen interest in bone tissue engineering. To this end, CNM were incorporated into nanofibrous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds by thermal induced phase separation. The CNM-containing composite nanofibrous scaffolds were biologically evaluated by both in vitro co-culture of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and in vivo implantation. The nanofibrous structure itself demonstrated significant enhancement in cell adhesion, proliferation and oseogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and with the incorporation of CNM, the composite nanofibrous scaffolds further promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs significantly. Between the two CNMs, graphene showed stronger effect in promoting osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs than CNT. The results of in vivo experiments revealed that the composite nanofibrous scaffolds had both good biocompatibility and strong ability in inducing osteogenesis. CNMs could remarkably enhance the expression of osteogenesis-related proteins as well as the formation of type I collagen. Similarly, the graphene-containing composite nanofibrous scaffolds demonstrated the strongest effect on inducing osteogenesis in vivo. These findings demonstrated that CNM-containing composite nanofibrous scaffolds were obviously more efficient in promoting osteogenesis than pure polymeric scaffolds.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 04/2015; 103(4). DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.35283 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alignment states of one dimensional multi walled carbon nanotube containing various contents of zero dimensional ferriferrous oxide nanoparticles (MWCNT-Fe3O4) were numerically characterized. MWCNT-Fe3O4 complexes were successfully prepared via in-situ surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, followed by coprecipitation process. The complexes showed strong magnetism, which endowed them the possibility to be aligned under the action of external magnetic field. The intensity of magnetic field, loading content of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and viscosity of dispersing medium, however, all had substantial effects on the alignment degree. To evaluate the alignment effectively and quantitatively, an orientation tensor description based on marking the direction of single MWCNT in a selected region of optical images was employed. The results showed that MWCNT-Fe3O4 complex containing 26 wt.% of Fe3O4 nanoparticles achieved desirable alignment in deionized water under the magnetic field at the intensity of 0.10 T. Accordingly, epoxy composites reinforced with such aligned MWCNT-Fe3O4 complexes displayed 12.3 and 10.9 % enhancement in tensile strength and modulus, as well as 8.9 and 6.1 % enhancement in flexural strength and modulus, respectively.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 01/2015; 7(5). DOI:10.1021/am507583r · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The issue of how to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in oxide semiconductors has been challenging for more than 20 years. In this work, we report an effective path to substantial reduction in thermal conductivity and increment in carrier concentration, and thus a remarkable enhancement in the ZT value is achieved. The ZT value of In2O3 system was enhanced 4-fold by nanostructuing (nano-grains and nano-inclusions) and point defect engineering. The introduction of point defects in In2O3 results in a glass-like thermal conductivity. The lattice thermal conductivity could be reduced by 60%, and extraordinary low lattice thermal conductivity (1.2 W m(-1) K(-1) @ 973 K) below the amorphous limit was achieved. Our work paves a path for enhancing the ZT in oxides by both the nanosturcturing and the point defect engineering for better phonon-glasses and electron-crystal (PGEC) materials.
    Scientific Reports 01/2015; 5:7783. DOI:10.1038/srep07783 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of this study was to prepare a novel asymmetric chitosan guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane, which is composed of a dense layer isolating the bone defect from the invasion of surrounding connective fibrous tissue and a loose layer which can improve cell adhesion and stabilize blood clots, thus guided bone regeneration. Methods The chitosan membrane was fabricated through liquid nitrogen quencher combined with lyophilization and cross-linked by sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The physical properties of asymmetric chitosan membrane were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and tensile test machine. MTT assay and Live/Dead cell staining for MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts cultured on the membrane were used to characterize the biocompatibility of the membrane. In animal experiments, full-thickness and critical sized skull defects were made to evaluate the effect of the membrane on bone regeneration. Results The results of this study indicate that the asymmetric chitosan membrane can be built and cross-linked by TPP to enhance the tensile strength of the membrane. In vitro experiment showed that no significant numbers of dead cells were detected on the chitosan membrane, indicating that the membrane had good biocompatibility. In animal experiments, the chitosan membrane had faster new bone formation, showing the capability to enhance bone regeneration. Conclusion The chitosan membrane prepared in this study has an asymmetric structure; its tensile strength, biodegradation and biocompatibility fulfill the requirements of guided bone regeneration. Therefore, the asymmetric chitosan membrane is a promising GBR membrane for bone regeneration. Clinical Significance Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is an effective method for healing bone defects caused by periodontitis and implantitis, in which GBR membrane is a key biomaterial.
