[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore race-ethnic differences in the association between plasma lipid components and risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI).
As part of the Northern Manhattan Study, 2,738 community residents without cardiovascular disease were prospectively evaluated. Baseline fasting blood samples were collected, and lipid panel components were analyzed as continuous and categorical variables. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for incident MI after adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors.
The mean age was 68.8 ± 10.4 years; 36.7% were men. Of the participants, 19.9% were non-Hispanic white; 24.9%, non-Hispanic black; and 52.8%, Hispanic (>80% from the Caribbean). Hispanics had lower mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher triglycerides (TG)/HDL-C. During a mean 8.9 years of follow-up, there were 163 incident MIs. In the whole cohort, all lipid profile components were associated with risk of MI in the expected directions. However, HDL-C (adjusted HR per 10 mg/dL increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.76-1.12) and TG/HDL-C >2 (adjusted HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51-1.55) were not predictive of MI among Hispanics but were predictive among non-Hispanic blacks and whites. Triglycerides/HDL-C per unit increase was associated with an 8% higher risk of MI among Hispanics (adjusted HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12).
In Hispanics, low HDL-C and TG/HDL-C >2 were not associated with MI risk. Our data suggest that a different TG/HDL ratio cutoff may be needed among Hispanics to predict MI risk.
American heart journal 05/2011; 161(5):886-92. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2011.01.018 · 4.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether duration of epilepsy prior to temporal lobe resection has decreased over the years as a result of increasing body of evidence in the literature showing the benefits of anterior temporal resection. We stratified the 213 patients, who had their first temporal lobe resection at our center between 1996 and 2007 into three groups in order to detect any trends in duration of epilepsy: group A (surgery between 1996 and 1999); group B (surgery between 2000 and 2003); group C (surgery between 2004 and 2007). No difference in mean duration of epilepsy was detected between the three groups (p=0.54). The mean duration in epilepsy prior to temporal lobe resection has persisted at greater than 20 years during the past two decades.
Epilepsy research 08/2009; 86(2-3):224-7. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2009.05.014 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The absorption of food iron can be greatly influenced by other constituents in the diet such as ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and phenolics. Ascorbic acid increases the bioavailability of iron by converting Fe3+ to Fe2+, while phenolics can reduce the bioavailability of iron by binding to it. Phenolics (e.g., tannins), however, are often not included in diets of captive animals because they 1) can act as digestibility reducers by binding to dietary protein, and 2) require the feeding of fresh leaf material which can be hard to obtain on a regular basis. Conversely, ascorbic acid levels can be excessive from fresh fruit (e.g., oranges) and green vegetables that are often fed. Captive folivorous and frugivorous animals, in particular, can be affected by excessive uptake of dietary iron leading to clinical/pathological iron storage disease; excess ascorbic acid and/or a lack of dietary tannins have both been suggested as contributing to the incidence of these health conditions. Experiments reported herein determined the effects of tannic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid and a variety of plant extracts on the in vitro solubilization of iron. Binding curves used a stock solution of ferric ammonium sulfate (FAS) to which the pH was varied. Putative plant tannin/polyphenolic extracts were prepared from red seedless Thompson grapes, Black Riber grapes, blueberries, blackberries, walnut hulls, and grape seed extract. Binding was measured colorimetrically as absorbance at λ max. Most pure compounds tested and the putative tannin/polyphenolic sources bound iron, except several samples of red seedless grapes and blueberries. Grape seed extract, sold commercially as an antioxidant dietary supplement, was especially effective at binding iron. Iron binding was effectively quenched in some samples when ascorbic acid concentrations were elevated. Understanding the interactions among iron, phenolics, and ascorbic acid in vitro will assist in modeling and developing optimal diets for managed feeding programs and overall improved health in captive zoo animals.