[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Open surgery is currently the gold standard for most liver resection. Laparoscopic hepatic surgery is currently gaining significance, but technical challenges remain. Surgical robotics has been developed to overcome these technical limitations and to enable more difficult minimally invasive procedures. At our institution, 16 robotic hepatic resections have been performed since 2010. Shorter length of stay on intermediate care unit and shorter overall hospitalization has been observed with the robotic patients when compared to open hepatic resection. Overall, the literature shows promising data with demonstration of general feasibility of robotic liver surgery. However, more systematic research is needed to precisely determine the potential advantages of robotics over alternative approaches and its overall role for hepatic resections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is a severe form of chemotherapy-related liver injury (CALI) that may worsen the short-term outcome of liver resection (LR) for colorectal metastases (CRLM). The present study aimed to clarify the incidence, risk factors, preoperative assessment, and clinical impact of NRH.
Overall, 406 patients undergoing 478 LRs for CRLM after chemotherapy between 2000 and 2012 were studied. All resection specimens were reviewed. After Gomori staining, NRH was graded according to the Wanless score.
NRH was diagnosed in 87 (18.2 %) patients, grades 2-3 in 14 (2.9 %) patients. At multivariate analysis, the prevalence of NRH was increased after oxaliplatin administration (21.4 vs. 8.4 %; p = 0.003), and reduced by the addition of bevacizumab (11.7 vs. 19.8 %; p = 0.020). Two parameters predicted the presence of NRH: the APRI score (AST to platelet ratio index: 25.5 % if >0.36 vs. 9.8 % if ≤0.36; p = 0.004), and the platelet count (63.6 % if <100 × 10(3)/mm(3) vs. 25.3 % if 100-200 × 10(3)/mm(3) vs. 11.9 % if >200 × 10(3)/mm(3); p = 0.032). Ninety-day mortality and liver failure rates were 0.6 and 3.6 %. NRH was an independent predictor of postoperative liver failure (9.2 % if present vs. 2.3 % if not present; p = 0.021). In patients with grades 2-3 NRH, the rate of liver failure was 14.3 %, 25.0 % after major hepatectomy. No other forms of CALI impacted short-term outcomes.
NRH was the most relevant form of CALI, increasing the risk of postoperative liver failure. Oxaliplatin increased the incidence of NRH, while bevacizumab decreased it. The APRI score and platelet count were useful tools for predicting NRH.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 04/2015; DOI:10.1245/s10434-015-4533-0 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background : Recurrent hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation is associated with reduced graft and patient survival. Re-transplantation for graft failure due to recurrent hepatitis C is controversial and not performed in all centers.
Case presentation : We describe a 54-year-old patient with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection and a null response to pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin who developed decompensated graft cirrhosis 6 years after a first liver transplantation. Treatment with sofosbuvir and ribavirin allowed for rapid negativation of serum HCV RNA and was well tolerated despite advanced liver and moderate renal dysfunction. Therapeutic drug monitoring did not reveal any clinically significant drug-drug interactions. Despite virological response, the patient remained severely decompensated and re-transplantation was performed after 46 days of undetectable serum HCV RNA. The patient is doing well 12 months after his second liver transplantation and remains free of hepatitis C virus.
Conclusions : The use of directly acting antivirals may allow for successful liver re-transplantation for recipients who remain decompensated despite virological response and is likely to improve the outcome of liver re-transplantation for end-stage recurrent hepatitis C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
During the last 20 years, relevant diagnostic procedures and advanced treatments have been progressively introduced in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
The aim of the present study was to assess up-to-date survival trends for HCC in southern Switzerland, a region with one of the highest incidence rates in the country.
HCCs diagnosed in 1996–2009 were selected by the Ticino Cancer Registry. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) analysis was performed using the Kaplan–Meier method by calendar period: 1996–2000, 2001–2005 and 2006–2009. The log-rank test was used to detect differences in survival curves. Simultaneous assessment of prognostic factors was performed by a multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional-hazards regression model.