    Journal of Dentistry 12/2014; 42(12). DOI:10.1016/j.jdent.2014.08.015 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradable polyesters and polyphosphazenes are both promising biomaterials for tissue regeneration. A combination of both materials would provide additional advantages over the individual components in aspects of biocompatibility and osteocompatibility. Applications of polyester/polyphosphazene composites, however, were limited due to the severe phase separation. In this study, cross-linkable poly(glycine ethyl ester-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)phosphazene (PGHP) was synthesized. It was blended with poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), using chloroform as a mutual solvent, and photo-crosslinked before solvent removal. The resulting PLLA (or PLGA)/PGHP composites demonstrated no significant phase separation due to the restricting function of the crosslinked PGHP polymeric network. In comparison with uncrosslinked blends, the mechanical properties of crosslinked composites were remarkably improved, which indicated their strong potential in bone regeneration applications.
    Biomedical Materials 12/2014; 9(6):061001. DOI:10.1088/1748-6041/9/6/061001 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradable polyphosphazenes were categorized as osteoinductive materials due to their phosphorus-containing feature, however, they were less supportive in cell attachment and proliferation at earlier points in comparison with biodegradable aliphatic polyesters. Therefore, mussel-inspired surface modification of poly(alanine ethyl ester -co- glycine ethyl ester)phosphazene (PAGP) was studied, intending to circumvent the above mentioned disadvantage of polyphosphazene. To this end, PAGP and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) were electrospun into nanofibrous substrates and surface treated with dopamine aqueous solution. With the analysis of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), the successful poly(dopamine) coating was identified on both PAGP and PLLA nanofibers. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were found attaching and proliferating much well on poly(dopamine) modified nanofibrous substrates in comparison with the pristine ones. Besides, the poly(dopamine) coating demonstrated high activity in promoting osteogenous differentiation. Because the phosphorus content on nanofiber surface was decreased with the poly(dopamine) coating, the poly(dopamine)-coated PAGP nanofibrous substrate was slightly inferior to pure PAGP nanofibrous substrate in osteogenous differentiation. In a summary, the results confirmed that poly(dopamine) modified polyphosphazenes were promising scaffold materials with both high cell affinity and high osteocompatibility for bone regeneration.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 11/2014; 102(11). DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.35065 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Substrate-controlled mineralization from simulated body fluid (SBF) has been studied as a model for biomineralization and for the synthesis of bioinspired hybrid materials. The mineralization procedure is complex and the features of final minerals are affected by many factors. Surface functional groups are among them and play important roles in inducing nucleation, crystal growth and transformation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were surface-modified with poly(acrylic acid), polyacrylamide or poly(hydroxyethyl methylacrylate), and used as templates for biomineralization. The polymer coating was gained via photo-initiated polymerization of monomers and adsorption of polymer chains onto MWCNTs in solution. Then, the modified MWCNTs with different surface functional groups were incubated in 1.5 times SBF for different times to compare the effect of carboxyl, acylamino and hydroxyl group on calcium phosphate formation. The study involved various characterizations such as morphology observation, weight increase, chemical and crystal structures of deposited minerals at different soaking time points. In all cases, carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) was identified after 7 days immersion. The continuously growing mineral crystals would wrap MWCNTs into spherical composite particles ultimately. However, the rates of nucleation and crystal growth depended on the type of surface functional groups, in an order of COOH>CONH2>OH. And their different charge characteristics led to different Ca/P ratios in initially formed minerals. It revealed that acylamino group, which demonstrated the lowest Ca/P ratio in nucleation stage, was helpful to obtain c-axis preferentially oriented morphology resembling the HA structure in natural bone tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2014.10.026 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a strategy of using iodine-containing cyclophosphazenes as radiopacifiers for dental composite resin was evaluated. It was hypothesized that cyclophosphazenes bearing both iodine and acrylate group swere able to endow composite resins radiopacity without compromising mechanical properties. The cyclophosphazene compounds were synthesized by subsequently nucleophilic substitution of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene with hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 4-iodoaniline. Cyclotriphosphazenes containing two different molar ratios of HEMA to 4-iodoaniline (1:5 and 2:4) were obtained, and were identified with (1)H NMR, FT-IR, UV and mass spectroscopy. The iodine-containing cyclophosphazenes were able to dissolve well in bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) resin, and were added at two contents (10 or 15%wt. of the resin). The resins were photo-cured and post-thermal treated before characterizations. The resulting composite resins demonstrated the ability of blocking X-ray. And the addition of HEMA-co-iodoaniline substituted cyclotriphosphazenes caused minor adverse effect on the mechanical properties of the resins because the cyclotriphosphazenes could mix well and react with the resins. The presence of rigid phosphazene rings between resin backbones displayed an effective function of decreasing polymerization shrinkage. In summary, soluble and reactive iodine-containing cyclotriphosphazenes demonstrated advantages over traditional heavy metals or metal oxides in being used as additives for producing radiopaque dental resins.
