Purva Mathur

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Dilli, NCT, India

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Publications (62)76.96 Total impact

  • Priyam Batra, Purva Mathur, M.C. Misra
    Journal of Infection. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Soft tissue and wound infections due to Enterococcus spp. are increasing worldwide with current need to understand the epidemiology of the Enterococcal infections of wounds and its prevalent antibiotic resistance pattern among hospitalized patients more so in trauma patients. Aim: Hence, we have looked into the distribution of Enterococcus spp. responsible for causing wound and soft tissue infections among trauma patients, its antibiotic resistance pattern and how it affects the length of hospital stay and mortality. Methodology: A laboratory cum clinical based study was performed over a period of 3 years at a level I trauma centre in New Delhi, India. Patients with Enterococcal wound and soft tissue infections were identified using the hospital data base, their incidence of soft tissue/ wound infections calculated, drug resistance pattern and their possible risk factors as well as outcomes analysed. Results: A total of 86 non-repetitive Enterococcus spp. was isolated of which E. faecium was maximally isolated 48 (56%). High level of resistance was seen to gentamicin HLAR in all the species of enterococcus causing infections whereas a low level resistance to vancomycin and teichoplanin was observed among the isolates. Longer hospital stay, repeated surgical procedure, prior antibiotic therapy and ICU stay were observed to associate with increased morbidity (p < 0.05) and hence, more chances of infections with VRE among the trauma patients. The overall rate of wound and soft tissue infections with Enterococcus sp. was 8.6 per 1,000 admissions during the study period. Conclusion: Enterococcal wound infection is much prevalent in trauma care facilities especially in the ICUs. Here, a microbiologist can act as a sentinel, help in empirical therapeutic decisions and also in preventing such infections.
    Journal of global infectious diseases 11/2014; 6(4):189-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: As most trauma patients require long term hospital stay and long term antibiotic therapy, the risk of fungal infections in such patients are steadily increasing. Early diagnosis and rapid treatment is life saving in such critically ill trauma patients. Aims: To see the distribution of various species of Candida among trauma patients and compare the accuracy, rapid identification and cost effectiveness between VITEK 2, CHROMagar and conventional methods Settings and design: Retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study performed over a period of 52 months (January, 2009 – April, 2013) at a level I trauma centre in New Delhi, India. Methods and material: All microbiological samples positive for Candida were processed for microbial identification using standard methods. Identification of Candida was done using chromogenic medium and by automated VITEK 2 Compact system and later confirmed using the conventional method. Time to identification in both was noted and accuracy compared with conventional method. Statistical analysis used: Performed using the SPSS software for Windows (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, version 15.0). P values calculated using χ2 test for categorical variables. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 445 yeasts isolates, C. tropicalis (217, 49%) was the species which was maximally isolated. VITEK 2 was able to correctly identify 354 (79.5%) isolates but could not identify 48 (10.7%) isolates and wrongly identified or showed low discrimination in 43 (9.6%) isolates but CHROM agar correctly identified 381 (85.6%) isolates with 64 (14.4%) misidentification. Highest rate of misidentification was seen in C. tropicalis and C. glabrata (13, 27.1% each) by VITEK 2 and among C. albicans (9, 14%) by CHROMagar. Conclusions: Though CHROMagar gives identification at a lower cost compared to VITEK 2 Wand are more accurate, which is useful in low resource countries, its main drawback is the long duration taken for complete identification.
    Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 10/2014; 32(4):391-397. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Mupirocin is an effective antibiotic for elimination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from nasal colonization and has been used to control outbreaks. Current reports show an increasing trend of resistance to this antibiotic. Objective: This study was conducted to analyze the resistance pattern of MRSA to mupirocin among the patients admitted following trauma to an apex trauma care center of India and to compare the efficacy between two methods of antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 isolates of MRSA from various clinical samples of trauma patients over a period of 2 years were included in this study. These strains were confirmed for MRSA using VITEK ® 2 Compact and the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute disc diffusion methods. The mupirocin susceptibility of the strains was tested by using E-test and 5 μg mupirocin disc in parallel each time, and the results were compared. Results: Clear zones of inhibition were observed in both tests. Though, good correlation was observed between the disc diffusion and E-tests in >98%, E-test showed a tendency to show lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the remaining. These finding did not affect the final interpretation or outcomes. Of the total 150 strains, 138 (92%) showed sensitivity with the zone size in the range of 30-45 mm by 5 μg disc; rest (8%) showed sensitivity with the zone in the range of 18-30 mm by 5 μg disc, but 143 (95%) showed MIC ≤ 0.094 μg/ml and 8 (5%) gave MIC ≤ 0.75 μg/ml but ≥0.094 μg/ml by E-test. However, when both tests were compared, 5 (3.3%) showed zone size between 14 and 25 mm with ≤0.75 but >0.25 μg/ml MIC; 7 (5%) falling between 25 and 30 mm zone with MIC of ≤0.25 but >0.094 μg/ml and 138 (92%) showed zone >30 mm with MIC ≤0.094 but >0.064 μg/ml. Conclusions: All the MRSA isolates in our study were sensitive to mupirocin which is an encouraging finding. Though good screening for sensitivity can be done with 5 μg mupirocin disc, E-test provides a much clear and accurate results in clinical set-up. Hence, disc test can be used in resource poor countries and supplemented with E-test when needed.
    Journal of laboratory physicians 09/2014; 6(2):91-95.
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    ABSTRACT: Candida spp. is a common cause of bloodstream infections. Candidemia is a potentially fatal infection that needs urgent intervention to salvage the patients. Trauma patients are relatively young individuals with very few comorbidities, and the epidemiology of candidemia is relatively unknown in this vulnerable and growing population. In this study, we report the epidemiology of candidemia in a tertiary care Trauma Center of India.
    Journal of laboratory physicians 07/2014; 6(2):96-101.
  • Sonal Asthana, Purva Mathur, Vibhor Tak
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    ABSTRACT: The greatest threat to antimicrobial treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria is the production of carbapenemases. Metallo-beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated serine carbepenemases like Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase are threatening the utility of almost all currently available beta-lactams including carbapenems. Detection of organisms producing carbapenemases can be difficult, because their presence does not always produce a resistant phenotype on conventional disc diffusion or automated susceptibility testing methods. These enzymes are often associated with laboratory reports of false susceptibility to carbapenems which can be potentially fatal. Moreover, most laboratories do not attempt to detect carbapenemases. This may be due to the lack of availability of guidelines and procedures or lack of knowledge and expertise. Because routine susceptibility tests may be unreliable, special tests are required to detect the resistance mechanisms involved. This document describes the standard methodology for detection of various types of carbapenemases, which can be put to use by laboratories working on antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria.
    Journal of laboratory physicians 07/2014; 6(2):69-75.