619 HCCs were analysed. There was a significant increase of patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE), whereas patients undergoing curative or palliative supportive treatments remained unchanged (p < 0.0001). No shift to earlier stages was detected. Significant differences in CCS were observed by age-group (p < 0.0001), diagnosis period (p < 0.0001), diagnosis technique (p = 0.0035), Barcelona-Clinic liver cancer stage (p < 0.0001), treatment (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent impact on CSS of factors above mentioned, not including the diagnosis technique. Death risk was higher for patients diagnosed in 1996–2000 (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.03; 1.68) and 2001–2005 (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.05; 1.67) in comparison with 2006–2009 (reference group).
The current population-based report describes a major increase in HCC survival. Simultaneously an increased use of TACE has been detected, probable cofactor of the observed survival increase. Possibly additional efforts could be made to decrease the HCC stage at diagnosis through active surveillance of cirrhotic patients to allow an increase in curative treatments. For sure efforts should be made to comply with a standardised staging system for HCC, particularly for comparative population-based issues.
Cancer Epidemiology 12/2014; 38(6). DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2014.09.008 · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), resection ablation and transplantation have had excellent initial success. Choices have to be based on a broad and long-term vision integrating-besides patients' interests-the community's needs and resources. In this scenario, guidelines such as the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system can be viewed as a hideous frame (symbolized by the myth of Procrustes, Poseidon's son who stretched or maimed travelers to fit into his bed), or as a useful structure against which personalized or innovative treatments must be reality checked. In this article, the latter view is taken: For resection, portal hypertension must still represent a powerful caveat, particularly because of poor long-term results. Expansion of the criteria may instead be explored for multiple tumors and vascular invasion, where good indications can consistently be selected in expert surgical centers. For ablation, competitive results can be obtained although a small, but appreciable proportion of patients with early vascular invasion (∼ 10%), as they could probably benefit from anatomical resections. Conversely, ablative techniques overcoming the location and size limitations are developing and may prove competitive. For transplantation, several equivalent careful expansions of Milan's Criteria can be accepted, but as more patients have access to the waiting list-often prioritized on non-HCC indications-current allocation models prove to be insufficient, if not plainly inequitable, and should be revised.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The treatment of patients with metastatic rectal cancer remains controversial. We developed a reverse strategy, the liver-first approach, to optimize the chance of a curative resection. The aim of this study was to assess rectal outcomes after reverse treatment of patients with metastatic rectal cancer. Methods From May 2000 to November 2013, a total of 34 consecutive selected patients with histology-proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum and liver metastases were prospectively entered into a dedicated computerized database. All patients were treated via our reverse strategy. Rectal and overall survival outcomes were analyzed. Results Most patients presented with advanced disease (median Fong clinical risk score of 3; range 2-5). One patient failed to complete the whole treatment (3 %). Rectal surgery was performed after a median of 3.9 months (range 0.4-17.8 months). A total of 73.3 % patients received preoperative radiotherapy. Perioperative mortality and morbidity rates were 0 and 27.3 % after rectal surgery. Severe complications were reported in two patients (6.1 %): one anastomotic leak and one systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The median hospital stay was 11 days (range 5-23 days). Complete local pathological response was observed in three patients (9.1 %). The median number of lymph nodes collected was 14. The R0 rate was 93.9 %. There was no positive circumferential margin. After a mean follow-up of 36 months after rectal surgery, 5-year overall survival was 52.5 %. Five patients experienced pelvic recurrence. Conclusions In our cohort of selected patients with stage IV rectal cancer, the reverse strategy was not only safe and effective, but also oncologically promising, with a low morbidity rate and high long-term survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BC are a common source of morbidity after pediatric LT. Knowledge about risk factors may help to reduce their incidence. Retrospective analysis of BC in 116 pediatric patients (123 LT) (single institution, 05/1990–12/2011, medium follow-up 7.9 yr). One-, five-, and 10-yr survival was 91.1%, no patient died of BC. Prevalence and risk factors for anastomotic and intrahepatic BC were examined. There were 29 BC in 123 LT (23.6%), with three main categories: 10 (8.1%) primary anastomotic strictures, eight (6.5%) anastomotic leaks, and three (2.4%) intrahepatic strictures. Significant risk factors for anastomotic leaks were total operation time (increase 1.26-fold) and early HAT (<30 days post-LT; increase 5.87-fold). Risk factor for primary anastomotic stricture was duct-to-duct choledochal anastomosis (increase 5.96-fold when compared to biliary-enteric anastomosis). Risk factors for intrahepatic strictures were donor age >48 yr (increase 1.09-fold) and MELD score >30 (increase 1.2-fold). To avoid morbidity from anastomotic BC in pediatric LT, the preferred biliary anastomosis appears to be biliary-enteric. Operation time should be kept to a minimum, and HAT must by all means be prevented. Children with a high MELD score or receiving livers from older donors are at increased risk for intrahepatic strictures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal management of treatment for patients at intermediate risk of a common duct stone (including increased liver function tests but bilirubin <4 mg/dL and no cholangitis) is a matter of debate. Many stones migrate spontaneously into the duodenum, making preoperative common duct investigations unnecessary.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2014; 312(2):137-44. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.7587 · 30.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver resection is generally restricted to patients without clinically significant portal hypertension (Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient - HVPG - ⩽10 mmHg) and several teams perform transjugular HVPG measurements as part of the pre-operative work-up. The present study investigates whether a non-invasive Computed Tomography (CT)-based assessment could be as accurate as the invasive transjugular measurement.
A cohort of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by resection (n=36) or transplantation (n=39) was selected (mean age: 61 ±9.2 years, male/female ratio: 4/1). Pre-operative CTs were read by two independent investigators, and potential CT-based HVPG predictors were compared to the transjugular HVPG measurements. A validation was conducted on another cohort of 70 non-surgical patients.
The invasive HVPG values were significantly correlated to liver/spleen volume ratio, spleen volume, platelet count, and peri-hepatic ascites (p<0.001), which all showed high inter-observer agreements (intra-class correlation coefficients⩾0.927, Kappa⩾0.945). The presence of a HVPG>10 mmHg was best predicted by the liver/spleen volume ratio (AUC: 0.883 [0.805-0.960]) and the peri-hepatic ascites (p<0.001). These two variables were combined into an accurate model for predicting HVPG>10 mmHg (AUC: 0.911 [0.847-0.975]), with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 92%, 79%, 91% and 81%. The model was also accurate in the validation cohort with an AUC of 0.820 [0.719-0.921].
The proposed CT-based model showed a high accuracy in the prediction of HVPG and, if further confirmed by prospective validation, could replace the invasive transjugular assessment in patients not requiring a biopsy of the non-tumoral liver.
Journal of Hepatology 12/2013; 60(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.12.015 · 10.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Robotic surgery is an emerging technique for the management of patients with liver disease, and only a limited number of reports are available. A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane), including only case series with more than five patients, identified nine series (with one from our institution), which totaled to 232 patients. Overall, the peri-operative outcomes of the reported patients are similar to those utilizing the laparoscopic and open approaches. Robotic surgery appears to be a valid option for selected hepatic resections in experienced hands. It could represent a bridge toward minimally invasive approaches for confirmed liver surgeons. By contrast, the long-term oncological outcomes remain uncertain and need further studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vascular anatomy of the liver can be described at three different levels of complexity according to the use that the description has to serve. The first -conventional- level corresponds to the traditional 8-segments scheme of Couinaud and serves as a common language between clinicians from different specialties to describe the location of focal hepatic lesions. The second -surgical- level - to be applied to anatomical liver resections and transplantations - takes into account the real branching of the major portal pedicles and of the hepatic veins. Radiological and surgical techniques exist nowadays to make full use of this anatomy, but this requires accepting that the Couinaud system is a simplification, and looking at the vascular architecture with an unprejudiced eye. The third -academic- level of complexity concerns the anatomist, and the need to offer a systematization that resolves the apparent contradictions between anatomical literature, radiological imaging, and surgical practice. At this level, the number of second-order portal branches is variable and averages 20. We suggest naming this latter system the "1-2-20 concept", and submit that it fits best the average number of actual - as opposed to idealized - anatomical liver segments.