    Materials Science and Engineering C 10/2014; 43C:432-438. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.07.050 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two star polycations, poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate) (PAEMA, P1) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA, P2), have been synthesized with perylene diimide (PDI) as the central fluorophore. 1H NMR and 13C NMR are used to confirm the successful synthesis of macromolecular initiator. Using ATRP strategy, P1 and P2 are obtained with narrow molecular weight distribution. The star polymers have good fluorescence properties in aqueous solution which provides fluorescent tracing and imaging during gene delivering. Both P1 and P2 can efficiently condense DNA into stable nanoparticles. Transfection studies demonstrate that P1 and P2 deliver DNA into live cells with higher efficiency and lower cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine (PEI, 25 kDa). P2 shows higher capacity for gene delivery than P1 due to its better buffering and faster rate of cellular internalization.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 08/2014; 6:16327-16334. DOI:10.1021/am5045967 · 5.90 Impact Factor
  • Materials Letters 08/2014; 128:238-241. DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2014.04.164 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the push-out bond strengths of prefabricated glass-fiber posts (Beijing Oya Biomaterials) with polydopamine functionalized to root dentin using two different resin cements (Paracore and RelyX Unicem) in different root regions (cervical, middle, and apical). Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human, single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and a 9-mm post space was prepared in each tooth with post drills provided by the manufacturer. Specimens were then randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10 per group), depending on the adhesive system and post surface treatment used: group IA (Paracore + polydopamine); group IB (Paracore + control); group IIA (RelyX Unicem + polydopamine); group IIB (RelyX Unicem + control). Following post cementation, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. The push-out test was performed using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/ min), and the failure modes were examined with a stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using twoway ANOVA (p = 0.05). Results: Bond strengths (mean ± SD) were: 7.909 ± 3.166 MPa (group IA), 4.675 ± 2.170 MPa (group IB), 8.186 ± 2.766 MPa (group IIA), 4.723 ± 2.084 MPa (group IIB). The bond strength of polydopamine groups was significantly higher than one of the control groups (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was found in the micro push-out bond strengths between the two resin cement groups or the root regions (p > 0.05). Stereomicroscopic analysis showed a higher percentage of adhesive than cohesive failures in all groups. Conclusion: Surface polydopamine functionalization was confirmed to be a reliable method for improving the bond strength of resin luting agents to fiber posts. The bond strength of Paracore to fiber posts was not significantly different from that of RelyX Unicem, and considering its convenient application, Paracore can be recommended.
    The journal of adhesive dentistry 03/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.3290/j.jad.a31810 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a kind of gastrointestinal timed-release preparation for Metoprolol Tartrate, nanostructured silica particles were chose for the purpose. Briefly, MCM-41 type mesoporous silica nanospheres with a size of 100-200 nm were synthesized through the reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the water medium at 353 K, with introducing some cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as porogens. Various analytical methods, including FT-IR, XRD, TEM, N2 physisorption and thermal analysis, were applied to characterize the final products. Metoprolol Tartrate was then loaded into the mesoporous silica nanospheres by soaking. Results of the release of the drug in simulated gastric juice indicated that the drug can release up to 24 h and its maximum released amount was 4.5%. In the simulated intestinal juice the maximum cumulative released amount of metorprolol was 10.8%.In vitro release behavior revealed that the mesoporous silica were appropriate used as drug delivery system.
    Key Engineering Materials 03/2014; 602-603:55-58. DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.602-603.55 · 0.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A kind of core-shell nanofibers containing sodium fluoride (NaF) was produced and used as reinforcing materials for dimethacrylate-based dental restorative resins in this study. The core-shell nanofibers were prepared by coaxial-electrospinning with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions as core and shell fluids, respectively. The produced PAN-PMMA nanofibers varied in fiber diameter and the thickness of PMMA shell depending on electrospinning parameters. NaF-loaded nanofibers were obtained by incorporating NaF nanocrystals into the core fluid at two loadings (0.8 or 1.0wt.%). Embedment of NaF nanocrystals into the PAN core did not damage the core-shell structure. The addition of PAN-PMMA nanofibers into Bis-GMA/TEGDMA clearly showed the reinforcement due to the good interfacial adhesion between fibers and resin. The flexural strength (Fs) and flexural modulus (Ey) of the composites decreased slightly as the thickness of PMMA shell increasing. Sustained fluoride releases with minor initial burst release were achieved from NaF-loaded core-shell nanofibers and the corresponding composites, which was quite different from the case of embedding NaF nanocrystals into the dental resin directly. The study demonstrated that NaF-loaded PAN-PMMA core-shell nanofibers were not only able to improve the mechanical properties of restorative resin, but also able to provide sustained fluoride release to help in preventing secondary caries.