  • European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 05/2014; · 0.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose b-hemolytic streptococci (bHS) causes a diverse array of human infections. The molecular epidemiology of b-hemolytic streptococcal infections in trauma patients has not been studied. This study reports the molecular and clinical epidemiology of b-hemolytic streptococcal infections at a level 1 trauma centre of India. Methods A total of 117 isolates of bHS were recovered from clinical samples of trauma patients. The isolates were identified to species level and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was done to detect exotoxin virulence genes. The M protein gene (emm gene) types of GAS strains were ascertained by sequencing. Results Group A Streptococcus (GAS) was the most common isolate (64 %), followed by group G Streptococcus (23 %). A large proportion of GAS produced speB (99 %), smeZ (91 %), speF (95 %) and speG (87 %). smeZ was produced by 22 % of GGS. A total of 25 different emm types/subtypes were seen in GAS, with emm 11 being the most common. Resistance to tetracycline (69 %) and erythromycin (33 %) was commonly seen in GAS. Conclusions b-hemolytic streptococcal infections in Indian trauma patients are caused by GAS and non-GAS strains alike. A high diversity of emm types was seen in GAS isolates, with high macrolide and tetracycline resistance. SpeA was less commonly seen in Indian GAS isolates. There was no association between disease severity and exotoxin gene production. Keywords b-hemolytic streptococci, Group A Streptococcus, Spe emm types, Antimicrobial resistance, Trauma patients
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 04/2014; 40(2):175-181. · 0.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Central line associated blood stream infections (CLA-BSIs) are a leading cause of health care associated infections. There is paucity of data on the actual magnitude of CLA-BSIs in most hospitals of developing countries due to lack of surveillance. This study reports the impact of an intensive surveillance, training and feedback on the rates of CLA-BSIs at an Indian trauma center. Methods The study was conducted at a level 1 trauma center from June 2010 to January 2013. The clinical details of all patients and microbiology culture reports who were admitted for more than 48 h were recorded in a pre-designed pro forma. These details were further entered in an automated software based upon CDC NHSN's definitions of device associated infections. The CLA-BSI rates in a previous pilot study in 2010 were found to be very high. Intensive surveillance, education and training drive was initiated along with better hand hygiene and device care as a part of hospital infection control measures. Results During the study period, a total of 2969 patients were followed up for CLA-BSIs. These patients amounted to a total of 27,394 ICU days and 15,443 CVC days. A total of 93 episodes of CLA-BSI occurred during the study, amounting to a CLA-BSI rate of 6.02/1000 CVC days. Staphylococcus aureus (27; 27.5%) was the most common isolate. A total of 101 episodes of secondary BSIs were also observed during the study. Of these, 70 (69%) were secondary to VAP, 18 (18%) were secondary to wound infections and 13 (13%) were secondary to UTI. Of the 92 patients who accounted for the 93 episodes of CLA-BSIs, a total of 20 (21.7%) had a fatal outcome. Conclusions Thus, with the help of the intensive surveillance, using this software, we have been able to monitor the impact of training, surveillance and interventions on the rates of CLA-BSI, which have reduced from 27.6 to 6/1000 CVC days within a span of 2 years at our institute. Although these measures require a dedicated team effort, they are easy and cost effective to implement and can reduce all device associated infections across all types of health care facilities.
    Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control. 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: β-hemolytic streptococci (βHS) causes a diverse array of human infections. The molecular epidemiology of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections in trauma patients has not been studied. This study reports the molecular and clinical epidemiology of β-hemolytic streptococcal infections at a level 1 trauma centre of India. Methods A total of 117 isolates of βHS were recovered from clinical samples of trauma patients. The isolates were identified to species level and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was done to detect exotoxin virulence genes. The M protein gene (emm gene) types of GAS strains were ascertained by sequencing. Results Group A Streptococcus (GAS) was the most common isolate (64 %), followed by group G Streptococcus (23 %). A large proportion of GAS produced speB (99 %), smeZ (91 %), speF (95 %) and speG (87 %). smeZ was produced by 22 % of GGS. A total of 25 different emm types/subtypes were seen in GAS, with emm 11 being the most common. Resistance to tetracycline (69 %) and erythromycin (33 %) was commonly seen in GAS. Conclusions β-hemolytic streptococcal infections in Indian trauma patients are caused by GAS and non-GAS strains alike. A high diversity of emm types was seen in GAS isolates, with high macrolide and tetracycline resistance. SpeA was less commonly seen in Indian GAS isolates. There was no association between disease severity and exotoxin gene production.