Journal of Hepatology 11/2013; 60(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.10.026 · 10.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review, the authors describe the management of patients with colorectal liver metastases in the era of effective chemotherapies and advanced interventional radiology. They give special attention to the surgical procedures that decrease the operative mortality and morbidity and produce clear margins. They discuss the best timing for chemotherapy, resection of the primary tumor, and resection of the liver metastases in an effort to improve long-term survival. The use of preoperative portal vein embolization, two-stage hepatectomy for bilobar synchronous liver metastases, and the liver-first strategy have allowed for treatment of patients with advanced disease with a curative intent, and to obtain 5-year overall survival of 30 to 60% despite poor prognostic factors and a cure (no recurrence at 10 years) in more than 20% of patients. These rates would have been unimaginable only two decades ago.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stereotactic navigation technology can enhance guidance during surgery and enable the precise reproduction of planned surgical strategies. Currently, specific systems (such as the CAS-One system) are available for instrument guidance in open liver surgery. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of such a system for the targeting of hepatic tumors during robotic liver surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Optical tracking references were attached to one of the robotic instruments and to the robotic endoscopic camera. After instrument and video calibration and patient-to-image registration, a virtual model of the tracked instrument and the available three-dimensional images of the liver were displayed directly within the robotic console, superimposed onto the endoscopic video image. An additional superimposed targeting viewer allowed for the visualization of the target tumor, relative to the tip of the instrument, for an assessment of the distance between the tumor and the tool for the realization of safe resection margins. RESULTS: Two cirrhotic patients underwent robotic navigated atypical hepatic resections for hepatocellular carcinoma. The augmented endoscopic view allowed for the definition of an accurate resection margin around the tumor. The overlay of reconstructed three-dimensional models was also used during parenchymal transection for the identification of vascular and biliary structures. Operative times were 240 min in the first case and 300 min in the second. There were no intraoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: The da Vinci Surgical System provided an excellent platform for image-guided liver surgery with a stable optic and instrumentation. Robotic image guidance might improve the surgeon's orientation during the operation and increase accuracy in tumor resection. Further developments of this technological combination are needed to deal with organ deformation during surgery.
Journal of Surgical Research 05/2013; 184(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.04.032 · 2.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Heterotaxy designates rare congenital disorders of organ positioning in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, which can be associated with numerous anomalies, complicating the surgical management because of the loss of conventional anatomic landmarks. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 72-year-old man was found to have asymptomatic cholestasis. Further workup included computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography that revealed anomalies of lateralization of digestive organs associated with intestinal malrotation and polysplenia, and a stone-like element in the main bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failed to extract the lesion. Laparotomy found no stone, but a polypoid tumor with ampullary implantation. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was judged unreasonable due to the presence of macroscopic cirrhosis and a complete ampullectomy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a hamartomatous polyp. DISCUSSION: The unusual angle of the duodenoscope in a left-sided duodenum may have contributed to the improper pre-operative diagnosis. Endosonography could have recognized the tissular origin of the lesion and prompted a more detailed preoperative planning. It was fortunate that the patient ended up receiving the appropriate treatment despite the absence of an adequate pre-operative diagnosis, as the option of performing an extended resection was ruled out due to the presence of cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: Although heterotaxy leads to increased technical difficulties in performing usual endoscopic and surgical procedures, it can be safely managed by experienced surgeons as illustrated by the present case. Imaging modalities have limited sensitivity in the diagnosis of small ampullary tumors. As false-negatives are likely to occur, this possibility should guide the choice of the best operation.
International Journal of Surgery Case Reports 03/2013; 4(6):544-546. DOI:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.03.003