    01/2014; 34C:262-269. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2013.09.020
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    ABSTRACT: Composite nanofibers composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon nanofibers and bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles have been prepared by electrospinning and in situ sintering. Morphology observation showed that the BG nanoparticles of size 20-50 nm were uniformly distributed on the surface of composite nanofibers with 350 nm average diameter after carbonization. Biological mineralization indicated the formation of apatite-like layer on the surface of composite nanofibers, in which the composition of carbonate hydroxyapatite was proved by FTIR and XRD analysis. Cell growth dynamics according to cellular morphology, CCK-8 assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity assay exhibited better cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic induction of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the composite nanofibers, which suggested the higher bioactivity of composite nanofibers compared to pure PAN-based carbon nanofibers.
    Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 11/2013; DOI:10.1080/09205063.2013.861169 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unimolecular fluorescent micelles of star polyelectrolytes with a perylenediimide core are very sensitive to changes in pH values. The pH-responsive behavior relies on the ionization or deionization of the star polyelectrolytes, which causes a reversible volume phase transition and optical response.
    Chemical Communications 11/2013; 50:823-825. DOI:10.1039/c3cc48046a · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nanotopographical features of artificial scaffolds have complex effects on the biological characteristics of stem cells. They influence cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation; however we have limited knowledge on how these processes occur under nanotopographical cues. In this study, two kinds of electrospun nanofibrous meshes with different fiber arrangements (totally non-woven and lattice-like) were fabricated and used for in vitro culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). By comparing the characteristic marks related to osteogenic differentiation, we found that with prolonged culture time, osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as related genes (Runx2 and Colla genes), were all expressed at higher levels on lattice-like nanofibrous meshes than on non-woven ones. These results indicated that the lattice-like nanofibrous mesh activated the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs owing to changes in cell morphology directed by nanofiber orientations. Compared with pure non-woven nanofibrous meshes, lattice-like ones possessed a combined structure of parallel, magnetic-line-like, and non-woven regions. MSCs adhering onto them had upregulated expression levels of integrin subunits a5 and b1, and activated downstream signaling pathways of Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). When the specific inhibitors PD98059 and Y27632 were used to inhibit phosphorylated ERK and p160 ROCKII activity, respectively, F-actin became disordered and the expression level of Runx2 was downregulated. Thus, we concluded that the scaffold nanotopography may modulate the microenvironment of MSCs and promote their osteogenic differentiation through the RhoA and ERK signaling pathways. These findings provided valuable information on the selection of artificial matrices suitable for MSCs application in bone tissue engineering.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 10/2013; 9(10):1757-67. DOI:10.1166/jbn.2013.1661 · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although poly(l-lactic acid) nanofibers are known to promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, their relative hydrophobicity and surface inertia tend to hinder their biomedical application. We explored a feasible and effective technique to improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of poly(l-lactic acid) fibers for further application in regenerative medicine. A low-temperature atmospheric plasma was used to treat poly(l-lactic acid) nanofibers for 1, 5, and 10 min, and the surface properties and dose-dependent effects on the behavior of bone marrow stromal cells were studied. Both the amino group content and surface hydrophilicity of the nanofibers increased with treatment time, whereas the spreading and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells were greatest on nanofibers which had been treated for 5 min, followed by samples treated for 1 and 10 min. The quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the bone marrow stromal cells on the 5-min-treated nanofibers had the highest expression level of osteogenic marker genes including RUNX2, BMP2, ALP, COL1A1, OPN, and OCN. The nanofibers treated for 5 min also promoted the high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggest the exertion of dose-dependent effects by atmospheric plasma treatment on the surface of poly(l-lactic acid) nanofibers, and that this treatment is a feasible and effective technique to improve biomaterial biocompatibility and promotion of osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells.
    Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers 09/2013; 28(5):453-467. DOI:10.1177/0883911513494623 · 2.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

231 Citations
145.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • Beijing University of Chemical Technology
      • College of Materials Science and Engineering (SMSE)
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2013
    • Tsinghua University
      • State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing
      Peping, Beijing, China