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 04/2014; 40(2):175-181. · 0.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-hemolytic streptococci (βHS) cause a diverse array of human infections. Despite the high number of cases of streptococcal carriers and diseases, studies discerning the molecular epidemiology of βHS in India are limited. This study reports the molecular and clinical epidemiology of beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections from two geographically distinct regions of India. A total of 186 isolates of βHS from north and south India were included. The isolates were identified to species level and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done to detect exotoxin genes, and emm types of group A streptococci (GAS) strains were ascertained by sequencing. GAS was the most common isolate (71.5%), followed by group G streptococci (GGS) (21%). A large proportion of GAS produced speB (97%), smeZ (89%), speF (91%), and speG (84%). SmeZ was produced by 21% and 50% of GGS and GGS, respectively. A total of 45 different emm types/subtypes were seen in GAS, with emm 11 being the most common. Resistance to tetracycline (73%) and erythromycin (34.5%) was commonly seen in GAS. A high diversity of emm types was seen in Indian GAS isolates with high macrolide and tetracycline resistance. SpeA was less commonly seen in Indian GAS isolates. There was no association between disease severity and exotoxin gene production.
    The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 03/2014; 8(3):297-303. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background & objectives: Group C and group G streptococci (together GCGS) are often regarded as commensal bacteria and their role in streptococcal disease burden is under-recognized. While reports of recovery of GCGS from normally sterile body sites are increasing, their resistance to macrolides, fluoroquinolone further warrants all invasive β haemolytic streptococci to be identified to the species level and accurately tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin gene profile (speA, speB, speC, speF, smeZ, speI, speM, speG, speH and ssa) of GCGS obtained over a period of two years at a tertiary care centre from north India. Methods: The clinical samples were processed as per standard microbiological techniques. β-haemolytic streptococci (BHS) were characterized and grouped. Antimicrobial susceptibility of GCGS was performed using disk diffusion method. All GCGS were characterized for the presence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (spe) and spe genes were amplified by PCR method. Results: GCGS (23 GGS, 2GCS) comprised 16 per cent of β haemolytic streptococci (25/142 βHS, 16%) isolated over the study period. Of the 25 GCGS, 22 (88%) were recovered from pus, two (8%) from respiratory tract, whereas one isolate was recovered from blood of a fatal case of septicaemia. Of the total 23 GGS isolates, 18 (78%) were identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis (SDSE, large-colony phenotype), five (21%) were Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG, small-colony phenotype). The two GCS were identified as SDSE. All GCGS isolates were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Tetracycline resistance was noted in 50 per cent of SDSE isolates. The rates of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in SDSE were low. Twelve of the 20 SDSE isolates were positive for one or more spe genes, with five of the SDSE isolates simultaneously carrying speA+ speB+ smeZ+ speF or speB+ smeZ+speF, speI+speM+speG+speH or, speI+spe M+speH or speA+ speB+ speC+ smeZ+ speF. One notable finding was the presence of spe B in four of the five isolates of the Streptococcus anginosus group. No isolate was positive for ssa. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed no association between GCGS isolates harbouring streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins and disease severity. This might be attributed to the small sample size of spe-positive isolates.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 03/2014; 139(3):438-45. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) can cause illnesses ranging from self-limited to severe, life-threatening, invasive infections. The objective of the following study was to investigate a suspected Streptococcus pyogenes outbreak in a high dependency unit (HDU) of our trauma center. All the isolates of beta hemolytic Streptococci were identified by standard microbiological methods, Vitek 2 system and latex agglutination tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Exotoxin genes, including speA, speB, speC, speF, smeZ, ssa, speG, speH, speJ, speL, speM and speI were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The emm types of isolates of S. pyogenes were determined by sequencing the variable 5' end of emm gene after amplification by PCR. In a 28 bedded poly-trauma ward with a four bedded HDU three out of four patients developed S. pyogenes emm type 58 infection. The strain was macrolide and tetracycline resistant and produced the Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins speB, speC, speG, speF and smeZ. Surveillance sampling was done for investigation from patients, health-care workers and environmental samples. An outbreak of GAS infections was established caused by the uncommonly reported emm type 58. The outbreak was controlled by prompt treatment, intensive surveillance, feedback and training.
    Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine 02/2014; 18(2):77-82.
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    ABSTRACT: There is an alarming rate of morbidity and mortality observed in the trauma victims who suffer spinal cord injuries (SCI). Such patients are admitted immediately and stay for longer periods of time and thus are at risk of acquiring nosocomial infections. The aim of this study is to analyze the primary cause of mortality in SCI patients. Retrospective study. We conducted a retrospective 4 year analysis of the postmortem data of 341 patients who died after sustaining SCI at a tertiary care apex trauma center of India. Epidemiological data of patients including the type of trauma, duration of hospital stay, cause of death and microbiological data were recorded. On autopsy, out of 341 patients, the main cause of death in the SCI patients was ascertained to be infection/septicemia in 180 (52.7%) patients, the rest 161 (47.2%) died due to severe primary injury. Respiratory tract infections (36.4%) were predominant followed by urinary tract infections (32.2%), blood stream infections (22.2%), wound infections (7.1%) and meningitis reported in only 5 (2.1%) cases. Acinetobacter sp (40%) was the predominant organism isolated, followed by Pseudomonas sp (16.3%), Klebsiella sp (15.1%), Candida sp (7.8%), Escherichia coli (6.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.9%), Proteus sp (3.3%), Enterobacter sp and Burkholderia sp (two cases each) and Stenotrophomonas sp (one case). A high level of multidrug resistance was observed. Hospital acquired infections (HAI) are leading cause of loss of young lives in trauma patients; hence efforts should be made to prevent HAIs.
    Journal of laboratory physicians 01/2014; 6(1):36-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Health care workers (HCWs) face constant risk of exposure to cuts and splashes as occupational hazard. Hence, a prospective observational study was conducted to observe the exposure of HCWs to various sharp injuries and splashes during health care and to work up a baseline injury rate among HCWs for future comparison in trauma care set ups. Methods A 2 years and 5 months study was conducted among the voluntarily reported exposed HCWs of the APEX trauma centre. Such reported cases were actively followed for 6 months after testing for viral markers and counselled. The outcomes of such exposed HCWs and rate of seroconversion was noted. To form a future reference point, the injury rate in trauma care HCWs based on certain defined parameters along with the rate of under reporting were also analysed in this study. Results In our study, doctors were found to have the highest exposures (129, 36.2%), followed by nurses (52, 14.6%) and hospital waste disposal staff (27, 7.6%). Of the source patients, highest number of them were HBV positive (11, 3.1%), followed by HIV positive patients (8, 2.2%). No seroconversion was seen in any of the exposed HCWs. Injuries by sharps (303, 85.1%) outnumber those due to the splashes (53, 14.9%) which were much higher in those working in pressing situations. Underreporting was common, being maximally prevalent in hospital waste disposal staff (182, 51.1%). Conclusions High rates of exposure to sharp injuries and splashes among HCWs call for proper safety protocols. Proper methods to prevent it, encouraging voluntary reporting and an active surveillance team are the need of the hour.
    Injury 01/2014; · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Gunjan Gupta, Vibhor Tak, Purva Mathur
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    ABSTRACT: AmpC β-lactamases are clinically important cephalosporinases encoded on the chromosomes of many Enterobacteriaceae and a few other organisms, where they mediate resistance to cephalothin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, most penicillins, and β-lactamase inhibitor/β-lactam combinations. The increase in antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a notable example of how bacteria can procure, maintain and express new genetic information that can confer resistance to one or several antibiotics. Detection of organisms producing these enzymes can be difficult, because their presence does not always produce a resistant phenotype on conventional disc diffusion or automated susceptibility testing methods. These enzymes are often associated with potentially fatal laboratory reports of false susceptibility to β-lactams phenotypically. With the world-wide increase in the occurrence, types and rate of dissemination of these enzymes, their early detection is critical. AmpC β-lactamases show tremendous variation in geographic distribution. Thus, their accurate detection and characterization are important from epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and infection control point of view. This document describes the methods for detection for AmpC β-lactamases, which can be adopted by routine diagnostic laboratories.
    Journal of laboratory physicians 01/2014; 6(1):1-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are one of the major life-threatening infections in hospitals. They are responsible for prolonged hospital stays, high healthcare costs, and significant mortality. The epidemiology of BSIs varies between hospitals necessitating analysis of local trends. Few studies are available on trauma patients, who are predisposed due to the presence of multiple invasive devices. A prospective surveillance of all BSIs was done at a level 1 trauma center from April, 2011 to March, 2012. All patients admitted to the different trauma intensive care units (ICUs) were monitored daily by attending physicians for subsequent development of nosocomial BSI. An episode of BSI was identified when patients presented with one or more of the following signs/symptoms, that is, fever, hypothermia, chills, or hypotension and at least one or more blood culture samples demonstrated growth of pathogenic bacteria. BSIs were further divided into primary and secondary BSIs as per the definitions of Center for Disease Control and Prevention. All patients developing nosocomial BSIs were followed till their final outcome. A total of 296 episodes of nosocomial BSIs were observed in 240 patients. A source of BSI was identified in 155 (52%) episodes. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was the most common source of secondary BSI. The most common organism was Acinetobacter sp. (21.5%). Candida sp. accounted for 12% of all blood stream organisms. A high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was observed in Gram-negative and-positive pathogens. Trauma patients had a high prevalence of BSIs. Since secondary bacteremia was more common, a targeted approach to prevention of individual infections would help in reducing the burden of BSIs.
    Journal of laboratory physicians 01/2014; 6(1):22-7.
  • Neetu Jain, Purva Mathur, M C Misra
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 12/2013; 138(6):1022-4. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the advances in medical sciences, the morbidity and mortality due to sepsis in severe trauma patients remains high; hence the need for early and accurate diagnosis. Very few prospective studies are available in a country like India, which tried to analyze the prediction of sepsis using serum procalcitonin (PCT) in such a large scale among trauma patients. This study explores the role of the biomarker PCT in early diagnosis of sepsis and prediction of outcomes in severe trauma cases. We studied the patient population prospectively in two different groups. One with acute trauma but no clinical evidence of sepsis and the second group with clinical evidence of sepsis and are followed. Bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheal aspirates, pus, urine, body fluids from sterile body sites, etc., were collected including blood for culture and serum for PCT assays. Such assays were done on samples collected on days 1 and 4 and then compared. Additionally, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels were also tested. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests were carried out for all the isolates from the clinical samples and correlated with the clinically suspected cases of sepsis. Outcomes of the patients were noted. Patients with high initial PCT levels (>2 ng/ml) in severe trauma cases had poor outcomes and risk of developing complications. Its correlation with severe outcomes was better marked as compared with CRP and ESR levels. The difference in PCT levels between days 1 and 4 in group two patients was statistically significant (P = 0.006) but were not statistically significant for CRP (P = 0.646) and ESR (P = 0.935). The study also shows that PCT levels fall in response to appropriate antimicrobial treatment. PCT is a useful biomarker for early and accurate prediction of sepsis in severe trauma patients. If used in adjunct to clinical findings, it proves to be a good biomarker for early diagnosis, treatment and for monitoring response to therapy in confirmed cases of sepsis. It will prove to be a good supportive indicator of sepsis in early stages for the trauma patients in a low resource country like India.
    Journal of laboratory physicians 07/2013; 5(2):100-8.
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    Purva Mathur, Sarman Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Patient safety is an important issue affecting the delivery of health care in developed, transitional and developing countries. With the advancements in patient care, hitherto unknown issues relating to patient safety are emerging. An important problem endangering patient safety is infections acquired in the health care facilities. Health care associated infections (HCAIs) are no longer a local or regional problem. With the dissemination of multi-drug resistant bacteria across the globe, the problem of HCAIs has become even grimmer. The emergence of pan-resistant bacterial strains, compounded by lack of availability of new antimicrobials foretells a grave future for management of infections acquired in hospitals. Therefore, it is important to frame local policies and measures and take affirmative actions for prevention of HCAIs and reduce the burden of multi drug resistance.
    Journal of laboratory physicians 01/2013; 5(1):5-10.